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1 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi Introduction to Internet.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi Introduction to Internet."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi Introduction to Internet

2 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Materi Pengenalan Internet : Kronologi Pakar Pelopor Pengetahuan Dasar Internet & Masyarakat Penggunaan Internet

3 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Kronologi Periode Awal [http://www.packet.cc/internet.html] – 1957, USSR meluncurkan Sputnik, satelit bumi buatan pertama. USA mendirikan Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). – Jul-61, First Paper on Packet Switching Theory, Leonard Kleinrock, "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets.” – 1962, RAND Paul Baran, RAND Corporation (agen pemerintah) diberi kekuasaan untuk studi pengelolaan command and control pada misil dan bomber, setelah serangan nuklir. Tulisan yang dihasilkannya packet switched network.

4 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Kronologi Periode Awal – Agu-62, First Paper on Internet Concept by J.C.R. Licklider & Welden Clark, "On-Line Man Computer Communication". – 1964, Communication Nets by Leonard Kleinrock provides the network design and queuing theory necessary to build packet networks. [buku] – Mar-64 First Paper on Secure Packetized Voice, Paul Baran, "On Distributed Communications Networks", IEEE Transactions on Systems. – Okt-65, First Actual Network Experiment,Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32, Lawrence Roberts, MIT Lincoln Labs.

5 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Kronologi Periode Awal – Okt-66, First Paper on Network Experiments, Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts, "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers", Fall AFIPS Conf. – Okt-67, Original ARPANET Design Paper, Lawrence Roberts, " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ", ACM Gatlinberg Conf. – Agu-68, Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts, ARPA. The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. – Des-68, BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP’s)

6 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Kronologi Periode Awal – Okt-66, First Paper on Network Experiments, Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts, "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers", Fall AFIPS Conf. – Okt-67, Original ARPANET Design Paper, Lawrence Roberts, " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ", ACM Gatlinberg Conf. – Agu-68, Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts, ARPA. The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. – Des-68, BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP’s)

7 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Kronologi Periode Lanjut – Apr-69, Request For Comments (RFC) #1, "Host Software" Released, written by Steve Crocker, covering Host-to-Host protocol, the first output of the Network Working Group (NWG). – Sep-69, First Node of ARPANET Installed at UCLA Network Measurement Center – Oct-69, Second Node of ARPANET Installed at SRI, first ARPANET messages passed – Nov-69, Third Node of the ARPANET Installed at UCSB making the first redundant network – Des-69, Fourth Node of the ARPANET Installed at the University of Utah

8 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Kronologi Periode Lanjut – Jul-70, First Packet Radio -ALOHANET operational at U. Hawaii under Norm Abramson using the ALOHA concept of random packet transmission – Dec-70, Network Control Protocol (NCP), the first host-tohost protocol, completed by Steve Crocker and NWG. – Sep-71, First Terminal Interface Processor (TIP) in ARPANET; terminals to directly dial into the network – Mar-72, First basic Programs, SNGMSG and READMAIL written by Ray Tomlinson at BBN. – Jul-72, First Management Program, RD written by Larry Roberts – Jul-72, FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354), Jon Postel

9 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Kronologi Periode Lanjut – Oct-72, First APRANET Public Demonstration at ICCC in Washington organized by Robert Kahn of BBN – May-73, First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC designed by Robert Metcalfe – May-74, First Internetworking Protocol, TCP outlined in a paper by Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf – Jul-75, ARPANET Transferred to DCA, the Defense Communications Agency. – Oct-77, First TCP Operation over ARPANET, Packet Radio Net, and SATNET (the satellite network) – Nov-77, Complete Specification ( RFC 733) released by two pioneers, Dave Crocker and John Vittal.

10 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Kronologi Periode Lanjut – Mar-78, TCP Split into TCP and IP, where TCP was the endto-end process and IP was the network routing process by Vint Cerf, Jon Postel, and Danny Cohen. – Nov-83, Domain Name System (DNS) Designed by Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris, and Craig Partridge to support the addressing space, creating.edu,.gov,.com,.mil,.org,.net, &.int. – 1986, First Interop Conference organized by Dan Lynch. – 1989, Internet opened to commercial mail through MCI Mail – 1991, NSF Opens Internet to commercial use. – Finally the Internet gets Quality of Service (QOS) with guaranteed rate service for voice and video

11 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Pakar Pelopor Leonard Kleinrock – Packet Switching Theory, paper, 1961 – Communication Nets, book, 1964 – Network Measurement Center at UCLA, ARPANET measurement, 1968 J.C.R. Licklider – On-Line Man Computer Communication (internet concept), paper, 1962 – ARPA Computer Program, 1962 – First ARPA IPTO Director, 1962

12 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Pakar Pelopor Lawrence Roberts – First Actual Network Experiment, Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32 [MIT], 1965 – ARPA Communications Program, 1966 – ARPA IPTO Chief Scientist and begins the design of the APRANET, 1966 – Original ARPANET Design Paper, 1967 – Request For Proposals released for ARPANET, 1968 – Fourth Director of ARPA IPTO, 1969 – Packet Satellite Technique, 1971 – First Management Program, 1972

13 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Pakar Pelopor Steve Crocker – Request For Comments (RFC) #1, Host Software tulisan Steve Crocker mencakup Host-to-Host protocol, the first output of the Network Working Group. Ray Tomlinson – First basic Programs, SNGMSG and READMAIL. Jon Postel – FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354) – Domain Name System. Robert Metcalfe – First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf – First Internetworking Protocol, TCP outlined in a paper

14 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Pengetahuan Dasar Computer Network [Jaringan Komputer] – (terminal, komputer, server, sistem-lain) yang saling terhubung sehingga mempermudah aliran data dan saling memakai resources. – Kategori [http://compnetworking.about.com] LAN (local area network) / MAN (metropolitan AN) / WAN (wide AN) / VLAN (virtual LAN)/ VPN (virtual private network) / SAN (Storage AN, dedicated LAN/WAN untuk mass data storage and retrieval; / System AN, high-performance & high-speed LAN dengan konfigurasi cluster) / CAN (Cluster / Controller AN) Internet / Intranet / Extranet

15 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Pengetahuan Dasar Network LAN : computer network covering a small geographic area. MAN : large computer networks usually spanning a city WAN : computer network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries – LAN (local area network): network yang memakai bersama sebuah atau/beberapa server di satu lokasi [kantor/gedung] yang membangun interoffice system – MAN > LAN < WAN, memakai dedicated / highperformance hardware. – WAN (wide area network): LANs yang saling terhubung dalam area luas Internet = WAN, extranet = WAN. perangkat beragam & mahal dibanding LAN. Teknologi pengembangan WAN: SONET, frame relay, dan ATM.

16 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Pengetahuan Dasar Internet – Sistem informasi global yang: secara logikal saling terhubung oleh sebuah ruang adres unik global berbasis Internet Protocol/IP [IP:standar pengontrol koneksi, komunikasi dan data transfer via internet]; mampu menunjang komunikasi berbasis Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) atau ekstensi-nya, dan/atau protokol lain yang IP-compatible; dan dapat diakses, secara publik maupun private.

17 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Pengetahuan Dasar Internet : – Jaringan komputer di mana situs-situs akademik, pemerintah, dan organisasi lain dapat melakukan: komunikasi langsung ( , chat) konferensi online (Usenet News, discussion lists) akses sumber informasi terdistribusi (World Wide Web, Gopher) remote login [login jarak jauh] dan file transfer (telnet, ftp), dan lainnya. – Berbasis sekumpulan protocol baku, komputer yang tersambung memiliki domain name system / DNS dan adres IP sendiri.

18 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Pengetahuan Dasar Intranet : – LAN yang diimplementasi teknologi WWW; atau – Private Internet Private network enterprise, LAN saling terhubung & bisa terhubung pada WAN / internet melalui gateway. Para pegawai dapat memakai bersama informasi dan fasilitas komputasi, juga memfasilitasi working groups dan teleconferences. Implementasi TCP/IP, HTTP, dan IP lainnya. Pemakai dapat mengakses [Global / Public] Internet melalui firewall servers yang menyaring informasi yang mengancam company security.

19 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Pengetahuan Dasar Extranet : – Private network menggunakan IP & telecommunikasi publik untuk kerjasama bisnis dengan suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, & lainnya. – Dapat dipandang sebagai company's intranet yang diperluas untuk melayani pemakai mitra perusahaan. – Perlu keamanan dan privasi, menerapkan firewall server management: user authentication encryption of messages menggunakan virtual private networks (VPN) yang memanfaatkan jaringan komunikasi publik.

20 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Pengetahuan Dasar Operasional Extranet – Bertukar data volume besar dengan Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) / XML – Berbagi katalog produk – Berkolaborasi & bekerjasama dalam berbagai aktifitas bisnis – Mengembangkan program pelatihan bersama – Pelayanan oleh satu perusahaan bagi sekelompok perusahaan lain, misal online banking yang dikelola sabuah bank untuk bank-bank lain yang berafiliasi – Berbagi berita yang menarik antar perusahaan

21 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Internet & Masyarakat Dampak [ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2150.txt] – Akses sangat mudah, perolehan info relatif murah & banyak. – Integrasi informasi, komunikasi, dan hiburan [+audio, video, multimedia] makin mempermudah penyampaian segala jenis pengajaran. – Kebudayaan yang baik sangat mudah terpengaruh bila tanpa filter, pengaruh info negatif pada generasi muda > TV/radio. – Agar info positif > negatif, peranan artist, scientist & engineer sangat penting.

22 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Internet & Masyarakat Komunitas Global – Komunikasi tak dibatasi wilayah / kebangsaan / waktu – Segala jenis data/info tersedia di berbagai jenis situs – Berbagi kerja dan berkolaborasi mudah dilakukan oleh setiap individu dalam satu atau berbeda instansi /organisasi dalam satu atau berbeda bidang/minat. Ketersediaan – Shareware, Freely Copyable software programs yang dapat di-download – Libraries, stores, and news groups untuk mencari tools atau informasi lainnya.

23 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Penggunaan Internet Pengadresan – Domain ~ kategori hirarki organisasi abstrak ke mana sebuah komputer/ situs / jaringan terdaftar, di mana top level : com untuk perusahaan komersil edu untuk institusi pendidian gov untuk situs pemerintah net untuk infrastruktur jaringan org untuk organisasi non-komersil us untuk situs di USA id untuk situs di Indonesia – Di bawah domain dapat tercantum banyak sub domain

24 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Penggunaan Internet Pengadresan – Tiap pemakai memiliki DNS dan username – Komputer harus memiliki IP address, 4 grup bilangan dipisah oleh titik [misal: ] – Informasi memiliki URL~ alamat dokumen misal: "http://www.waralaba.com/lok-dir/filename.ext". Jenis yang populer: – http = hypertext transfer protocol [the set of rules that control the way data is sent and received over the Internet] – ftp = file transfer protocol [a set of rules for sending files from one computer to another on the Internet ] – telnet = telecommunication network protocol, remote service – smtp = simple mail transfer protocol – nttp = network news transfer protocol

25 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Penggunaan Internet Fasilitas – Forum ~ tempat bertemu publik secara elektronik untuk diskusi terbuka: Message-based Communications, one-to-many – Electronic mail – Newsgroup, electronic bulletin board system created originally by the Unix community, misal Usenet News yang membahas banyak topik secara hirarkis [comp =komputer, rec rekreasi, soc= sosial, sci = sains, dll. – Bulletin Board System (BBS), a computer + associated software, typically providing electronic messaging services, archives of files, and any other services or activities of interest to the BBS’s operator

26 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Penggunaan Internet Fasilitas – Forum Real-Time Communications ~ komunikasi di mana delay yang terjadi seminim mungkin, berbasis teks di mana tiap user memiliki special regions pada monitor [wilayah pengiriman dan penerimaan] `– Internet Relay Chat (IRC, WebChat), text-based mechanism communication with multiple participants. – Multicasting, technical term that means that you can send pieces of data (packets), to multiple sites simultaneously. – MUD [Multi-User Dungeon], an interactive game environment where both real other players and virtual other players exist and with whom you can communicate to share ideas, solve puzzles, etc.

27 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Penggunaan Internet Fasilitas – Forum - Real-Time Communications – MUD, Dungeon ~ dungeon-like environment where evil goblins, demons, and other bad-guys are wandering around ready to kill – Audio Video Conferencing, [teachers - students, doctors - patients, artists - audience] contoh CUSeeMe [Macintosh and Windows users with an Internet connection and a desktop camera to see, hear and speak with other CU- SeeMe users across the world; this program was developed at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, USA and is freely available.]

28 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Penggunaan Internet Fasilitas – Archive [Webster's] a)a place where public records, documents, etc. are kept b)a place where material having documentary interest, as private papers, institutional records, memorabilia, or photographs, is kept. – Internet’s Archives are pretty much ~ exact same thing. – Searching memakai search engine [a program usually living on a remote computer that spends its time downloading information from other computers and building an index of what lives where [nickname = Web Crawler].

29 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Penggunaan Internet Fasilitas – Contoh search engine Yahoo - Index of WWW sites, with search capabilities DejaNews - USENET (news groups) search engine WebCrawler - Lycos - AltaVista - WWW and USENET search engine Magellan - Index of reviewed and rated Internet sites, with search capabilities Google - Index of WWW sites, with search capabilities

30 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Penggunaan Internet World Wide Web ~ Web – subset of the computers di Internet – visualisasi Web sebagai rak giant magazine stand with a vast web of strings connecting various words pictures and ideas. – organisasi Web tidak hirarkis, Web is broken up into a large set of pages (Web Pages), informasi dihubungkan dengan hypertext links. – klik pada highlighted word / picture to call up a page of related information

31 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Penggunaan Internet Cara Akses – Akses Internet ~ receiving, downloading, and viewing files, menggunakan same tools (SW&HW) needed to create files and make them available on the Internet; memerlukan dukungan: Internet Service Providers HW + SW + modem Web browser SW anti virus Perangkat akses multimedia: sound card + speakers, CD-ROM player, midi equip., video equip., printer

32 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi.: Fasilkom – UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/ Penggunaan Internet Tahapan Pengembangan Situs – Pembuatan & pendaftaran – Kreasi isi Getting help [lewat: Forum, BBS, Chat, dll.] Format file: public domain, proprietary, dll. Kreasi dokumen text & hyper text Kreasi citra grafik & animasi [format: bitmap, vector, video] Kreasi digital audio, suara & musik Publikasi Issues & Chalenges – Security, viruses, standard disclaimer & copyrights & intellectual property (copyright, trademark, privacy, advicing), cryptography, netiquette.


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