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Unika Soegijapranata 2011. slide 3  A simple closed economy model in which income is determined by expenditure. (due to J.M. Keynes)  Notation: I.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Unika Soegijapranata 2011. slide 3  A simple closed economy model in which income is determined by expenditure. (due to J.M. Keynes)  Notation: I."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Unika Soegijapranata 2011

2

3 slide 3  A simple closed economy model in which income is determined by expenditure. (due to J.M. Keynes)  Notation: I = planned investment E = C + I + G = planned expenditure Y = real GDP = actual expenditure  Difference between actual & planned expenditure: unplanned inventory investment

4 slide 4 consumption function: for now, investment is exogenous: planned expenditure: Equilibrium condition: govt policy variables:

5 slide 5 …is negative: An increase in taxes reduces consumer spending, which reduces equilibrium income. …is greater than one (in absolute value) : A change in taxes has a multiplier effect on income. …is smaller than the govt spending multiplier: Consumers save the fraction (1-MPC) of a tax cut, so the initial boost in spending from a tax cut is smaller than from an equal increase in G.

6  Pajak lumpsum, yaitu pajak yang tidak tergantung pada tingkat pendapatan (Txo). Besaran pajak atau nilai pajak bagi setiap orang sama.  Pajak proporsional, yaitu pajak yang tergantung pada tingkat pendapatan. Sehingga yang ditetapkan oleh pemerintah berupa tarif pajak. Pajak proporsional terdiri dari:  Pajak regresif  Pajak progresif  Pajak proporsional  Pajak proporsional sering disebut sebagai Built-in Stabilizer karena fungsinya yang akan menstabilkan kondisi perekonomian.

7  AE=Y=C+I+G  dimana: ◦ AE = agregat expenditure ◦ Y= pendapatan nasional ◦ C = konsumsi ◦ I = Investasi  G = pengeluaran pemerintah

8 Y I G C E C,I AE = Y

9 TxCIGAEYKeterangan ekspansi ekspansi ekspansi ekspansi ekspansi Keseimbangan kontraksi kontraksi kontraksi

10  S + Tx = I + G → kondisi keseimbangan S + T I + G S, I E YeY

11 YCSIGI + GKeterangan ekspansi ekspansi ekspansi keseimbangan kontraksi kontraksi kontraksi kontraksi kontraksi


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