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ADMINISTRASI PEMBANGUNAN Program Doktor Bidang Ilmu Sosial Universitas Pasundan Bandung 2011.

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Presentasi berjudul: "ADMINISTRASI PEMBANGUNAN Program Doktor Bidang Ilmu Sosial Universitas Pasundan Bandung 2011."— Transcript presentasi:

1 ADMINISTRASI PEMBANGUNAN Program Doktor Bidang Ilmu Sosial Universitas Pasundan Bandung 2011

2 Istana Kawaluyaan Jl. Kawaluyaan Indah XXI No. 10 Bandung (022)

3 SISTIMATIKA Pembangunan Teori Dasar dan Paradigma Pembangunan Indikator Pembangunan Ekonomi Dari Pembangunan ke Pemberdayaan

4 PEMBANGUNAN Proses perubahan yang terencana yang dijalankan secara berkesinambungan untuk kehidupan yang lebih baik.

5 Definisi Modernization is a “total” transformation of a traditional or pre-modern society into the types of technology and associated social organization that characteriza the “advanced” economicall prosperous and politicall stable nations of the Western World.’ (Moore, 1963, p. 89) ‘The questions to ask about a country’s development are three: What has been happening to proverty? What has been happening to unemployment? What has been happening to inequality? If all three of these have declined from high levels, then beyond doubt this has been a period of development for the country concerned.’ (Seers, 1977, p. 3) ‘… These capitalist contradictions and the historical development of the capitalist system have generated under development in the peripheral satellites whose economic surplus was expropriated, while generating economic development in the metropolitan centre which appropriate that surplus-and, further, that this process still continues’. (Frank, 1971, p.27) UNPAS 2008www.ginandjar.com5

6 6 Awalnya pembangunan dimaknai sebagai usaha meningkatkan pendapatan per kapita, atau populer disebut strategi pertumbuhan ekonomi. Peningkatan pendapatan per kapita diharapkan masalah- masalah seperti pengangguran, kemiskinan, dan ketimpangan distribusi pendapatan yang dihadapi. Hal di atas tercermin dari pemikiran-pemikiran awal mengenai pembangunan, seperti teori Harrod Domar, Arthur Lewis, WW Rostow, Hirschman, Rosenstein Rodan, dll. Meskipun banyak varian pemikiran, pada dasarnya mereka sependapat bahwa kata kunci dalam pembangunan adalah pembentukan modal kapital. Pembangunan didekati dengan cara berbeda di beberapa negara selaras dengan penguasaan pada Modal Sumberdaya Alam- Modal Kapital- Modal Sumberdaya Manusia- Modal Sosial- Modal Budaya Dasar

7 Tujuan (STIGLITZ, 1998) Meningkatkan GDP percapita; Meningkatkan standar kesehatan hidup; Mengurangi Kemiskinan Keberlangsungan Lingkungan.

8 Adam Smith pada tahun 1776, saat itu karyanya yang monumental diterbitkan di London dengan judul “The Wealth of Nations”. Harga terbentuk berdasarkan permintaan dan penawaran yang berlangsung saat terjadinya transaksi. Oleh sebab itu, intervensi pemerintah tidak perlu ada. Pemikiran Adam Smith tersebut menyebar ke seluruh dunia, antara lain melalui J.B. Say dan Bastiat di Perancis; Thomas Jefferson di Amerika Serikat. Banyak penentangan terhadap ajaran Adam Smith, misalnya antara lain datang dari Robert Malthus, John Stuart Mill dan David Ricardo. Sosialisme menjadi lawan paling tangguh bagi ekonomi pasar Adam Smith di sepanjang abad sesudahnya Sejarah Pemikiran: KLasik

9 Ajaran ekonomi pasar dengan invisible hand, Melalui Carl Menger di Austria, Leon Walras di Swiss dan William Stanley Jevons di Inggris. Ketiganya mengembangkan pemikiran “Revolusi Marginal”. Eugen Bohm-Bawerk, salah seorang rekan Menger adalah ekonom pertama yang mengkritik keras teori nilai tenaga kerja dan eksploitasi buruh yang diajukan Marx. Melalui bukunya, Alfred Marshall di Inggris, Frank Taussig dan Irving Fisher di Amerika Serikat, model ekonomi ala Smith mulai bangun kembali. Abad 19 kejayaan bisnis-bisnis besar dan raksasa Carnegie dan Rockefeller rontok menjadi antitesa ajaran Smith. Kritik-kritik terhadap Smith muncul kembali, sebagaimana yang disampaikan oleh kaum institusionalis seperti Thorstein Veblen yang memperingatkan tentang adanya bahaya konsumsi yang mencolok dan kekuatan monopoli. Sementara itu, di Jerman, sosiolog Max Weber menulis tentang fondasi religius dan "sangkar besi" kapitalisme.

10 Resesi ekonomi besar pertama di muka bumi mulai terasa terjadi tahun 1929, menjadi kritik besar bagi dunia kapitalisme pasar bebas dari Adam Smith, puncaknya 1930-an. Para ekonom neoklasik berhasil menangkap perbedaan halus antara penawaran (supply) dan permintaan (demand), tetapi mereka gagal menguak rahasia "koneksi uang" (money nexus) yakni hubungan vital antara ekonomi mikro dengan ekonomi makro. Ludwig von Mises, dengan bertumpu pada karya besar Knut Wicksell dari Swedia, akhirnya berhasil menjembatani jurang pemisah antara mikro dan makro tersebut, dalam karyanya yang berjudul Theory of Money and Credit. Ekonom klasik yang membela kebijakan laissez faire (ekonomi pasar) diserang kaum sosialis dan Marxis, muncullah John Maynard Keynes (neo Klasik). Sejarah Pemikiran: Neo-Klasik

11 Model Keynesian tidak mensyaratkan nasionalisasi atau kontrol pemerintah secara ketat atas penawaran dan permintaan. permintaan konsumen, pembiayaan defisit, pajak progresif dan fiat money (yakni mata uang yang disahkan secara hukum oleh otoritas legal dan tidak harus ditopang atau bisa dikonversikan ke bentuk, emas atau perak) yang berperan penting di masa resesi ekonomi dan mengurangi pengangguran. Paul Samuelson dari MIT, mulai memperkenalkan alat baru misalnya, angka pengganda (multiplier), kecenderungan konsumsi marginal, paradoks penghematan, permintaan agregat dan C + I + G. Alat yang diperkenalkan oleh Samuelson ini memperkuat aliran Keynesian. Ia merefleksikan puncak teorisasi ekonomi dan model matematika ekonomi.

12 Teori Pembangunan Teori model pertumbuhan bertahap linear (linear stages of growth models), ( an) Teori dan pola-pola perubahan struktural (the structural change theories and pattern), (1970an) Revolusi ketergantungan internasional (international dependence revolution), (1970an) Kontra revolusi pasar bebas neo klasik (neoclassical free market counterrevolution), (1980an) Teori pertumbuhan ekonomi baru atau endogen (new or endogenous theory of economic growth), (1990 an) UNPAS 2008www.ginandjar.com12

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Linear Stages of Growth Models ( Rostow) Masyarakat Tradsional Masa pra take off Masa take off Menuju Kedewasaan Masyarakat produksi dan Konsumsi

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved (3.1) (3.2) (3.3) (3.4) Teori Harrod-Domar

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved (3.5) (3.6) (3.7)

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Structural-Change Models The Lewis two- sector model Modern and traditional sector

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved The Lewis Model of Modern-Sector Growth:Two-Sector Surplus-Labor Economy

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved The Lewis Model Modified by Labor saving Capital Accumulation: Employment Implications

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved The International-Dependence Revolution: Radical/Marxist Model Model Ketergantungan Neo-klasik Unequal power, core-periphery The false-paradigm model Using “expert” advisors Teori Dualistik pembangunan Superior and inferior elements can coexist; center-periphery (sociologist’s view) Conclusions and implications No insight on development, empirical evidence

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved The Neoclassical Counterrevolution: Market Resurgence Perubahan dengan Model Statisitik Pendekatan pasar bebas Pendekatan pilihan publik Pendekatan Market-friendly Teori Pertumbuhan ne-klasik tradisional Model Solow Kesimpulan dan Implikasi Penyelenggaraan kelembagaan dan politik dalam pembangunan

21 New or Endogenous Theory of Economic Growth Pertumbuhan endogen selalu memperhatikan factor eksternal dan penentuan tingkat hasil investasi permodalan. Pertumbuhan endogen mempunyai kesamaan dengan Neoklasik terutama dalam fungsi produksi aggregat,tetapi untuk pertumbuhan endogen tidak ada penurunan skala hasil seperti model Solow. Model Pertumbuhan Endogen Y = AK Dimana Y adalah output, k adalah persediaan modal, dan A adalah konstanta yang mengukur jumlah output yang diproduksi untuk setiap unit modal. UNPAS 2008www.ginandjar.com21

22 Paradigma Pembangunan Ekonomi Classic DevelopmentNeo Liberalism DevelopmentSocial DevelopmentSustainable development Development in Persfective of Islam UNPAS 2008www.ginandjar.com22

23 Classic Development Paradigm Improve level of individual real income passed economic growth Creates justice of distribution of earnings and exploiting of economic sources ideally and functionaly to increase capacity of produce and human resource

24 Neo liberalism Paradigm Opinion of neo liberalism ideology, development must be based on economic growth, this economic macro is assumed, will have give multiple effect (trickle down effect) to the increasing of prosperity and increasing of work field. the assumption is the development on transaction of financial products will flow directly to investment in real sector, in the hope that it can provide employment and diminish unemployment; in fact, the number of poverty is increasing from year to year while unemployment also the same fate. Then the occurrence of economic power concentration on number of people creates a new class in the form elite corporation mastering production structure and using up distribution of resource and cleanses domestic resource, so that it causes environmental and social demage.

25 Multilateral : World Trade Organization, Regional : Free Trade Area (FTA) Bilateral: Free Trade Agreement Economic Integration regional: Trade Preferency Arragement, Free Area UNPAS 2008www.ginandjar.com25

26 i expanding to Eastern Europe expanding to Latin America Regional FTAs NAFTA Population: million GDP: US$17,029.1 billion EU Population: 491 million GDP PPP: US$ 15,150.7 billion CHINA Population: 1,341.4 million GDP PPP : US$ 10,084.4 billion JAPAN Population: million GDP PPP : US$ 4,308.6 billion ASEAN Population: 589 million GDP PPP: US$ 5,689.2 billion FTA Canada – Chile 1997 FTA : Chile – Mexico 1999 FTA : USA – Chile 2004 FTA : USA – Singapore 2004 FTA : USA – Australia 2005 FTA : Mexico – Japan 2005 FTA : Chile – Brunei – NZ – Singapore 2006 MERCOSUR Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay FTAA (by 2005) under negotiation NAFTA U.S.A., Canada, Mexico SAPTA Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka China - ASEAN FTA ASEAN-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership (AJCEP) Japan-Korea FTA (under negotiation) Japan-Mexico EPA (signed agreement) Japan’s Bilaterals: Japan-Singapore EPA Japan-Philippines EPA Japan-Thailand EPA Japan-Malaysia EPA Japan-Indonesia EPA AFTA Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia India - ASEAN FTA EU-MEXICO FTA EU 25 countries ACP-EU Countries in Africa and the Caribbean (approx. 70 countries) Japan- Mexico EPA (signed agreement) Japan-Korea-China FTA (under negotiation) Australia-New Zealand-ASEAN FTA Korea - ASEAN FTA

27 Social Development Paradigm Purpose of development is creating a life with justice, thereby redistribution with growth (RWG) is necessary; Earnings distribution method with curve Lorenz model, and measurement through Gini Index; Then, developed approach of Basic Human needs; Lameness, unemployment, and poverty is the enemy of development.

28 40% 20% Distribution of Income Lower 40% Middle 40% High 20%

29 Michael P. Todaro (2000) Firstly, in ethical review, the state clearly fails to translate justice principles when talking side is given to a few member of citizen. Secondly, gap will only cause less possibility for poor people to obtain credit. Thirdly, based on observation and empiric data taken from third world, the owner of legal capitals in local level cannot be much expected to increase capital stock which can extensify production sector and give way to a new work field. Accumulation of wealth is not used at all to enrich investment in the country, instead it is creates capital flight to other countries. Fourthly, the low of earnings of most of citizen will only create public with low level quality of life. This condition means the more minimum level of their economic productivity. Fifthly, all optimasized business for capitalization of most citizen will give effective stimulus to for empowering of domestic trade. So economic growth and national income will experience significant improvement in the long run.

30 Development of Human Paradigm Purpose of development extends human choice ( Ul Haq,1995). Healthy human, smart, and prosperous; hollistic concept (1) rising productivity, (2) equality of opportunity averaging, (3) development continuity, (4) human empowermed; UNDP develops Human Development Index of (HDI)

31 Sustainable development Paradigm Sustainable Development is an approach process “socio- ecological”, meaning a development process which to have characteristic fulfillment of human needs while observing and maintaining the quality of natural environment. One of factor which must be faced to reach sustainable development is how restore environmental destruction without sacrificing the needs of economic development and social justice as a mean of achieving (Brundtland Report from PBB, 1987). Development is not only comprehended as economic growth, but also as a means of reach intellectual satisfaction, emotional, morale, and spiritual.

32 World Summit 2005

33 Continual development, on its application is integrating from economic problem, social and environment. integration of policy from 3 aspect, found on development policy which is yielded by all state level, either national, regional or local level. Observe the substance and process that must be done hence, the effort to create and to apply development cannot be discharged from dynamics of public administration.

34 Development in Democracy Paradigm Amartya Sen ( 2000) describes democracy as main corridor in comprehending poverty problem. Amartya Sen idea has also inspired many ideas about how to understand the bad side of democracy which jives birth to unjust. These are caused by among others, limited opportunity and poor people voices in delivering their aspirations which can cause dilution of many economic growth target’s programmes. Interrelationship between democracies with prosperity of public through market economics has in such a way grown and tested for over 200 years in western countries. In such a way tightly interrelationship both the things so that in the development improvement of prosperity of public have also been made barometer of whether or not democracy process occurs. It means, democracy process has yet to be staled good if it can not bear improvement of prosperity.

35 Development in Perspective of Islam Khursyid, affirms that it is a must for us to leave all global growth models focussed the attention at realization of average earning level maximally as the only economic growth indicators”; Al-`Audhi haves a notion, “Actualy economic growth meant in broader Islamic perspective is broader than just increasing the average earnings of each individual. Dunya refuses the average earnings individual as economic growth indicators and gives other solution named of al- miqyas al-Islami (measuring instrument of Islam economic growth). This measuring instrument is real condition of each in public mirrored the service and goods that is possibly obtained by them.

36  “WE WILL SPARE NO EFFORTS TO FREE OUR FELLOW MEN, WOMAN AND CHILDREN FROM THE OBJECT AND DEHUMANIZING CONDITIONS OF EXTREME POVERTY, TO WHICH MORE THAN A BILLION OF THEM ARE CURRENTLY SUBJECTED. WE ARE COMMITTED TO MAKING THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT A REALITY FOR EVERYONE AND TO FREEING THE ENTIRE HUMAN RACE FROM WANT.” (MILLENIUM DECLARATION, 2000) MDGs: NEW INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IDEOLOGY

37  THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDG) WERE DERIVED FROM THE UNITED NATIONS MILLENNIUM DECLARATION, ADOPTED BY 189 NATIONS IN MOST OF THE GOALS AND TARGETS WERE SET TO BE ACHIEVED BY THE YEAR 2015 ON THE BASIS OF THE GLOBAL SITUATION DURING THE 1990s.

38

39 INDIKATOR PEMBANGUNAN Daya Saing Ekonomi Makro Kesempatan Kerja Pemerataan Pendapatan Kemiskinan

40

41 Pemetaan Potensi Analisis Potensi Penyusunan Desain Model Sosialisasi dan Diseminasi Pembentukan Kelompok Usaha Produktif dan Kreatif Penguatan Kelembagaan Keuangan Mikro Berbasis Kelembagaan Koperasi Konsultasi dan Pendampingan Monitoring dan Evaluasi Tindak Lanjut dan Pengembangan

42 UNPAS 2008www.ginandjar.com42


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