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BINA NUSANTARA Pertemuan 4. BINA NUSANTARA Length of Contractile Element (% of Resting Length) Isometric Force (% of Maximum) 50 100 150 100 50 MAXIMUM.

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Presentasi berjudul: "BINA NUSANTARA Pertemuan 4. BINA NUSANTARA Length of Contractile Element (% of Resting Length) Isometric Force (% of Maximum) 50 100 150 100 50 MAXIMUM."— Transcript presentasi:

1 BINA NUSANTARA Pertemuan 4

2 BINA NUSANTARA Length of Contractile Element (% of Resting Length) Isometric Force (% of Maximum) MAXIMUM MUSCLE STRENGTH (Prinsip Motion Economy 1) Relaxed Posture assumed by People in Weightless Conditions Complete Contraction Complete Extension

3 BINA NUSANTARA Gerakan Menarik dan mendorong merupakan Gerakan Terkuat Kekuatan tersebut tergantung pada Sudut Gerak Menarik mencapai kekuatan maksimum pada sudut 150 Gerak Mendorong mencapai kekuatan Maksimum pada sudut 180 Hasil Penelitian HUNSICKER

4 BINA NUSANTARA Hasil Penelitian Provins dan Salter (1955) dan Singh dan Kaporvich (1966) Posisi forearm terhadap Sumbu Siku Sudut siku 90 0 menberikan gaya momenmaksimum pada FLEKSI DAN EKSTENSION

5 BINA NUSANTARA TENSION Tension yang dapat dihasilkan Otot Tergantung pada : 1.Luas penampang Otot 2.Panjang Otot : Panjang Otot pd Complete Contraction (50% dari Panjang Otot Sewaktu Istirahat) sd Complete Extension (SD 180% Panjang Otot sewaktu Istirahat ) Streched : Terentang. Minimal Overlap / ikatan antara Actin dan Myosin. Berkurangnya Gaya Otot Hingga 0. Istirahat Posisi Optimum untuk Tegangan, Posisi Netral, Sekitar Midpoint pada Normal Range dari Gerakan Contracted : Actin dan Myosin membentuk Cross Bridge. Cross Bridge ini Menghasilkan Tegangan Otot. Complete Contracted State : Berkurangnya Gaya Otot, karena gangguan pada Actin, sehingga Ikatan optimum terganggu.

6 BINA NUSANTARA HUMAN STRENGTH DYNAMIC STRENGTH : Menghasilkan Gaya Otot yg Menggerakan Bagian Tubuh STATIC STRENGTH : Tertahannya Gerakan Bagian Tubuh PSYCHOPHYSICAL STRENGTH : Strength Demands are Required for an Extended Period of Time

7 BINA NUSANTARA GAYA ISOTONIS / ISOTONIC CONTRACTION : Memanjang dan Memendeknya Otot Dengan Menghasilkan Kerja Konsentris : Memendeknya Otot sambil Tetap Menahan suatu Tegangan (Kerja Positif) Eksentris : Memanjang Otot sambil Tetap Menahan suatu Tegangan (Kerja Negatif) GAYA ISOMETRIS/ ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION : Gaya Otot tanpa Menghasilkan Kerja DYNAMIC STRENGTH < STATIC STRENGTH More Efficient Bonding In the Slower Sliding Muscle Filaments Diukur oleh : CONSTANT VELOCITY (ISOKINETIC) DYNAMOMETER

8 BINA NUSANTARA MAXIMUM STRENGTH With SLOW MOVEMENT (Prinsip Motion Economy 2) The faster the molecular bonds are formed, broken and reformed, the Less Effective is the bonding and the less muscular force is produced Maximum Muscle Force dihasilkan dari : No Externally Measurable Shortening (Velocity 0 or Static Contraction) Minimum Muscle Force dihasilkan dari : Maximum Velocity of Muscle Shortening Velocity (% of Maximum No Load-Velocity) Force (% maximum) Force – Velocity Relationship Force is only sufficient to move the mass of the body Heavy Manual Work

9 BINA NUSANTARA USE MOMENTUM TO ASSIST WORKERS WHEREEVER POSSIBLE : Minimize It if It Counteracted by Muscular Effort (Prinsip Motion Economy 3) Faster Movements Higher Momentum + Higher Impact Forces Downward motions are More Effective than Upward Motions USE LARGE MUSCLES FOR TASKS REQURING STRENGTH (Prinsip Motion Economy 5) Muscle Strength = f ( Size of Muscle) Size of Muscle = Cross Sectional Area = f ( Posture) Ex : Heavy Load Lifting : Leg and Trunk Muscles

10 BINA NUSANTARA Human Strength Capability depends on : 1. The Type of Strength 2. The Muscle or Joints Motion being Utilized 3.Posture 4.Individual Factors : Gender, ( The Largest Effect) Age,’ Handedness Fitmess/Training DESIGN TASKS TO OPTIMIZE HUMAN STRENGTH CAPABILITY ( Prinsip Motion Economy 4) ARM LIFTING STRENGTH TEST LEG LIFTING STRENGTH TEST TORSO LIFTING STRENGTH TEST STATIC STRENGTH POSITIONS Range of Strength in the Normal, Healthy Adult population = The Strongest = (5 to 8) x The Weakest

11 BINA NUSANTARA ENERGY SOURCES, STRENGTH AND FATIGUE AEROBIC ANAEROBIC ATP+02 ADP + ENERGI+CO2+H20 ATP ADP + ENERGI+LACTIC ACID HUMAN STRENGTH Energy for a very Small Period of Time Arterioles + Capillaries : Compressed Blood Flow and O2 Fatigue DYNAMIC STRENGTH : Menghasilkan Gaya Otot yg Menggerakan Bagian Tubuh STATIC STRENGTH : Tertahannya Gerakan Bagian Tubuh

12 BINA NUSANTARA STAY BELOW 15 % OF MAXIMUM VOLUNTARY FORCE ( Prinsip Motion Economy 6) 100 % Maximal Contraction, Endurance Time = 6 Seconds 15 % Maximal Contraction, Endurance Time = Indefinite ! 5 – 10% (Jonsson,1978) The Amount of Rest Needed to Recover from Static Hold = Relaxation Allowances = f ( Force Exerted, Holding Time) Endurance Time (min) Exertion Level ( % Max Muscle Forces) % sec Indefinite time Endurance Time = T T = 1.2 / (f – 0.15) – 1.21 f = Required Force, fraction of Maximum Isometric Strength

13 BINA NUSANTARA USE SHORT, FREQUENT, INTERMITTENT WORK-REST CYCLES ( Prinsip Motion Economy 7) % of Maximum Strength Contraction/min A Much Higher Percentage of Maximum Strength can be Maintained if the Strength is Exerted as a Series of Repetitive Contractions rather than One Sustained Static Contraction. Complete muscle fatigue several hour recovery Repeated Static Contraction ( bawa barang dgn siku flexi), or dynamic work (mencangkul), Short time and Frequent cycle

14 BINA NUSANTARA DESIGN TASKS SO THAT MOST WORKERS CAN DO THEM ( Prinsip Motion Economy 8) CHANGES IN MAXIMAL ISOMETRIC STRENGTH WITH AGE Male Female Average Female Strength = (35% to 85%) x Average Male Strength Or 66 % x Average Male Strength Age Years % Variation in Muscle Strength Greatest for Upper Extremity Strength and Smallest for Lower Extremity Strength = = f ( body size or Total Muscle Mass) By a Strength Training Program Increase Strength 30% - 100%, in the First Several Weeks Muscle Mass Muscle Fiber Strength

15 BINA NUSANTARA CNS CEREBELLUM Muscle Contraction Motor Neuron 1 neuron has connection with (<10 for Small and >1000 For the large calf muscle) Muscle Fibers MOTOR UNIT Electrical Impulse Initially, Motor Unit Small in size (1 or 2) Produced Low Forces Change in Force is very gradual Fine Precision Motor Control Force (% maximum) SPINAL CORD Higher Muscle Forces need Increasing Size of Motor Unit USE LOW FORCE FOR PRECISE MOVEMENTS OR FINE MOTOR CONTROL ( Prinsip Motion Economy 9) Motor Unit Recruited (% of maximum)

16 BINA NUSANTARA DO NOT ATTEMP PRECISE MOVEMENT OR FINE CONTROL IMMEDIATELY AFTER HEAVY WORK (Prinsip Motion Economy 10) Lifting Heavy Containers Needs Small Motor Unit and Larger one Unload : Some Smaller Motor Unit will fatigue Precise Work : Some small precise Motor Units are not available Larger motor Unit recruited to replace the fatigue one Larger Increments in force, less precise motor Control

17 BINA NUSANTARA USE BALLISTIC MOVEMENT FOR SPEED (Prinsip Motion Economy 11) Agonist : Penggerak Utama Gerakan BICEPS BRACHIORADIALIS TRICEPS Antagonist : Melawan Gerakan Spinal Reflex, Agonist and antagonist always occur In Short ( < 200 Msec), the Agonist is activated, the Antagonist is inhibited Speed

18 BINA NUSANTARA 12. Begin and End Motions With Both Hand Simultaneously 13. Move the Hands Symmetrically and Simultaneously to and from the Centre of the Body 1.Both hands should not be idle at the same time 2.Both hands can work at the same time, making symmetrical moves in opposite direction

19 BINA NUSANTARA 14. Use the Natural Rhythms of the Body Spinal Reflex, Agonist and antagonist always occur Natural rhythms Menyekop 14 – 17 x / menit Hentakan kaki x / menit Hentakan tangan 35 x / menit 15. Use Continuous Curved Motion Body segment linkage easier to produce curved motion than straight line

20 BINA NUSANTARA 16.Use the Lowest Practical Classification of Movement 17. Work with Both Hands and feet Simultaneously By feet if both hands are occupied ! Classification : 1.Finger motion 2.Finger and wrist motions 3.Finger, wrist, and lower arm motions 4.Finger, wrist, lower arm and upper arm motions 5.Body motion Longer time

21 BINA NUSANTARA 18. Minimize Eye Fixations Location of visual target !! Normal line sight = 15 0 below the horizontal Primary visual field = the cone ± 15 0 in arc centered on the line of sight

22 BINA NUSANTARA EFFECTIVE THERBLIG DESKRIPSI Melepas objek yang dipegang sebelumnya Gerakan tangan dengan menutup objek dgn jari2 tangan Reach Grasp Move Perpindahan tangan dgn membawa beban. Grasp Move Release / Position Gerakan tangan berpindah tempat tanpa beban Release Reach Grasp Melepas (Release) 4 Memegang (Grasp) 3 Membawa (Move) 2 Menjangkau (Reach) 1 THERBLIG NO

23 BINA NUSANTARA Objek dipisahkan dari rakitan Grasp  Disassemble  Move/Release Menggabungkan satu objek dengan yang lainnya. Move/Position  Assy  Release Tangan dipergunakan untuk memakai/Mengontrol alat/objek dgn tujuan tertentu Mengarahkan Objek pada suatu tempat sementara, Tujuannya adalah untuk memudahkan pemegangan apabila objek akan dipakai kembali. Bersamaan dengan memakai, membawa atau melepas Melepas Rakit (Disassemble) 8 Merakit (Assemble) 7 Memakai (Use) 6 Mengarahkan Awal (Pre-Position) 5 DESKRIPSITHERBLIG NO EFFECTIVE THERBLIG

24 BINA NUSANTARA INEFFECTIVE THERBLIG Berhenti sejenak bekerja dan memikirkan untuk menentukan tindakan-tindakan selanjutnya. Membandingkan objek dengan standar, dgn penglihatan atau indra lainnya Menempatkan objek pada lokasi yang dituju secara tepat Move Position Assy/ Release Menemukan/memilih objek diantara 2 atau lebih objek yang sama lainnya. Search Select Menemukan lokasi objek. (Mata atau tangan. DESKRIPSI Merencana (Plan) 5 Memeriksa (Inspect) 4 Mengarahkan (Position) 3 Memilih (Select) 2 Mencari (Search) 1 THERBLIGNO

25 BINA NUSANTARA INEFFECTIVE THERBLIG Memegang untuk Memakai (Hold) Satu tangan memegang objek, yang lain bekerja 9 Rest to Overcome fatigue 8 Kelambatan yg dapat di hindarkan (AvoidableDelay) 7 Kelambatan Tak Terhindarkan (Unavoidable Delay) : Diluar kendali operator. 6 DESKRIPSITHERBLIGNO

26 BINA NUSANTARA Alat Penuntun? Apakah Diperlukan? Mengarahkan 7 +membawa?Penampung?Delay setelahnya? Melepas Sekaligus? Melepas 6 Perpendek? Efektif?Pemakaian Anggota Tubuh? Sekaligus? Perubahan Arah GErak? Gravitasi? Membawa 5 Perpendek? Menjangkau 4 Dipegang Sekaligus? Hanya Kontak? Memudahkan? Peralatan pembantu ? Memegang 3 Objek =, tempat =?, Interchangeability? Tempat Penyimpanan? Memilih 2 Ciri ? Tata Letak? Pencahayaan? Tempat Penyimpan Tembus Pandang ? Mencari 1 UPAYA PERBAIKAN DENGAN MENGHINDARI : GERAKANNO

27 BINA NUSANTARA Istirahat Untuk Melepas Lelah17 Merencanakan16 Kelambatan Terhindarkan15 Kelambatan Tak Terhindarkan14 Peralatan pembantu? Sekaligus? Efisien?Memakai13 Mengurai Rakit12 Merakit11 Digabungkan dengan gerakan lain? Dihilangkan?Alat Inspeksi? Waktu? Memeriksa10 Merencanakan9 Mengarahkan Awal8 UPAYA PERBAIKAN DENGAN MENGHINDARI : GERAKANNO


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