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MK. PSDA PENGELOLAAN DAN PANEN AIR HUJAN KUALITAS AIR HUJAN diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl.ppsub, juni 2013.

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Presentasi berjudul: "MK. PSDA PENGELOLAAN DAN PANEN AIR HUJAN KUALITAS AIR HUJAN diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl.ppsub, juni 2013."— Transcript presentasi:

1 MK. PSDA PENGELOLAAN DAN PANEN AIR HUJAN KUALITAS AIR HUJAN diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl.ppsub, juni 2013

2 diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl.ppsub, juni 2013 PENGGUNAAN AIR HUJAN Air hujan dapat digunakan untuk BANYAK tujuan yang membutuhkan air. Hal ini termasuk penggunaan landscape, pertanian, pertanaman, ternak, penggunaan kebutuhan sehari-hari di dalam rumahtangga, dan pemadaman kebakaran. Kuaslitas air hujan ternyata sangat beragam, sehingga memerlukan diperlukan upaya tambahan untuk dapat digunakan secara aman

3 Sumber: rainwater-quality-and-filtration.htmlhttp://www.whollyh2o.org/rainwater-stormwater/item/122- rainwater-quality-and-filtration.html KUALITAS AIR HUJAN Tetes Air hujan merupakan salah satu sumber air bersih yang tersedia. Air hujan dapat menyerap gas-gas seperti karbon dioksida, oksigen, nitrogen dioksida, dan sulfur dioksida dari udara-atmosfer. Air hujan juga dapat menangkap jelaga dan partikulat mikroskopis lainnya, selama perjalanannya jatuh di langit. Namun demikian, air hujan hampir 100 % air murni sebelum mencapai tanah. Air hujan adalah “air lunak” dan kalau tipakai tidak meninggalkan kerak-kapur, mencuci pakaian dan rambut dalam air lunak memerlukan lebih sedikit deterjen. Tanaman biasanya CINTA air hujan. Air hujan biasanya juga tidak mengandung klorin, yang bersifat karsinogenik.

4 KUALITAS AIR HUJAN Air hujan dapat menjadi " keras " oleh kalsium terlarut atau magnesium, kandungan kedua unsur ini dalam air hujan biasanya rendah. Air hujan murni dianggap pelarut yang universal, yang dapat menyerap atau melarutkan berbagai jenis kontaminan. Oleh karena itu sangat penting untuk merancang dan mengoperasikan sistem panen air hujan, sehingga air hujan bebas kontaminan sebelum dikonsumsi. Meskipun air hujan dapat terkontaminasi oleh bahan kimia dari udara, sebagian besar bahan kimia dalam air hujan ini dapat diidentifikasi selama pengumpulan, pengolahan, dan distribusinya. Dengan jalan merancang dan mengoperasikan sistem pemanenan air hujan secara benar, kita bisa meminimalkan resiko terkena berbagai kontaminan kimia termasuk bahan kimia organik, seperti organik volatil (VOC) dan bahan kimia anorganik, seperti mineral dan logam. Sumber: rainwater-quality-and-filtration.htmlhttp://www.whollyh2o.org/rainwater-stormwater/item/122- rainwater-quality-and-filtration.html

5 Diunduh dari: 18/1/2013. Elemental composition at different points of the rainwater harvesting system A.C. Morrow, R.H. Dunstan, P.J. Coombes Science of The Total Environment. Volume 408, Issue 20, 15 September 2010, Pages 4542– 4548.Volume 408, Issue 20 Entry of contaminants, such as metals and non-metals, into rainwater harvesting systems can occur directly from rainfall with contributions from collection surfaces, accumulated debris and leachate from storage systems, pipes and taps. Ten rainwater harvesting systems on the east coast of Australia were selected for sampling of roof runoff, storage systems and tap outlets to investigate the variations in rainwater composition as it moved throughout the system, and to identify potential points of contribution to elemental loads. A total of 26 elements were screened at each site. Iron was the only element which was present in significantly higher concentrations in roof runoff samples compared with tank tap samples (P < 0.05). At one case study site, results suggested that piping and tap material can contribute to contaminant loads of harvested rainwater. Increased loads of copper were observed in hot tap samples supplied by the rainwater harvesting system via copper piping and a storage hot water system (P < 0.05). Similarly, zinc, lead, arsenic, strontium and molybdenum were significantly elevated in samples collected from a polyvinyl chloride pipe sampling point that does not supply household uses, compared with corresponding roof runoff samples (P < 0.05). Elemental composition was also found to vary significantly between the tank tap and an internal cold tap at one of the sites investigated, with several elements fluctuating significantly between the two outlets of interest at this site, including potassium, zinc, manganese, barium, copper, vanadium, chromium and arsenic. These results highlighted the variability in the elemental composition of collected rainwater between different study sites and between different sampling points. Atmospheric deposition was not a major contributor to the rainwater contaminant load at the sites tested. Piping materials, however, were shown to contribute significantly to the total elemental load at some locations.

6 Diunduh dari: 18/1/2013. Elemental composition at different points of the rainwater harvesting system A.C. Morrow, R.H. Dunstan, P.J. Coombes Science of The Total Environment. Volume 408, Issue 20, 15 September 2010, Pages 4542– 4548.Volume 408, Issue 20 Average (± SE) total contaminant load (μg/L) excluding sodium, potassium and magnesium, in roof runoff versus tank tap samples from Tanks A, B, C and D.

7 Diunduh dari: 18/1/2013. Elemental composition at different points of the rainwater harvesting system A.C. Morrow, R.H. Dunstan, P.J. Coombes Science of The Total Environment. Volume 408, Issue 20, 15 September 2010, Pages 4542– 4548.Volume 408, Issue 20 Diagram of RWHS collection points for Tank E. A: Roof runoff; B: Indoor cold tap supplied by tank water, C: Indoor hot tap supplied by tank water, D: Sampling Point delivered via PVC pipe. F

8 Diunduh dari: 18/1/2013. Elemental composition at different points of the rainwater harvesting system A.C. Morrow, R.H. Dunstan, P.J. Coombes Science of The Total Environment. Volume 408, Issue 20, 15 September 2010, Pages 4542– 4548.Volume 408, Issue 20 Average (± SE) total contaminant load (excluding sodium, potassium and magnesium) at site E, at different points of the rainwater harvesting system. Samples from the PVC pipe sampling point (D) contained significantly higher average loads than roof runoff samples (A) at this site (P < 0.05).

9 Diunduh dari: 18/1/2013. Elemental composition at different points of the rainwater harvesting system A.C. Morrow, R.H. Dunstan, P.J. Coombes Science of The Total Environment. Volume 408, Issue 20, 15 September 2010, Pages 4542– 4548.Volume 408, Issue 20. Average (± SE) total contaminant load in cold tap and tank tap samples (excluding sodium, potassium and magnesium).

10 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013. Comparison of the microbiological and chemical characterization of harvested rainwater and reservoir water as alternative water resources Ju Young Lee, Jung-Seok Yang, Mooyoung Han, Jaeyoung Choi. Science of The Total Environment. Volume 408, Issue 4, 15 January 2010, Pages 896–905Volume 408, Issue 4 Rainwater harvesting (RWH) offers considerable potential as an alternative water supply. In this study, all of the harvested rainwater samples met the requirements for grey water but not for drinking water. In terms of microbiological parameters, total coliform (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) were measured in 91.6% and 72%, respectively, of harvested rainwater samples at levels exceeding the guidelines for drinking water, consistent with rainfall events. In the case of the reservoir water samples, TC and EC were detected in 94.4% and 85.2%, respectively, of the samples at levels exceeding the guidelines for drinking water. Both indicators gradually increased in summer and fall. The highest median values of both TC and EC were detected during the fall. Chemical parameters such as common anions and major cations as well as metal ions in harvested rainwater were within the acceptable ranges for drinking water. By contrast, Al shows a notable increase to over 200 μg L − 1 in the spring due to the intense periodic dust storms that can pass over the Gobi Desert in northern China. In terms of statistical analysis, the harvested rainwater quality showed that TC and EC exhibit high positive correlations with NO 3 − (ρ TC = and ρ EC = 0.42) and PO 4 − (ρ TC = and ρ EC = 0.653), which originally derive from catchment contamination, but strong negative correlations with Cl − (ρ TC = − and ρ EC = − 0.484) and Na + (ρ TC = − and ρ EC = − 0.418), which originate from seawater.

11 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013. Comparison of the microbiological and chemical characterization of harvested rainwater and reservoir water as alternative water resources Ju Young Lee, Jung-Seok Yang, Mooyoung Han, Jaeyoung Choi. Science of The Total Environment. Volume 408, Issue 4, 15 January 2010, Pages 896–905Volume 408, Issue 4 Monthly variations in average rainfall volume and pH in the city of Gangneung (2007–2008).

12 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013. Comparison of the microbiological and chemical characterization of harvested rainwater and reservoir water as alternative water resources Ju Young Lee, Jung-Seok Yang, Mooyoung Han, Jaeyoung Choi. Science of The Total Environment. Volume 408, Issue 4, 15 January 2010, Pages 896–905Volume 408, Issue 4 Box plots for pH and conductivity values of rainwater, harvested rainwater, and reservoir water samples. The significance is α = 0.05.

13 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013. Comparison of the microbiological and chemical characterization of harvested rainwater and reservoir water as alternative water resources Ju Young Lee, Jung-Seok Yang, Mooyoung Han, Jaeyoung Choi. Science of The Total Environment. Volume 408, Issue 4, 15 January 2010, Pages 896–905Volume 408, Issue 4 Box plots for the concentrations of major metal ions in rainwater, harvested rainwater, and reservoir water samples. The significance is α = 0.05.

14 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013. Comparison of the microbiological and chemical characterization of harvested rainwater and reservoir water as alternative water resources Ju Young Lee, Jung-Seok Yang, Mooyoung Han, Jaeyoung Choi. Science of The Total Environment. Volume 408, Issue 4, 15 January 2010, Pages 896–905Volume 408, Issue 4 Seasonal variations in terms of microbiological indicators for harvested rainwater and reservoir water samples. The significant is α = 0.05.

15 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 The effect of roofing material on the quality of harvested rainwater Carolina B. Mendez a, J. Brandon Klenzendorf a,1, Brigit R. Afshar a,2, Mark T. Simmons b, Michael E. Barrett a, Kerry A. Kinney a, Mary Jo Kirisits Water Research 45 ( 2011 ) Due to decreases in the availability and quality of traditional water resources, harvested rainwater is increasingly used for potable and non-potable purposes. In this study, we examined the effect of conventional roofing materials (i.e., asphalt fiberglass shingle, Galvalume metal, and concrete tile) and alternative roofing materials (i.e., cool and green) on the quality of harvested rainwater. Results frompilot- scale and full-scale roofs demonstrated that rainwater harvested from any of these roofing materials would require treatment if the consumer wanted to meet United States Environmental Protection Agency primary and secondary drinking water standards or non-potable water reuse guidelines; at a minimum, first-flush diversion, filtration, and disinfection are recommended.Metal roofs are commonly recommended for rainwater harvesting applications, and this study showed that rainwater harvested from metal roofs tends to have lower concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria as compared to other roofingmaterials.However, concrete tileandcool roofs producedharvested rainwater quality similar to that from the metal roofs, indicating that these roofing materials also are suitable for rainwater harvesting applications. Although the shingle and green roofs produced water quality comparable in many respects to that fromthe other roofingmaterials, their dissolved organic carbon concentrations were very high (approximately one order of magnitude higher thanwhat is typical for afinisheddrinkingwater in theUnitedStates),which might lead to high concentrations of disinfection byproducts after chlorination. Furthermore the concentrations of some metals (e.g., arsenic) in rainwater harvested from the green roof suggest that the quality of commercial growing media should be carefully examined if the harvested rainwater is being considered for domestic use. Hence, roofing material is an important consideration when designing a rainwater catchment.

16 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 The effect of roofing material on the quality of harvested rainwater Carolina B. Mendez a, J. Brandon Klenzendorf a,1, Brigit R. Afshar a,2, Mark T. Simmons b, Michael E. Barrett a, Kerry A. Kinney a, Mary Jo Kirisits Water Research 45 ( 2011 ) The type of roofing material used for the catchment can affect the quality of harvested rainwater. Nicholson et al. (2009) compared harvested rainwater quality among six roof types: galvanized metal, cedar shake, asphalt shingle, two types of treated wood, and green (i.e., vegetated). The galvanized metal, asphalt shingle, and green roofs neutralized the acidic rainwater to a greater extent than did the other roofing materials. The treated woods yielded the highest copper concentrations (mg/L range), and the galvanized metal yielded the highest zinc concentrations (mg/L range), as compared to the mg/L concentrations of these metals from the other roofing materials. Van Metre and Mahler (2003) found galvanized metal roofs to be a source of particulate zinc and cadmium and asphalt shingle roofs to be a source of particulate lead and potentially mercury. Kingett Mitchell Ltd. (2003) found higher zinc concentrations in rainwater harvested from painted galvanized iron roofs that showed evidence of weathering as compared to those in excellent condition. Despins et al. (2009) found that harvested rainwater quality from steel roofs was superior to that from asphalt shingle roofs, particularly with respect to turbidity, total organic carbon, and color. 1.Despins, C., Farahbakhsh, K., Leidl, C., Assessment of rainwater quality from rainwater harvesting systems in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-AQUA 58 (2), 117e Kingett Mitchell Ltd., A Study of Roof Runoff Quality in Auckland New Zealand: Implications for Stormwater Management. Auckland Regional Council, Auckland, New Zealand. 3.Nicholson, N., Clark, S.E., Long, B.V., Spicher, J., Steele,K.A., Rainwater harvesting for non- potable use in gardens: a comparison of runoff water quality fromgreen vs. traditional roofs. In: Proceedings of World Environmental andWater. 4.Van Metre, P.C., Mahler, B.J., The contribution of particles washed from rooftops to contaminant loading to urban streams. Chemosphere 52 (10), 1727e1741.

17 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 The effect of roofing material on the quality of harvested rainwater Carolina B. Mendez a, J. Brandon Klenzendorf a,1, Brigit R. Afshar a,2, Mark T. Simmons b, Michael E. Barrett a, Kerry A. Kinney a, Mary Jo Kirisits Water Research 45 ( 2011 ) Several types of chemical contaminants have been found in harvested rainwater including heavy metals (Fo rster, 1999; Lee et al., 2010), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Forster, 1998, 1999), pesticides (Zobrist et al., 2000), and herbicides (Bucheli et al., 1998). Microorganisms also are present in roofrunoff, and fecal indicator bacteria and potentially pathogenic bacteria and protozoa have been detected (Ahmed et al., 2008). 1.Ahmed, W., Huygens, F., Goonetilleke, A., Gardner, T., Real-time PCR detection of pathogenic microorganisms in roof-harvested rainwater in southeast Queensland, Australia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74 (17), Bucheli, T.D., Mu¨ ller, S.R., Voegelin, A., Schwarzenbach, R.P., Bituminous roof sealing membranes as major sources of the herbicide (R,S )-mecoprop in roof runoff waters: potential contamination of groundwater and surface waters. Environmental Science and Technology 32 (22), Forster, J., The influence of location and season on the concentrations of macroions and organic trace pollutants in roof runoff. Water Science and Technology 38 (10), 83e90. 4.Forster, J., Variability of roof runoff quality. Water Science and Technology 39 (5), 137e Lee, J.Y., Yang, J.S., Han, M., Choi, J., Comparison of the microbiological and chemical characterization of harvested rainwater and reservoir water as alternative water resources. Science of the Total Environment 408 (4), Zobrist, J., Mu¨ ller, S.R., Ammann, A., Bucheli, T.D., Mottier, V., Ochs, M., Schoenenberger, R., Eugster, J., Boller, M., Quality of roof runoff for groundwater infiltration. Water Research 34 (5),

18 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 The effect of roofing material on the quality of harvested rainwater Carolina B. Mendez a, J. Brandon Klenzendorf a,1, Brigit R. Afshar a,2, Mark T. Simmons b, Michael E. Barrett a, Kerry A. Kinney a, Mary Jo Kirisits Water Research 45 ( 2011 ) Schematic of the sampling device.

19 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 The effect of roofing material on the quality of harvested rainwater Carolina B. Mendez a, J. Brandon Klenzendorf a,1, Brigit R. Afshar a,2, Mark T. Simmons b, Michael E. Barrett a, Kerry A. Kinney a, Mary Jo Kirisits Water Research 45 ( 2011 ) Average pH (panel A) and conductivity (panel B) for the pilot-scale events: ( ) Quality of the first-flush, ( ) Quality after the first-flush (average of tank 1 and tank 2), USEPA secondary drinking water standard range for pH (6.5e8.5), Ambient sampler. One standard deviation is shown.

20 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 The effect of roofing material on the quality of harvested rainwater Carolina B. Mendez a, J. Brandon Klenzendorf a,1, Brigit R. Afshar a,2, Mark T. Simmons b, Michael E. Barrett a, Kerry A. Kinney a, Mary Jo Kirisits Water Research 45 ( 2011 ) Average nitrate (panel A) and nitrite (panel B) concentrations for the pilot-scale events: ( ) Quality of the first-flush, ( ) Quality after the first-flush (average of tank 1 and tank 2), USEPA MCLs for nitrate (10 mg-N/L) and nitrite (1 mg- N/L), Ambient sampler. One standard deviation is shown.

21 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 The effect of roofing material on the quality of harvested rainwater Carolina B. Mendez a, J. Brandon Klenzendorf a,1, Brigit R. Afshar a,2, Mark T. Simmons b, Michael E. Barrett a, Kerry A. Kinney a, Mary Jo Kirisits Water Research 45 ( 2011 ) Effect of antecedent dry days on average nitrate concentrations in first-flush samples from the pilot-scale roofs: dCd Shingle, dBd Metal, d;d Tile, d6d Cool, d-d Green, USEPA MCL for nitrate (10 mg-N/L).

22 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 The effect of roofing material on the quality of harvested rainwater Carolina B. Mendez a, J. Brandon Klenzendorf a,1, Brigit R. Afshar a,2, Mark T. Simmons b, Michael E. Barrett a, Kerry A. Kinney a, Mary Jo Kirisits Water Research 45 ( 2011 ) Average DOC concentrations for the pilot-scale events: ( ) Quality of the first- flush, ( ) Quality after the first-flush (average of tank 1 and tank 2), Ambient sampler. One standard deviation is shown.

23 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 The effect of roofing material on the quality of harvested rainwater Carolina B. Mendez a, J. Brandon Klenzendorf a,1, Brigit R. Afshar a,2, Mark T. Simmons b, Michael E. Barrett a, Kerry A. Kinney a, Mary Jo Kirisits Water Research 45 ( 2011 ) Average total aluminum (panel A), arsenic (panel B), copper (panel C), iron (panel D), lead (panel E), and zinc (panel F) concentrations for the pilot-scale events: ( ) Quality of the first-flush, ( ) Quality after the first-flush (average of tank 1 and tank 2), USEPA primary or secondary drinking water standards or action levels: aluminum (200 mg/L), arsenic (10 mg/L), copper (1300 mg/L), iron (300 mg/L), lead (15 mg/L), and zinc (5000 mg/L) Ambient sampler. One standard deviation is shown.

24 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 The effect of roofing material on the quality of harvested rainwater Carolina B. Mendez a, J. Brandon Klenzendorf a,1, Brigit R. Afshar a,2, Mark T. Simmons b, Michael E. Barrett a, Kerry A. Kinney a, Mary Jo Kirisits Water Research 45 ( 2011 ) Water quality parameters (minimumemaximum) of the rainwater harvested after the first-flush for the pilot-scale and full-scale roofs.

25 Diunduh dari: 18/1/2013 Soil water dynamics, growth of Dendrocalamus strictus and herbage productivity influenced by rainwater harvesting in Aravalli hills of Rajasthan G. Singh Forest Ecology and Management. Volume 258, Issue 11, 10 November 2009, Pages 2519– 2528Volume 258, Issue 11 Degraded Aravalli hills in western India require rehabilitation through resource conservation and afforestation for meeting the biomass needs of resource-poor tribes of the region. Rainwater harvesting treatments i.e., control, Contour trench (CT), Gradonie (G), Box trench (BT) and V-ditch (VD) were prepared in 20% slopes categories and Dendrocalamus strictus L. seedlings were planted in August 2005 with a view to conserve soil and water and increase the productivity of the hills. Soil water content (SWC), survival and height of D. strictus plants were highest (P 20% slopes, respectively than in 10–20% slope. From lowest in control SWC increased by 11.95%, 20.21%, 17.61% and 11.49% in CT, G, BT and VD treatments, respectively. Growth variables were highest in VD plots but the increase in shoot number was highest (2.9-fold) in CT plots. Increase in effects of rainwater harvesting with time indicated by a change in production pattern from highest (P 20% slope (42.42% and 48.35%, respectively) in The increase in herbage was 1.17–2.40-fold in fresh and 1.20–2.52-fold in dry herbage over control. Highest (P 20% slopes. Conclusively, soil water status is affected by natural slope, stony soil surface and rainwater harvesting structures influencing seedling growth and herbage production. Box trench and V-ditch enhanced surface soil water facilitating herbage growth, whereas contour trench facilitated deep soil water storage, which was made available to the plants after monsoon. Thus rainwater harvesting practices enhanced vegetation cover and productivity of the degraded hills and can be replicated to conserve soil resource and increase biomass for rural poor of the region.

26 Diunduh dari: 18/1/2013 Soil water dynamics, growth of Dendrocalamus strictus and herbage productivity influenced by rainwater harvesting in Aravalli hills of Rajasthan G. Singh Forest Ecology and Management. Volume 258, Issue 11, 10 November 2009, Pages 2519– 2528Volume 258, Issue 11 Soil water dynamics influenced by natural slopes and rain water harvesting treatments in degraded hills of Aravalli. C: control; CT: contour trench; G: gradonie; BT: box trench and VD: V-ditch. Error bars are ±SE of five replicate plots.

27 Diunduh dari: 18/1/2013 Soil water dynamics, growth of Dendrocalamus strictus and herbage productivity influenced by rainwater harvesting in Aravalli hills of Rajasthan G. Singh Forest Ecology and Management. Volume 258, Issue 11, 10 November 2009, Pages 2519– 2528Volume 258, Issue 11 Growth pattern of height and number of shoots of D. strictus influenced by natural slopes and rain water harvesting treatments in degraded Aravalli hills. C: control; CT: contour trench; G: gradonie; BT: box trench and VD: V-ditch. Error bars are ±SE of five replicate plots.

28 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 Rainwater harvesting and greywater treatment systems for domesticapplication in Ireland Zhe Li, Fergal Boyle, Anthony Reynolds Desalination. Volume 260, Issues 1–3, 30 September 2010, Pages 1–8Volume 260, Issues 1–3 Water shortage has been recognised as one of the key issues facing many countries. Fortunately, there are relatively abundant water resources available in Ireland because of its plenty of rainfall. However, Ireland will inevitably encounter water shortage in the future, especially in urban areas. The water consumption per capita per day in Ireland is one of the highest in Europe. The water demand is still increasing due to population growth and higher standard of living. The use of domestic rainwater harvesting and greywater treatment systems has the potential to supply nearly 94% of domestic water in Irish households. The utilisation of these systems can help Irish householders achieve significant water savings and avoid the domestic water bills that are due to be reintroduced. It also helps take pressure of the centralised water supply to meet the increasing water demand in Ireland and eliminates issues such as high leakage during delivery and large treatment costs for domestic utilisation. Domestic rainwater harvesting and greywater treatment systems can play a very important role in future water management and prospective sustainable living in Ireland.

29 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 Rainwater harvesting and greywater treatment systems for domesticapplication in Ireland Zhe Li, Fergal Boyle, Anthony Reynolds Desalination. Volume 260, Issues 1–3, 30 September 2010, Pages 1–8Volume 260, Issues 1–3 Average domestic water consumption per capita per day in selected EU countries in 2006 [4].[4]

30 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 Rainwater harvesting and greywater treatment systems for domesticapplication in Ireland Zhe Li, Fergal Boyle, Anthony Reynolds Desalination. Volume 260, Issues 1–3, 30 September 2010, Pages 1–8Volume 260, Issues 1–3 A typical roof rainwater harvesting system in Ireland.

31 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 Rainwater harvesting and greywater treatment systems for domesticapplication in Ireland Zhe Li, Fergal Boyle, Anthony Reynolds Desalination. Volume 260, Issues 1–3, 30 September 2010, Pages 1–8Volume 260, Issues 1–3 A typical domestic greywater treatment system in Ireland.

32 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013. Rainwater harvesting and management in rainfed agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa – A review Birhanu Biazin, Geert Sterk, Melesse Temesgen, Abdu Abdulkedir, Leo Stroosnijder Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C. Volumes 47–48, 2012, Pages 139–151Volumes 47–48. Agricultural water scarcity in the predominantly rainfed agricultural system of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is more related to the variability of rainfall and excessive non-productive losses, than the total annual precipitation in the growing season. Less than 15% of the terrestrial precipitation takes the form of productive ‘green’ transpiration. Hence, rainwater harvesting and management (RWHM) technologies hold a significant potential for improving rainwater-use efficiency and sustaining rainfed agriculture in the region. This paper outlines the various RWHM techniques being practiced in SSA, and reviews recent research results on the performance of selected practices. So far, micro-catchment and in situ rainwater harvesting techniques are more common than rainwater irrigation techniques from macro-catchment systems. Depending on rainfall patterns and local soil characteristics, appropriate application of in situ and micro-catchment techniques could improve the soil water content of the rooting zone by up to 30%. Up to sixfold crop yields have been obtained through combinations of rainwater harvesting and fertiliser use, as compared to traditional practices. Supplemental irrigation of rainfed agriculture through rainwater harvesting not only reduces the risk of total crop failure due to dry spells, but also substantially improves water and crop productivity. Depending on the type of crop and the seasonal rainfall pattern, the application of RWHM techniques makes net profits more possible, compared to the meagre profit or net loss of existing systems. Implementation of rainwater harvesting may allow cereal-based smallholder farmers to shift to diversified crops, hence improving household food security, dietary status, and economic return. The much needed green revolution and adaptations to climate change in SSA should blend rainwater harvesting ideals with agronomic principles. More efforts are needed to improve the indigenous practices, and to disseminate best practices on a wider scale.

33 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013. Rainwater harvesting and management in rainfed agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa – A review Birhanu Biazin, Geert Sterk, Melesse Temesgen, Abdu Abdulkedir, Leo Stroosnijder Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C. Volumes 47–48, 2012, Pages 139–151Volumes 47–48. Typical designation of the micro-catchment rainwater harvesting systems.

34 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013. Rainwater harvesting and management in rainfed agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa – A review Birhanu Biazin, Geert Sterk, Melesse Temesgen, Abdu Abdulkedir, Leo Stroosnijder Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C. Volumes 47–48, 2012, Pages 139–151Volumes 47–48 A typical designation of the macro-catchment rainwater harvesting systems (modified from Oweis et al. (2001)).Oweis et al. (2001)

35 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 Micro-catchment water harvesting potential of an arid environment Akhtar Ali, Attila Yazar, Atef Abdul Aal, Theib Oweis, Pierre Hayek Agricultural Water Management. Volume 98, Issue 1, 1 December 2010, Pages 96–104Volume 98, Issue 1. Micro-catchment water harvesting (MCWH) requires development of small structures across mild land slopes, which capture overland flow and store it in soil profile for subsequent plant uses. Water availability to plants depends on the micro-catchment runoff yield and water storage capacity of both the plant basin and the soil profile in the plant root zone. This study assessed the MCWH potential of a Mediterranean arid environment by using runoff micro-catchment and soil water balance approaches. Average annual rainfall and evapotranspiration of the studied environment were estimated as 111 and 1671 mm, respectively. This environment hardly supports vegetation without supplementary water. During the study period, the annual rain was 158 mm in year 2004/2005, 45 mm in year 2005/2006 and 127 mm in year 2006/2007. About 5000 MCWH basins were developed for shrub raising on a land slope between 2 and 5% by using three different techniques. Runoff at the outlets of 26 micro-catchments with catchment areas between 13 and 50 m 2 was measured. Also the runoff was indirectly assessed for another 40 micro-catchments by using soil water balance in the micro-catchments and the plant basins. Results show that runoff yield varied between 5 and 187 m 3 ha −1 for various rainfall events. It was between 5 and 85% of the incidental rainfall with an average value of 30%. The rainfall threshold for runoff generation was estimated about 4 mm. Overall; the soil water balance approach predicted 38–57% less water than micro- catchment runoff approach. This difference was due to the reason that the micro- catchment runoff approach accounted for entire event runoff in the tanks; thus showed a maximum water harvesting potential of the micro-catchments. Soil water balance approach estimated water storage in soil profile and did not incorporate water losses through spillage from plant basins and deep percolation. Therefore, this method depicted water storage capacity of the plant basins and the root zone soil profile. The different between maximum water harvesting potential and soil-water storage capacity is surplus runoff that can be better utilized through appropriate MCWH planning.

36 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 Micro-catchment water harvesting potential of an arid environment Akhtar Ali, Attila Yazar, Atef Abdul Aal, Theib Oweis, Pierre Hayek Agricultural Water Management. Volume 98, Issue 1, 1 December 2010, Pages 96–104Volume 98, Issue 1 Typical layout of MCWH basin.

37 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 Micro-catchment water harvesting potential of an arid environment Akhtar Ali, Attila Yazar, Atef Abdul Aal, Theib Oweis, Pierre Hayek Agricultural Water Management. Volume 98, Issue 1, 1 December 2010, Pages 96–104Volume 98, Issue 1 Definition sketch of water harvesting processes in a micro- catchment.

38 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 Micro-catchment water harvesting potential of an arid environment Akhtar Ali, Attila Yazar, Atef Abdul Aal, Theib Oweis, Pierre Hayek Agricultural Water Management. Volume 98, Issue 1, 1 December 2010, Pages 96–104Volume 98, Issue 1 (a) Annual runoff yield in relation to micro-catchment area. (b) Unit runoff yield in relation to micro-catchment area.

39 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 Micro-catchment water harvesting potential of an arid environment Akhtar Ali, Attila Yazar, Atef Abdul Aal, Theib Oweis, Pierre Hayek Agricultural Water Management. Volume 98, Issue 1, 1 December 2010, Pages 96–104Volume 98, Issue 1 Annual runoff to rainfall ratio for different micro- catchment areas.

40 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 Micro-catchment water harvesting potential of an arid environment Akhtar Ali, Attila Yazar, Atef Abdul Aal, Theib Oweis, Pierre Hayek Agricultural Water Management. Volume 98, Issue 1, 1 December 2010, Pages 96–104Volume 98, Issue 1 Runoff yield in relation to event rainfall.

41 Diunduh dari: ………… 18/1/2013 Micro-catchment water harvesting potential of an arid environment Akhtar Ali, Attila Yazar, Atef Abdul Aal, Theib Oweis, Pierre Hayek Agricultural Water Management. Volume 98, Issue 1, 1 December 2010, Pages 96–104Volume 98, Issue 1 Predicted MCWH potential in relation to rainfall amount by using runoff micro-catchment and soil water balance approaches.


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