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Managerial economics Lecturer : Muchdie, PhD in Economics  PhD in Economics, 1998, Dept. of Economics, The University of Queensland, Australia.  Post.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Managerial economics Lecturer : Muchdie, PhD in Economics  PhD in Economics, 1998, Dept. of Economics, The University of Queensland, Australia.  Post."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Managerial economics Lecturer : Muchdie, PhD in Economics  PhD in Economics, 1998, Dept. of Economics, The University of Queensland, Australia.  Post Graduate Diploma in Regional Dev.,1994, Dept. of Economics, The Univ. of Queensland, Australia.  MS in Rural & Regional Development Planning, 1986, Graduate School, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor Bab 6 : Teori dan Estimasi Produksi

2 Pokok Bahasan Fungsi Biaya Jangka Pendek Kurva Biaya Jangka Panjang Ukuran Pabrik dan Skala Ekonomis Kurva Pembelajaran Minimisasi Biaya Secara Internasional Manajemen Logistik atau Penawaran Berantai ? Analisis Biaya-Volume-Laba dan Ungkitan Operasi Estimasi Empiris dan Fungsi Biaya Ringkasan, Pertanyaan Diskusi, Soal-Soal dan Alamat Situs Internet Lampiran : Analisis Biaya Menggunakan Kalkulus Studi Kasus Gabungan 3 : Fungsi Produksi dan Biaya di Industri Pengilangan Minyak

3 Prepared by Robert F. Brooker, Ph.D. Copyright ©2004 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.Slide 3 Sifat dan Karakter Biaya Biaya Ekspisit – Biaya Akuntansi Biaya Ekonomis – Biaya Implisit – Biaya Alternatif atau Biaya Opportunitas Biaya Relevan – Biaya Inkremental – Biaya Tenggelam (Sunk Costs)

4 Fungsi Biaya Jangka Pendek Biaya Total (Total Cost) = TC = f(Q) Biaya Tetap Total (Total Fixed Cost) = TFC Biaya Variabel Total (Total Variable Cost) = TVC = f(Q) TC = TFC + TVC

5 Biaya Total Rata-Rata (Average Total Cost) = ATC = TC/Q Biaya Tetap Rata-Rata (Average Fixed Cost) = AFC = TFC/Q Biaya Variabel Rata-Rata (Average Variable Cost) = AVC = TVC/Q ATC = AFC + AVC Biaya Marjinal (Marginal Cost) =  TC/  Q =  TVC/  Q Fungsi Biaya Jangka Pendek

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8 Biaya Variabel Rata-Rata AVC = TVC/Q = w/AP L Fungsi Biaya Jangka Pendek Biaya Marjinal  TC/  Q =  TVC/  Q = w/MP L

9 Kurva Biaya Jangka Panjang Total Biaya Jangka Panjang (Long-Run Total Cost) = LTC = f(Q) Biaya Rata-Rata Jangka Panjang (Long-Run Average Cost) = LAC = LTC/Q Biaya Marjinal Jangka Panjang (Long-Run Marginal Cost) = LMC =  LTC/  Q

10 Penurunan Kurva Biaya Jangka Panjang

11 Hubungan Antara Kurva Jangka Panjang dengan Kurva Jangka Pendek

12 Kemungkinan Bentuk Kurva Biaya Jangka Panjang Ukuran Pabrik dan Skala Ekonomis

13 Kurva Pembelajaran Biaya Rata-Rata dari Unit Q = C = aQ b Bentuk Estimasi: log C = log a + b Log Q

14 Meminimumkan Biaya Secara Internasional Foreign Sourcing of Inputs New International Economies of Scale Immigration of Skilled Labor Brain Drain

15 Manajemen Logistik atau Penawaran Berantai ? Merges and integrates functions – Purchasing – Transportation – Warehousing – Distribution – Customer Services Source of competitive advantage

16 Manajemen Logistik atau Penawaran Berantai ? Reasons for the growth of logistics – Advances in computer technology Decreased cost of logistical problem solving – Growth of just-in-time inventory management Increased need to monitor and manage input and output flows – Globalization of production and distribution Increased complexity of input and output flows

17 Analisis Biaya-Volume-Laba Penerimaan Total (Total Revenue) = TR = (P)(Q) Biaya Total (Total Cost) = TC = TFC + (AVC)(Q) Volume Breakeven (Breakeven Volume) TR = TC (P)(Q) = TFC + (AVC)(Q) Q BE = TFC/(P - AVC)

18 P = 10 TFC = 200 AVC = 5 Q BE = 40 Analisis Biaya-Volume-Laba

19 Ungkitan Operasi (Operating Leverage) Ungkitan Operasi (Operating Leverage) = TFC/TVC Derajat Ungkitan Operasi (Degree of Operating Leverage) = DOL

20 Ungkitan Operasi TC’ has a higher DOL than TC and therefore a higher Q BE

21 Estimasi Empiris : Data Collection Issues Opportunity Costs Must be Extracted from Accounting Cost Data Costs Must be Apportioned Among Products Costs Must be Matched to Output Over Time Costs Must be Corrected for Inflation

22 Estimasi Empiris Bentuk Fungsional untuk Fungsi Biaya Jangka Pendek Bentuk TeoritisPendekatan Linear

23 Estimasi Empiris Bentuk TeoritisPendekatan Linear

24 Estimasi Empiris Kurva Biaya Jangka Panjang Analisis Regresi Seksi Silang (Cross-Section Regression Analysis) Metode Rekayasa (Engineering Method) Teknik Survival (Survival Technique)

25 Estimasi Empiris LAC Aktual Vs LAC Estimasi Empiris

26 Penutup Ringkasan (9 Butir) Pertanyaan Diskusi (15 Pertanyaan) Soal-Soal (15 Soal) Alamat Situs Internet Lampiran Bab 7 : Analisis Biaya Menggunakan Kalkulus Studi Kasus Gabungan 3 : Fungsi Produksi dan Biaya Dalam Industri Pengilangan Minyak


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