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TRIBUNALS Gautama B. Arundhati, LL.M.. NUREMBERG TRIBUNAL.

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Presentasi berjudul: "TRIBUNALS Gautama B. Arundhati, LL.M.. NUREMBERG TRIBUNAL."— Transcript presentasi:

1 TRIBUNALS Gautama B. Arundhati, LL.M.

2 NUREMBERG TRIBUNAL

3 NUREMBERG Mengadili penjahat perang NAZI Bertempat di Nuremberg Jerman Mendirikan prinsip retroactive bagi pengadilan HAM Pengakuan bahwa Individu dapat menjadi subyek hukum internasional

4 NUREMBERG Dasar Pembentukan: Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 1 London Agreement of August 8th 1945 “AGREEMENT by the Government of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, the Provisional Government of the FRENCH REPUBLIC, the Government of the UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND and the Government of the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS for the Prosecution and Punishment of the MAJOR WAR CRIMINALS of the EUROPEAN AXIS”

5 Dalam INDICTMENT, Negara v. Individu INDICTMENT INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE FRENCH REPUBLIC, THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, AND THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS -against- HERMANN WILHELM Goering, RUDOLF HESS, JOACHIM VON RIBBENTROP, ROBERT LEY, WILHELM KEITEL, ERNST KALTENBRUNNER, ALFRED ROSENBERG, HANS FRANK, WILHELM FRICK, JULIUS STREICHER, WALTER FUNK, HJALMAR SCHACHT, GUSTAV KRUPP VON BOHLEN UND HALBACH, KARL Doenitz, ERICH RAEDER, BALDUR VON SCHIRACH, FRITZ SAUCKEL, ALFRED JODL, MARTIN BORMANN, FRANZ VON PAPEN, ARTHUR SEYSS-INQUART, ALBERT SPEER, CONSTANTIN VON NEURATH, and HANS FRITZSCHE, Individually and as Members of Any of the Following Groups or Organizations to which They Respectively Belonged, Namely: DIE REICHS REGIERUNG (REICH CABINET); DAS KORPS DER POLITISCHEN LEITER DER NATIONALSOZIALISTISCHEN DEUTSCHEN ARBEITERPARTEI (LEADERSHIP CORPS OF THE NAZI PARTY); DIE SCHUTZSTAFFELN DER NATIONALSOZIALISTISCHEN DEUTSCHEN ARBEITERPARTEI (commonly known as the "SS") and including DER SICHERHEITSDIENST (commonly known as the "SD"); DIE GEHEIME STAATSPOLIZEI (SECRET STATE POLICE, commonly known as the "GESTAPO"); DIE STURM ABTEILUNGEN DER NSDAP (commonly known as the "SA"); and the GENERAL STAFF and HIGH COMMAND of the GERMAN ARMED FORCES,

6 IMTFE

7 International Military Tribunal for the Far East / IMTFE Tokyo RATIONE MATERIAE: "Class A" (crimes against peace) "Class B" (war crimes), dan "Class C" (crimes against humanity). RATIONE TEMPORIS ET LOCI: dalam kurun waktu PD II, Lokasi di Asia Pacific Diselenggarakan di Tokyo 3 MEI 1946, sampai dengan 12 Nopember, 1948.

8 RATIONE (a) CRIMES AGAINST PEACE: namely, planning, preparation, initiation or waging of a war of aggression, or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements or assurances, or participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of any of the foregoing; (b) WAR CRIMES: namely, violations of the laws or customs of war. Such violations shall include, but not be limited to, murder, ill-treatment or deportation to slave labor or for any other purpose of civilian population of or in occupied territory, murder or ill-treatment of prisoners of war or persons on the seas, killing of hostages, plunder of public or private property, wanton destruction of cities, towns or villages, or devastation not justified by military necessity; (c)CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY: namely, murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, and other inhumane acts committed against any civilian population, before or during the war; or persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds in execution of or in connection with any crime within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal, whether or not in violation of the domestic law of the country where perpetrated.

9 ICTR

10 International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Dasar Pendirian: Didirikan atas dasar UN Security Council melalui Resolution 977 of 22 February 1995, Statuta: ICTR Statute

11 RATIONE MATERIAE genocide, crimes against humanity, violations of Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II.

12 RATIONE TEMPORIS Mengadili Kejahatan antara 1 Januari 1994 and 31 Desember 1994; Tempat: Arusha (Tanzania) Sifat: Retroactive ‘Dilakukan oleh wn rwanda di rwanda maupun negara lain (Sierra Leone) dengan korban wn rwanda dan wn lain dengan korban lebih dari orang.’

13 Impact ICTR telah memberikan preseden bagi pengadilan lain tentang HAM Berkontribusi pada pembentukan ICC

14 ICTY

15 ICTY International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia Dasar Hukum: ICTY Statute Lokasi: Den Hague

16 RATIONE MATERIAE Article 2 ICTY Statute Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 Article 3 ICTY Statute Violations of the laws or customs of war Article 4 ICTY Statute Genocide Article 5 ICTY Statute Crimes against humanity

17 RATIONE TEMPORIS ET LOCI Article 8 Territorial and temporal jurisdiction The territorial jurisdiction of the International Tribunal shall extend to the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, including its land surface, airspace and territorial waters. The temporal jurisdiction of the International Tribunal shall extend to a period beginning on 1 January 1991.

18 RATIONE PERSONAE Article 7 Individual criminal responsibility Para. 1. A person who planned, instigated, ordered, committed or otherwise aided and abetted in the planning, preparation or execution of a crime referred to in articles 2 to 5 of the present Statute, shall be individually responsible for the crime. Seseorang yang merencanakan, menghasut, memerintahkan, melakukan atau membantu dan bersekongkol dalam perencanaan, persiapan atau pelaksanaan kejahatan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam pasal 2 sampai 5 dari Statuta ini, harus bertanggung jawab secara individu atas kejahatan itu.

19 State Responsibility = Individual Responsibility Article 7 Individual criminal responsibility Para. 2. The official position of any accused person, whether as Head of State or Government or as a responsible Government official, shall not relieve such person of criminal responsibility nor mitigate punishment. Posisi resmi dari setiap orang yang dituduh, baik sebagai Kepala Negara atau Pemerintahan atau sebagai pejabat pemerintah yang bertanggung jawab, tidak akan membebaskan orang tersebut dari tanggung jawab pidana atau mengurangi hukumannya.

20 SUPERIOR RESPONSIBILITY Article 7 Individual criminal responsibility Para. 3. The fact that any of the acts referred to in articles 2 to 5 of the present Statute was committed by a subordinate does not relieve his superior of criminal responsibility if he knew or had reason to know that the subordinate was about to commit such acts or had done so and the superior failed to take the necessary and reasonable measures to prevent such acts or to punish the perpetrators thereof. Fakta bahwa salah satu tindakan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam artikel 2 sampai 5 dari Statuta ini, dilakukan oleh seorang bawahan tidak akan membebaskan atasannya dari tanggung jawab pidana jika ia mengetahui atau memiliki alasan untuk mengetahui bahwa bawahan itu mau melakukan tindakan dimaksud atau telah melakukannya dan atasan tidak mengambil tindakan yang diperlukan dan masuk akal untuk mencegah tindakan tersebut atau menghukum pelakunya.

21 Article 7 Individual criminal responsibility Para. 4. The fact that an accused person acted pursuant to an order of a Government or of a superior shall not relieve him of criminal responsibility, but may be considered in mitigation of punishment if the International Tribunal determines that justice so requires. Fakta bahwa terdakwa berkelakuan sesuai dengan perintah dari Pemerintah atau dari atasan tidak akan membebaskannya dari tanggung jawab pidana, tetapi dapat dipertimbangkan dalam pengurangan hukuman jika Tribunal menentukannya.


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