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Ganesha Digital Library1 Ir. Ismail Fahmi Knowledge Management Research Group Dan Perpustakaan Pusat ITB Seminar Internasional Digital.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Ganesha Digital Library1 Ir. Ismail Fahmi Knowledge Management Research Group Dan Perpustakaan Pusat ITB Seminar Internasional Digital."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Ganesha Digital Library1 Ir. Ismail Fahmi Knowledge Management Research Group Dan Perpustakaan Pusat ITB Seminar Internasional Digital Library Sasana Budaya Ganesha ITB 2 October 2000

2 Ganesha Digital Library2 Why Digital Library? Our Philosophy: We must share our knowledge Because: Knowledge won't be given to us except some days we will be asked about our promises to share the knowledge with other human being and never withhold it... Ali Imran 187

3 Ganesha Digital Library3 Ucapan Terimakasih Sponsor: IDRC, YLTI, AI3, CNRG, Pasca Sarjana ITB, dan Pak Mujaya Hertadi. Staff PP ITB: Robert Manurung, Nanan Hasanah, Studiati Suwandi, Martinia Danubrata, Mahmudin, Dikdik Suhendi, Revi Kuswara, Ena Sukmana, dll. KMRG Team: Arif, Metra, Widi, Nuri, Donfau, Deny, Anduz, Yudi, Frans, dll.

4 Ganesha Digital Library4 Agenda Tentang Digital Library Digital Library Meningkatkan Pembelajaran (Enhance Learning) Ganesha Digital Library GDL-Network Indonesian Digital Library Network Goal di Masa Depan

5 Ganesha Digital Library5 Digital Libraries SGML (1985) PDF (1992) NSF DLI (1994) Library Cancellations (1988) University Scholarly Electronic Pub. (1988) Info. Literacy (1995) Improving Education Internet (1984) WWW (1994) Multimedia (1986)

6 Ganesha Digital Library6 DL Memperpendek Rantai Dari: Editor Publisher A&I Consolidator Library Reviewer

7 Ganesha Digital Library7 DL Memperpendek Rantai ke: Author Reader Digital Library Editor Reviewer Teacher Learner Librarian

8 Ganesha Digital Library8 Bagaimana Hubungan DL dengan Universitas Setiap Univ. akan memiliki Server DL  jumlahnya akan membesar, critical mass. Setiap Mhs akan belajar cara memakai & mengisi DL  bermanfaat bagi future habits Semua masalah DL muncul di Univ. (federated search, flexibility,personality)  bagus untuk test-bed. Dimulai dengan GDL  GDL-Network  IDLN  International Network (NDLTD)

9 Ganesha Digital Library9 Project Digital Library MARIAN (NLM) CS DL Prototype - ENVISION (NSF, ACM) TULIP (Elsevier, OCLC) BEV History Base (NSF, Blacksburg) DL for CS Education - EI (NSF, ACM) WATERS, NCSTRL (NSF) NDLTD (SURA, US Dept. of Education) CSTC (NSF, ACM), CRIM (NSF, SIGMM) WCA (Log) Repository (W3C) VT-PetaPlex-1 (Knowledge Systems) Ganesha Digital Library (ITB) InCU-Virtual Library

10 Ganesha Digital Library10 DL Objectives Library: 24hr / 7day / dari desktop Integrated “super” information systems: 5S: streams, structures, spaces, scenarios, societies Ubiquitous, Higher Quality, Lower Cost Education, Knowledge Sharing, Discovery Disintermediation  Collaboration Universitas memperoleh kembali hak miliknya Interactive Courseware, Student Works Scalable, Sustainable, Usable, Useful

11 Ganesha Digital Library11 Keuntungan DL Mudah digunakan Efektif “Manfaat Digital Library tidak akan terasa, kecuali jika mudah digunakan secara efektif.” – Laporan IITA Workshop

12 Ganesha Digital Library12 Daya Tarik DL bagi Bangsa: Project nasional dapat menjaga peningalan kuno dan bersejarah: cultural, historical, linguistic, scholarly Ilmu pengetahuan dan Informasi penting bagi pertumbuhan ekonomi, teknologi, dan pendidikan DL – sebuah wilayah kolaborasi international: –Di dalamnya semua bisa berkontribusi dan mendapat manfaat, –Mendapat keuntungan dari investasi jaringan, –Menyediakan content yang berguna di internet, –Menyatukan bangsa dan rakyat secara kuat dengan saling pengertian.

13 Ganesha Digital Library13

14 Ganesha Digital Library14 Definisi: DL adalah sistem kompleks yang: Membantu memenuhi kebutuhan informasi bagi pemakai (societies) Menyediakan layanan informasi (scenarios) Mengorganisasikan informasi sehingga dapat digunakan (structures) Menyajikan informasi sehingga mudah dimanfaatkan (spaces) Menyampaikan informasi kepada pengguna (streams)

15 Ganesha Digital Library15 Layer 5 S: Societies Scenarios Spaces Structures Streams

16 Ganesha Digital Library16 Isue 1: Model dokumen, representasi dan akses Doc = stream + structure + use-scenario; hybrid (paper/electronic), digital only Multilingual: content, summary, metadata Multimedia: structure, quality (oS), search Structured: MARC, SGML, by user: MVD Distributed collection: Kleisli, CIMI, Z39.50 Federated search: collecting, picking site(s), parallel search / fall-back, fusing results Access: IPR, payment, security, scenarios

17 Ganesha Digital Library17 Isu 2: Asitektur Sistem Internet middleware Independent system / part of federation Decompositions vary –search engine, browser, DBMS, MM support –repository, handle server, client –information resources + mediators, bus or agent collection + client with workspace/environment Metrics: e.g., for federated search

18 Ganesha Digital Library18 Isu 3: Standard Protocols/federation –Z39.50, CIMI –Dienst, NCSTRL –OAi protocol Metadata –TEI: inline, detailed (structure in stream) –MARC: two-level, fine-grained –Dublin Core: high-level, 15 elements –RDF: describing resources/collections, annotation –OAMS and others used in OAi

19 Ganesha Digital Library19 Agenda Tentang Digital Library Digital Library Meningkatkan Pembelajaran (Enhance Learning) Ganesha Digital Library GDL-Network Indonesian Digital Library Network Goal di Masa Depan

20 Ganesha Digital Library20 Enhancing Learning with DL

21 Ganesha Digital Library21 GDL/ NDLTD Univ. CS/EL Dept./ Library Teaching/ Training Curriculum Repository, logs, tools, publication

22 Ganesha Digital Library22

23 Ganesha Digital Library23 Agenda Tentang Digital Library Digital Library Meningkatkan Pembelajaran (Enhance Learning) Ganesha Digital Library GDL-Network Indonesian Digital Library Network Goal di Masa Depan

24 Ganesha Digital Library24 Studi kasus: GDL Domain: riset dan pendidikan tinggi Genre: –ETD (electronic theses & dissertations) –Tugas akhir, laporan penelitian, proceeding, gray lit, journal, distance learning, multimedia URL: Project: Ganesha Digital Library Project

25 Ganesha Digital Library25 Gagasan kunci: Scalability Networked infrastructure Kolaborasi Institusi & Personal Standard Internasional Workflow, automation Penulis harus submit sendiri Access

26 Ganesha Digital Library26 Goal Jangka Panjang > 2K mahasiswa ITB lulus / tahun terlibat Ratusan dosen dan peneliti ITB terlibat > 2K ETD, karya tulis, distance learning hipermedia (image, audio, video..) disimpan dalam portfolio elektronik Kemajuan dramatis dalam knowledge sharing Layanan akses sepanjang waktu bagi pengguna: browse, search, download, play.. Ratusan/ribuan/jutaan download per tahun

27 Ganesha Digital Library27 Progress… Ganesha = Nama dewa Ilmu Pengetahuan 1998, WAIS/ISIS, Federated search , GDL versi 1 dan 2, belum mengikuti standard, member > , bantuan 1 set PC dari Pak Mujaya H, 1 set PC dari Pasca Sarjana ITB 2000, ISISNetwork, GDL versi 3, Mengikuti Standard Metadata Dublin Core 2000, akan mendapat pendanaan dari IDRC, YLTI, inisiatif IDLN

28 Ganesha Digital Library28 GDL Versi 2

29 Ganesha Digital Library29 Status GDL versi 2 (experimen) Abstrak TA: 409 (Planologi) disubmit oleh pustakawan PL Abstrak Tesis: 91 (PL), 14 (EL), 2 (TK) Abstrak Laporan penelitian: (LP-ITB) Multimedia: 31 koleksi digital audio/video Member: –Full member: 793 –Trial: 81 –Incomplete: 739

30 Ganesha Digital Library30 GDL Versi 3

31 Ganesha Digital Library31 Start-up Collections

32 Ganesha Digital Library32

33 Ganesha Digital Library33

34 Ganesha Digital Library34 Interaktif & Feedback: Rating & Comments

35 Ganesha Digital Library35

36 Ganesha Digital Library36 Search

37 Ganesha Digital Library37 Multimedia

38 Ganesha Digital Library38 Berita/News

39 Ganesha Digital Library39

40 Ganesha Digital Library40 Status GDL versi 3 Koleksi: –Clippings: submitted (0) - approved (0) - total (0) –Distance_Learning: submitted (22) - approved (22) - total (22) –Grey_Literatures: submitted (2) - approved (1) - total (3) –Journals: submitted (4) - approved (1) - total (4) –Multimedia: submitted (8) - approved (8) - total (8) –Proceedings: submitted (9) - approved (9) - total (9) –Research_Reports: submitted (0) - approved (0) - total (0) –S1-Final_Project: submitted (4) - approved (4) - total (4) –S2-Theses: submitted (7) - approved (5) - total (8) –S3-Dissertations: submitted (0) - approved (0) - total (0) Member: –Database anggota GDL versi 2 akan otomatis berlaku, dengan beberapa tambahan informasi.

41 Ganesha Digital Library41 Fitur GDL versi 3 Dublin Core metadata standard compliant Membership Submission workflow Author and Editor facilities Resources management Review and approval Rating and Comments Bookmarking Ordering News Highlight Browse by subject Search by fields Support any resources format (text, audio, video, images…)

42 Ganesha Digital Library42 Sistem GDL Knowledge Map/Genre: –Tugas Akhir, Tesis, Disertasi, Laporan Penelitian –Journal lokal, Grey Literatur, Distance Learning, Multimedia (audio/video), Kliping, dan Proceeding –Directory of expertise Tipe Akses: –Guest: search dan browse hanya sampai abstrak. –Member: free, full akses, dan bisa menjadi Author atau Editor. Group Akses: –Author –Editor –Knowledge Officer –Operator –Services –Administrator

43 Ganesha Digital Library43 Group Author Author: individu yang ikut sharing knowledge di GDL Hak akses: –Full akses sebagai member, –Submit, upload, update electronic resources di bawah kategori tertentu. Menjadi Author: –Mahasiswa, peneliti, dosen, dan individu –Mengirim e-letter kepada Knowledge Officer berisi permohonan menjadi Author untuk subjek atau kategori tertentu, dan tipe resources tertentu.

44 Ganesha Digital Library44 Group Editor Editor: individu mewakili diri sendiri, unit, jurusan, atau organisasi yang akan berbagi electronic resources nya di GDL. Hak Akses: –Full akses sebagai member, –Create, Delete new category dibawah kategory tertentu sesuai subjeknya, –Submit, upload, update electronic resources di bawah kategori yang dia kelola. Menjadi Editor: –Memiliki banyak resources di berbagai sub-kategori, –Mengirim e-letter kepada Knowledge Officer berisi permohonan menjadi Author untuk subjek atau kategori tertentu, dan tipe resources tertentu.

45 Ganesha Digital Library45 Group Knowledge Officer Knowledge Officer: individu yang ditugasi menjadi penanggung jawab pengorganisasian resources di kategori tertentu. Hak Akses: –Memiliki hak akses Group Editor, –Memberi evaluasi dan approval bagi setiap resources di bawah kategori yang dia kelola. Tanggung jawab: –Kelengkapan informasi/data dari setiap resources yang diupload di bawah kategori tertentu termasuk masalah copyright, –Approval dan filtering, –Koordinasi dengan para Author dan Editor di kategori yang sama, –Menerima permohonan dari member menjadi Author atau Editor, –Training bagi Author dan Editor. Menjadi Knowledge Officer: –Pustakawan –Wakil dari unit, jurusan, organisasi, dan individu yang dipilih.

46 Ganesha Digital Library46 Group Operator Operator, bertugas melakukan konversi data: –Hardcopy ke digital (scanning) –Digital ke digital (conversion, misal DOC menjadi PDF) Menjadi Operator: –Dari pustakawan PP ITB

47 Ganesha Digital Library47 Group Services Group Services bertugas: –Melayani pesanan jasa informasi dari member, –Helpdesk bagi member

48 Ganesha Digital Library48 Group Administrator Admnistrator mengelola: –Membership, group, dan hak akses bagi Author dan Editor (bekerja sama dengan Konwledge Officer), –News, banner iklan Menjadi administrator: –Terbatas –Dari pustakawan dan KMRG

49 Ganesha Digital Library49 GDL-Task Force

50 Ganesha Digital Library50 Workflow GDL bagi Author

51 Ganesha Digital Library51 Skenario GDL Metadata database Author/Editor Files repository Tim Knowledge Officer + Operator HTLM Generated Metadata Information Pengunjung/ Member CD-ROM

52 Ganesha Digital Library52 Arsitektur GDL Sistem Operasi: UNIX FreeBSD Web Server: Apache Programming Lang: PHP 4.02 Database server: MySQL Streaming server: Real Server Search Engine: SWISH-E

53 Ganesha Digital Library53 Standard GDL Metadata: Dublin Core costumized (akan direvisi mengikuti NDLTD Metadata Std) Klasifikasi: sedang disusun Protokol Metadata Gathering: sedang dikaji Workflow: Sedang disempurnakan

54 Ganesha Digital Library54 Agenda Tentang Digital Library Digital Library Meningkatkan Pembelajaran (Enhance Learning) Ganesha Digital Library GDL-Network Indonesian Digital Library Network Goal di Masa Depan

55 Ganesha Digital Library55 GDL-Network GDL-Network merupakan upaya KMRG/PP ITB untuk berbagi teknologi DL dengan institusi lain. Merupakan solusi teknologi DL bagi universitas. Merupakan Jaringan Digital Library antar Institusi yang menggunakan software GDL sebagai servernya. ITB menjadi hub bagi pengumpulan metadata dari seluruh server partner GDL-Network. Server Hub di ITB menjadi interface ke jaringan digital library yang lebih besar (IDLN atau NDLTD). Mengikuti standard jaringan DL yg lebih besar.

56 Ganesha Digital Library56 Mengapa GDL-Network? Software GDL memang direncakan akan dishare kpd institusi lain. Visi: agar tercapai kemajuan yang dramatis dalam knowledge sharing. Perlu kontrak kerjasama yang jelas untuk memastikan agar institusi yang menggunakan GDL terlibat aktif dalam knowledge sharing. Jika dishare secara bebas dikhawatirkan tidak mendukung knowledge sharing secara luas. Kebijakan dan aturan setiap institusi tetap akan dihormati dan diikuti.

57 Ganesha Digital Library57 Dukungan yang Ditawarkan Software, dokumentasi, technical support Mailing list, Full-resources (DL) hosting (bagi anggota yang tidak punya link internet 24 jam),

58 Ganesha Digital Library58 Skenario GDL-Network

59 Ganesha Digital Library59 Menjadi Partner GDL-Network In progress: –Mekanisme implementasi bagi institusi lain sedang dibahas. –Teknologi networking antar server dalam GDL- Network sedang dirancang. Realisasi bagi institusi lain diharapkan dapat dimulai pada Februari Institusi partner harus bersedia mendukung dan aktif melakukan knowledge sharing secara luas dalam GDL-Network.

60 Ganesha Digital Library60 Agenda Tentang Digital Library Digital Library Meningkatkan Pembelajaran (Enhance Learning) Ganesha Digital Library GDL-Network Indonesian Digital Library Network Goal di Masa Depan

61 Ganesha Digital Library61 IDLN IDLN = Indonesian Digital Library Network (singkatan sama dengan Indonesia Distance Learning Network, Pustekkom ?) Baru merupakan inisiatif/usulan/ajakan untuk membangun digital library network di tingkat nasional. Meeting: 3-4 October 2000 di Lembang. Web site:

62 Ganesha Digital Library62 Mengapa IDLN? Belum ada upaya bersama di tingkat nasional untuk membangun DL network di Indonesia. IPI, Perpusnas, FKPPTI, dll belum memperlihatkan visi pengembangan DL network dalam waktu dekat ini. Perlu waktu, tenaga, dan biaya yang lumayan agar organisasi perpustakaan yang ada bisa/mau serius mengembangkan DL network. Pengembangan DL network harus dimulai sekarang, tidak bisa menunggu. Indonesia sudah tertinggal. Lebih mudah dimulai dari institusi-institusi yang sudah siap (biasanya perguruan tinggi).

63 Ganesha Digital Library63 Goal IDLN Membangun standard interoperabilitas antar DL server di Indonesia. Interoperbilitas DL di Indonesia dengan DL Internasional. Membantu institusi mengembangkan DL di lingkungan masing-masing. Kebebasan bagi setiap institusi untuk mengembangkan DL di lingkungannya. Forum komunikasi isu-isu kebijakan dan operasional antar DL sistem dalam IDLN.

64 Ganesha Digital Library64 Isu Dibahas dalam IDLN Society –Definisi dan Format IDLN –Model kerjasama dalam IDLN –Aturan, hak, kewajiban, dll.. Scenario –Knowledge map –Knowledge: collection, organization, presentation, access, dissemination –Copyright issues..dll.. Technical –Name spaces (nama file, organisasi, dll) –Metadata standard –Protokol komunikasi antar server

65 Ganesha Digital Library65 Alternatif Format IDLN 1. Merupakan Forum komunikasi dan pembahasan standard DL di Indonesia. Solusi teknologi tidak dibahas. 2. Merupakan Konsorsium yang membahas standard dan menyediakan solusi teknologi DL bagi anggota.

66 Ganesha Digital Library66 Skenario IDLN ? GDL- Network HUB JII InCU-VL APTIK Dll… EL-ITB HUB Sharing metadata EasternUMM IAIN Dll…

67 Ganesha Digital Library67 Agenda Tentang Digital Library Digital Library Meningkatkan Pembelajaran (Enhance Learning) Ganesha Digital Library GDL-Network Indonesian Digital Library Network Goal di Masa Depan

68 Ganesha Digital Library68 Goal di Masa Depan Internasional: IDLN member of NDLTD Riset-riset baru di bidang DL

69 Ganesha Digital Library69 The Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations Leader of the Worldwide ETD (Electronic Thesis and Dissertation) Initiative Training Authors Expanding Access Preserving Knowledge Improving Graduate Education Enhancing Scholarly Communication Empowering Students & Universities

70 Institutional Members Coalition for Networked Information (CNI) Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) Diplomica.com Dissertation.com Dissertationen Online (Germany) ETDweb, a Division of Answer4.com Ibero-American Science & Technology Education Consortium (ISTEC) National Documentation Centre (NDC), Greece National Library of Portugal (for all universities) OCLC Online Computer Library Center Organization of American States (SEDI/OAS) Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET) UNESCO (www.unesco.org/webworld/etd)

71 Ganesha Digital Library71 National / Regional Projects Australia –U. New South Wales (lead) –U. of Melbourne –U. of Queensland –U. of Sydney –Australian National U. –Curtin U. of Technology –Griffith U. Germany –Humboldt University (lead) –3 other universities –5 learned societies: Math, Physics, Chemistry, Sociology, Education –1 computing center –2 major libraries OhioLINK: 79 colleges/univs Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya, as group, –Universitat de Barcelona –Universitat Autonòma de Barcelona –Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya –Universitat Pompeu Fabra –Universitat de Girona –Universitat de Lleida –Universitat Rovira i Virgili –Universitat Oberta de Catalunya –Biblioteca de Catalunya

72 US University Members (43) Rochester Institute of Tech. U. of Colorado Health Science Center U. of Florida U. of Georgia University of Hawaii, Manoa U. of Iowa U. of Kentucky U. of Maine U. of North Texas – required since 8/99 U. of Oklahoma U. of South Florida U. of Tennessee, Knoxville U. of Tennessee, Memphis U. of Texas at Austin U. of Virginia U. Wisconsin - Madison Vanderbilt U. Virginia Commonwealth U. Virginia Tech - required since 1/97 West Virginia U. - required fall 1998 Western Michigan U. Worcester Polytechnic Inst. F Air University (Alabama) F Baylor University F Brigham Young University F Caltech F Clemson University F College of William & Mary F Concordia University (Illinois) F East Carolina University F East Tenn. State U. – require fall 2000 F Florida Institute of Technology F Florida International University F George Washington University F Louisiana State University F Marshall University (W. Va.) F Miami University of Ohio F Michigan Tech F Mississippi State University F MIT F Naval Postgraduate School (CA) F North Carolina State University F Penn. State University

73 Ganesha Digital Library73 Other Countries with Members Brazil Canada Germany Hong Kong India Italy Mexico Netherland Russia Singapore S. Africa S. Korea Spain Taiwan UK

74 OhioLINK Statewide Consortium Represents 79 colleges, universities, libraries Public Universities Private Universities and Colleges 2-Year Colleges Only a few (e.g., Miami U. of Ohio) are also NDLTD members on their own

75 Ganesha Digital Library75 National / Regional Projects Australia –U. New South Wales (lead) –U. of Melbourne –U. of Queensland –U. of Sydney –Australian National U. –Curtin U. of Technology –Griffith U. Germany –Humboldt University (lead) –3 other universities –5 learned societies: Math, Physics, Chemistry, Sociology, Education –1 computing center –2 major libraries Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya, as group, –Universitat de Barcelona –Universitat Autonòma de Barcelona –Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya –Universitat Pompeu Fabra –Universitat de Girona –Universitat de Lleida –Universitat Rovira i Virgili –Universitat Oberta de Catalunya –Biblioteca de Catalunya

76 US University Members (43) Rochester Institute of Tech. U. of Colorado Health Science Center U. of Florida U. of Georgia University of Hawaii, Manoa U. of Iowa U. of Kentucky U. of Maine U. of North Texas – required since 8/99 U. of Oklahoma U. of South Florida U. of Tennessee, Knoxville U. of Tennessee, Memphis U. of Texas at Austin U. of Virginia U. Wisconsin - Madison Vanderbilt U. Virginia Commonwealth U. Virginia Tech - required since 1/97 West Virginia U. - required fall 1998 Western Michigan U. Worcester Polytechnic Inst. F Air University (Alabama) F Baylor University F Brigham Young University F Caltech F Clemson University F College of William & Mary F Concordia University (Illinois) F East Carolina University F East Tenn. State U. – require fall 2000 F Florida Institute of Technology F Florida International University F George Washington University F Louisiana State University F Marshall University (W. Va.) F Miami University of Ohio F Michigan Tech F Mississippi State University F MIT F Naval Postgraduate School (CA) F North Carolina State University F Penn. State University

77 Other International Members F Chinese University of Hong Kong F Chungnam National U. (S. Korea - CS) F City University, London (UK) F Darmstadt U. of Tech. (Germany) F Free University of Berlin (GE - Vet. Med.) F Gyeongsang National U. (Korea) F Indian Institute of Tech., Bombay (India) F Nanyang Technological U. (Singapore, pt) F National Sun Yat-Sen U. (Taiwan) F National U. of Singapore (Singapore, pt)

78 Other International Members cont’d F Polytechnic University of Valencia (Spain) F Rhodes U. (South Africa) F St. Petersburg St. Tech.U (Russia) F Univ. de las Américas Puebla (Mexico) F Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil) F Univ. of Alicante (Spain) F Univ. of Mysore (India) F Univ. of Pisa (Italy) F Univ. Utrecht (NL – type 4) F U. Laval; U. of Guelph; U. Waterloo; F Wilfrid Laurier U. (Canada), …

79 Ganesha Digital Library79 Syarat kolaborasi internasional Standard metadata XML exchange data format Z39.50 protocol Interoperability dengan server DL internasional

80 Ganesha Digital Library80 Strategi IDLN  NDLTD HUB NDLTD HUB IDLN merupakan interface bagi DL server di Indonesia dengan NDLTD

81 Ganesha Digital Library81 Riset Baru Akses DL: –3D –VRML –Sphere

82 Ganesha Digital Library82

83 Ganesha Digital Library83 Browse DL

84 Ganesha Digital Library84 Baca Abstrak

85 Ganesha Digital Library85 Terimakasih Referensi: –Open Archives initiative and the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Prof. Edward A. Fox, Virginia Tech)


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