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Pengantar Teknologi Informasi

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Presentasi berjudul: "Pengantar Teknologi Informasi"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi
Introduction to Internet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi

2 Materi Pengenalan Internet :
Kronologi • Pakar Pelopor • Pengetahuan Dasar • Internet & Masyarakat • Penggunaan Internet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

3 Kronologi • Periode Awal [http://www.packet.cc/internet.html]
– 1957, USSR meluncurkan Sputnik, satelit bumi buatan pertama. USA mendirikan Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). – Jul-61, First Paper on Packet Switching Theory, Leonard Kleinrock, "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets.” – 1962, RAND Paul Baran, RAND Corporation (agen pemerintah) diberi kekuasaan untuk studi pengelolaan command and control pada misil dan bomber, setelah serangan nuklir. Tulisan yang dihasilkannya packet switched network. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

4 Kronologi • Periode Awal
– Agu-62, First Paper on Internet Concept by J.C.R. Licklider & Welden Clark, "On-Line Man Computer Communication". – 1964, Communication Nets by Leonard Kleinrock provides the network design and queuing theory necessary to build packet networks. [buku] – Mar-64 First Paper on Secure Packetized Voice, Paul Baran, "On Distributed Communications Networks", IEEE Transactions on Systems. – Okt-65, First Actual Network Experiment,Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32, Lawrence Roberts, MIT Lincoln Labs. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

5 Kronologi • Periode Awal
– Okt-66, First Paper on Network Experiments, Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts, "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers", Fall AFIPS Conf. – Okt-67, Original ARPANET Design Paper, Lawrence Roberts, " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ", ACM Gatlinberg Conf. – Agu-68, Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts, ARPA. The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. – Des-68, BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP’s) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

6 Kronologi • Periode Awal
– Okt-66, First Paper on Network Experiments, Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts, "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers", Fall AFIPS Conf. – Okt-67, Original ARPANET Design Paper, Lawrence Roberts, " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ", ACM Gatlinberg Conf. – Agu-68, Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts, ARPA. The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. – Des-68, BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP’s) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

7 Kronologi • Periode Lanjut
– Apr-69, Request For Comments (RFC) #1, "Host Software" Released, written by Steve Crocker, covering Host-to-Host protocol, the first output of the Network Working Group (NWG). – Sep-69, First Node of ARPANET Installed at UCLA Network Measurement Center – Oct-69, Second Node of ARPANET Installed at SRI, first ARPANET messages passed – Nov-69, Third Node of the ARPANET Installed at UCSB making the first redundant network – Des-69, Fourth Node of the ARPANET Installed at the University of Utah Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

8 Kronologi • Periode Lanjut
– Jul-70, First Packet Radio -ALOHANET operational at U. Hawaii under Norm Abramson using the ALOHA concept of random packet transmission – Dec-70, Network Control Protocol (NCP), the first host-tohost protocol, completed by Steve Crocker and NWG. – Sep-71, First Terminal Interface Processor (TIP) in ARPANET; terminals to directly dial into the network – Mar-72, First basic Programs, SNGMSG and READMAIL written by Ray Tomlinson at BBN. – Jul-72, First Management Program, RD written by Larry Roberts – Jul-72, FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354), Jon Postel Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

9 Kronologi • Periode Lanjut
– Oct-72, First APRANET Public Demonstration at ICCC in Washington organized by Robert Kahn of BBN – May-73, First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC designed by Robert Metcalfe – May-74, First Internetworking Protocol, TCP outlined in a paper by Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf – Jul-75, ARPANET Transferred to DCA, the Defense Communications Agency. – Oct-77, First TCP Operation over ARPANET, Packet Radio Net, and SATNET (the satellite network) – Nov-77, Complete Specification ( RFC 733) released by two pioneers, Dave Crocker and John Vittal. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

10 Kronologi • Periode Lanjut
– Mar-78, TCP Split into TCP and IP, where TCP was the endto-end process and IP was the network routing process by Vint Cerf, Jon Postel, and Danny Cohen. – Nov-83, Domain Name System (DNS) Designed by Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris, and Craig Partridge to support the addressing space, creating .edu, .gov, .com, .mil, .org, .net, & .int. – 1986, First Interop Conference organized by Dan Lynch. – 1989, Internet opened to commercial mail through MCI Mail – 1991, NSF Opens Internet to commercial use. – Finally the Internet gets Quality of Service (QOS) with guaranteed rate service for voice and video Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

11 Pakar Pelopor • Leonard Kleinrock
– Packet Switching Theory, paper, 1961 – Communication Nets, book, 1964 – Network Measurement Center at UCLA, ARPANET measurement, 1968 • J.C.R. Licklider – On-Line Man Computer Communication (internet concept), paper, 1962 – ARPA Computer Program, 1962 – First ARPA IPTO Director, 1962 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

12 Pakar Pelopor Lawrence Roberts
– First Actual Network Experiment, Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32 [MIT], 1965 – ARPA Communications Program, 1966 – ARPA IPTO Chief Scientist and begins the design of the APRANET, 1966 – Original ARPANET Design Paper, 1967 – Request For Proposals released for ARPANET, 1968 – Fourth Director of ARPA IPTO, 1969 – Packet Satellite Technique, 1971 – First Management Program, 1972 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

13 Pakar Pelopor • Steve Crocker
– Request For Comments (RFC) #1, Host Software tulisan Steve Crocker mencakup Host-to-Host protocol, the first output of the Network Working Group. • Ray Tomlinson – First basic Programs, SNGMSG and READMAIL. • Jon Postel – FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354) – Domain Name System. • Robert Metcalfe – First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC • Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf – First Internetworking Protocol, TCP outlined in a paper Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

14 Pengetahuan Dasar • Computer Network [Jaringan Komputer]
– (terminal, komputer, server, sistem-lain) yang saling terhubung sehingga mempermudah aliran data dan saling memakai resources. – Kategori [http://compnetworking.about.com] • LAN (local area network) / MAN (metropolitan AN) / WAN (wide AN) / VLAN (virtual LAN)/ VPN (virtual private network) / SAN (Storage AN, dedicated LAN/WAN untuk mass data storage and retrieval; / System AN, high-performance & high-speed LAN dengan konfigurasi cluster) / CAN (Cluster / Controller AN) • Internet / Intranet / Extranet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

15 Pengetahuan Dasar • Network
LAN : computer network covering a small geographic area. MAN : large computer networks usually spanning a city WAN : computer network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries – LAN (local area network): network yang memakai bersama sebuah atau/beberapa server di satu lokasi [kantor/gedung] yang membangun interoffice system – MAN > LAN < WAN, memakai dedicated / highperformance hardware. – WAN (wide area network): LANs yang saling terhubung dalam area luas Internet = WAN, extranet = WAN. perangkat beragam & mahal dibanding LAN. Teknologi pengembangan WAN: SONET, frame relay, dan ATM. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

16 Pengetahuan Dasar • Internet – Sistem informasi global yang:
• secara logikal saling terhubung oleh sebuah ruang adres unik global berbasis Internet Protocol/IP [IP:standar pengontrol koneksi, komunikasi dan data transfer via internet]; • mampu menunjang komunikasi berbasis Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) atau ekstensi-nya, dan/atau protokol lain yang IP-compatible; dan dapat diakses, secara publik maupun private. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

17 Pengetahuan Dasar • Internet :
– Jaringan komputer di mana situs-situs akademik, pemerintah, dan organisasi lain dapat melakukan: • komunikasi langsung ( , chat) • konferensi online (Usenet News, e- mail discussion lists) • akses sumber informasi terdistribusi (World Wide Web, Gopher) • remote login [login jarak jauh] dan file transfer (telnet, ftp), dan lainnya. – Berbasis sekumpulan protocol baku, komputer yang tersambung memiliki domain name system / DNS dan adres IP sendiri. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

18 Pengetahuan Dasar • Intranet :
– LAN yang diimplementasi teknologi WWW; atau – Private Internet • Private network enterprise, LAN saling terhubung & bisa terhubung pada WAN / internet melalui gateway. • Para pegawai dapat memakai bersama informasi dan fasilitas komputasi, juga memfasilitasi working groups dan teleconferences. • Implementasi TCP/IP, HTTP, dan IP lainnya. • Pemakai dapat mengakses [Global / Public] Internet melalui firewall servers yang menyaring informasi yang mengancam company security. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

19 Pengetahuan Dasar • Extranet :
– Private network menggunakan IP & telecommunikasi publik untuk kerjasama bisnis dengan suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, & lainnya. – Dapat dipandang sebagai company's intranet yang diperluas untuk melayani pemakai mitra perusahaan. – Perlu keamanan dan privasi, menerapkan firewall server management: • user authentication • encryption of messages • menggunakan virtual private networks (VPN) yang memanfaatkan jaringan komunikasi publik. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

20 Pengetahuan Dasar • Operasional Extranet
– Bertukar data volume besar dengan Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) / XML – Berbagi katalog produk – Berkolaborasi & bekerjasama dalam berbagai aktifitas bisnis – Mengembangkan program pelatihan bersama – Pelayanan oleh satu perusahaan bagi sekelompok perusahaan lain, misal online banking yang dikelola sabuah bank untuk bank-bank lain yang berafiliasi – Berbagi berita yang menarik antar perusahaan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

21 Internet & Masyarakat • Dampak [ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2150.txt] – Akses sangat mudah, perolehan info relatif murah & banyak. – Integrasi informasi, komunikasi, dan hiburan [+audio, video, multimedia] makin mempermudah penyampaian segala jenis pengajaran. – Kebudayaan yang baik sangat mudah terpengaruh bila tanpa filter, pengaruh info negatif pada generasi muda > TV/radio. – Agar info positif > negatif, peranan artist, scientist & engineer sangat penting. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

22 Internet & Masyarakat • Komunitas Global
– Komunikasi tak dibatasi wilayah / kebangsaan / waktu – Segala jenis data/info tersedia di berbagai jenis situs – Berbagi kerja dan berkolaborasi mudah dilakukan oleh setiap individu dalam satu atau berbeda instansi /organisasi dalam satu atau berbeda bidang/minat. • Ketersediaan – Shareware, Freely Copyable software programs yang dapat di-download – Libraries, stores, and news groups untuk mencari tools atau informasi lainnya. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

23 Penggunaan Internet • Pengadresan
– Domain ~ kategori hirarki organisasi abstrak ke mana sebuah komputer/ situs / jaringan terdaftar, di mana top level : • com untuk perusahaan komersil • edu untuk institusi pendidian • gov untuk situs pemerintah • net untuk infrastruktur jaringan • org untuk organisasi non-komersil • us untuk situs di USA • id untuk situs di Indonesia – Di bawah domain dapat tercantum banyak sub domain Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

24 Penggunaan Internet • Pengadresan
– Tiap pemakai memiliki DNS dan username – Komputer harus memiliki IP address, 4 grup bilangan dipisah oleh titik [misal: ] – Informasi memiliki URL~ alamat dokumen • misal: "http://www.waralaba.com/lok-dir/filename.ext". • Jenis yang populer: – http = hypertext transfer protocol [the set of rules that control the way data is sent and received over the Internet] – ftp = file transfer protocol [a set of rules for sending files from one computer to another on the Internet ] – telnet = telecommunication network protocol, remote service – smtp = simple mail transfer protocol – nttp = network news transfer protocol Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

25 Penggunaan Internet • Fasilitas
– Forum ~ tempat bertemu publik secara elektronik untuk diskusi terbuka: • Message-based Communications, one-to-many – Electronic mail – Newsgroup, electronic bulletin board system created originally by the Unix community, misal Usenet News yang membahas banyak topik secara hirarkis [comp =komputer, rec rekreasi, soc= sosial, sci = sains, dll. – Bulletin Board System (BBS), a computer + associated software, typically providing electronic messaging services, archives of files, and any other services or activities of interest to the BBS’s operator Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

26 Penggunaan Internet • Fasilitas – Forum
• Real-Time Communications ~ komunikasi di mana delay yang terjadi seminim mungkin, berbasis teks di mana tiap user memiliki special regions pada monitor [wilayah pengiriman dan penerimaan] ` – Internet Relay Chat (IRC, WebChat), text-based mechanism communication with multiple participants. – Multicasting, technical term that means that you can send pieces of data (packets), to multiple sites simultaneously. – MUD [Multi-User Dungeon], an interactive game environment where both real other players and virtual other players exist and with whom you can communicate to share ideas, solve puzzles, etc. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

27 Penggunaan Internet • Fasilitas – Forum - Real-Time Communications
– MUD, Dungeon ~ dungeon-like environment where evil goblins, demons, and other bad-guys are wandering around ready to kill – Audio Video Conferencing, [teachers - students, doctors - patients, artists - audience] contoh CUSeeMe [Macintosh and Windows users with an Internet connection and a desktop camera to see, hear and speak with other CU- SeeMe users across the world; this program was developed at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, USA and is freely available.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

28 Penggunaan Internet • Fasilitas – Archive [Webster's]
a) a place where public records, documents, etc. are kept b) a place where material having documentary interest, as private papers, institutional records, memorabilia, or photographs, is kept. – Internet’s Archives are pretty much ~ exact same thing. – Searching memakai search engine [a program usually living on a remote computer that spends its time downloading information from other computers and building an index of what lives where [nickname = Web Crawler]. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

29 Penggunaan Internet • Fasilitas – Contoh search engine
• Yahoo - Index of WWW sites, with search capabilities • DejaNews - USENET (news groups) search engine • WebCrawler - • Lycos - • AltaVista - WWW and USENET search engine • Magellan - Index of reviewed and rated Internet sites, with search capabilities • Google - Index of WWW sites, with search capabilities Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

30 Penggunaan Internet • World Wide Web ~ Web
– subset of the computers di Internet – visualisasi Web sebagai rak giant magazine stand with a vast web of strings connecting various words pictures and ideas. – organisasi Web tidak hirarkis, Web is broken up into a large set of pages (Web Pages), informasi dihubungkan dengan hypertext links. – klik pada highlighted word / picture to call up a page of related information Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

31 Penggunaan Internet • Cara Akses
– Akses Internet ~ receiving, downloading, and viewing files, menggunakan same tools (SW&HW) needed to create files and make them available on the Internet; memerlukan dukungan: • Internet Service Providers • HW + SW + modem • Web browser • SW anti virus • Perangkat akses multimedia: sound card + speakers, CD-ROM player, midi equip., video equip., printer Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.

32 Penggunaan Internet • Tahapan Pengembangan Situs
– Pembuatan & pendaftaran – Kreasi isi • Getting help [lewat: Forum, BBS, Chat, dll.] • Format file: public domain, proprietary, dll. • Kreasi dokumen text & hyper text • Kreasi citra grafik & animasi [format: bitmap, vector, video] • Kreasi digital audio, suara & musik • Publikasi • Issues & Chalenges – Security, viruses, standard disclaimer & copyrights & intellectual property (copyright, trademark, privacy, advicing), cryptography, netiquette. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom – UDINUS :.


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