Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Aksi nirkekerasan pengantar studi perdamaian 08. PP / NK / I / ? Anak-anak muda menggunakan kaos bergambar Che Guevara (tokoh revolusi sosial Amerika.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "Aksi nirkekerasan pengantar studi perdamaian 08. PP / NK / I / ? Anak-anak muda menggunakan kaos bergambar Che Guevara (tokoh revolusi sosial Amerika."— Transcript presentasi:

1 aksi nirkekerasan pengantar studi perdamaian 08

2 PP / NK / I / ? Anak-anak muda menggunakan kaos bergambar Che Guevara (tokoh revolusi sosial Amerika Latin) Buruh melakukan pemogokan menuntut kenaikan upah Kelompok Amish di Amerika membentuk komunitas dan sistem sendiri, yang relatif terisolasi dari sistem sosial, politik, dan ekonomi Amerika Serikat Mahasiswa menduduki gedung DPR-RI menuntut turunnya Soeharto Sejumlah warga menjahit mulut mereka memprotes pemasangan saluran udara tegangan tinggi (SUTET) di daerah mereka

3 PP / NK / I / ? Sekelompok warga sipil Amerika Serikat terbang ke Iraq sebelum terjadinya invasi militer Amerika Serikat ke Iraq 2002 Seseorang memutuskan tidak menjadi tentara Tidak ikut bertepuk tangan seusai mendengar pidato, karena orang yang memberi pidato adalah seorang pelanggar HAM Warga Bolivia melakukan mogok makan menuntut transisi politik (1980an) Warga NU melakukan istighosah massal

4 aksi nirkekerasan?

5 aksi nirkekerasan aksi berbuat sesuatu / melawan; bukan hanya diam / pasrah / takluk nirkekerasan tidak menggunakan kekerasan, baik thd diri sendiri maupun lawan –jahit mulut, mogok makan, puasa, bakar diri? “an umbrella term for describing a range of methods for dealing with conflict which share the common principle that physical violence, at least against other people, is not used” (Weber & Burrowes 1991:1) –lempar batu? proporsionalitas (Galtung) –diplomasi, negosiasi? prasyarat: complementarity of nonviolent action & conflict resolution (Veronique Dudouet) –diwarnai bentrokan dan makian, mengganggu kepentingan umum, dll? untuk menggulingkan kekuasaan?

6 aksi nirkekerasan Gene Sharp (1973: 64) Nonviolent action is about “deny(-ing) the enemy the human assistance and cooperation which are necessary if he is to exercise control over the population” It is one response to the problem of how to act effectively in politics, especially on how to wield power effectively (Sharp 1973: 64). Peter Ackerman and Christopher Kruegler (1994: 4) Nonviolent actions are “methods capable of bringing pressure to bear against the most ruthless opponents, by mobilizing social, economic, and political power, without recourse to killing or otherwise causing direct physical injury to the opponents or their agents”. Mohandas Karamchad Gandhi Ahimsa, or the principle of non-violence, is in man’s nature itself (Gandhi, in Merton 1964: 23) and can be effectively taught only by living it (Gandhi 1966: 5), or in other words, embracing it as a way of life. The Gandhian concept of nonviolence is more than merely rejecting violence. It is also about love, seeking for truth, building positive relationships, and developing just structures – sometimes involving self-suppression and suffering. The term satyagraha, which in many literatures is simply translated as nonviolent action, actually means an ongoing and persistent search for truth and a determination to achieve truth. Here, the exclusion of violence is based on the notion that no one is capable of knowing the absolute truth (Gandhi, cited in Burrowes 1996: ). (1) ideologis/pragmatis? (2) mengapa perlu dibedakan?

7 ideologis vs pragmatis

8 consent theory of power power is pluralistic, not monolithic or inherently possessed by one party political power emerges from the interaction of all or several of these sources: (1) authority, or the acceptance by others of one’s right to command, (2) human resources, (3) skills and knowledge of the power holder and his or her supporters, (4) intangible factors, such as psychological considerations and ideological conditioning, (5) material resources, meaning one’s possession and, or, control, over properties, natural and financial resources, economic system, means of communication and transportation, and (6) the type and extent of sanctions at the power holder’s disposal

9 consent theory of power a power holder is dependent on the obedience and cooperation of others in allowing him or her to gain access to the above sources – nonviolence is about exploiting this dependency, i.e. by withdrawing the consent or obstructing the power holder from getting the resources needed for exercising power “nonviolent action is possible, and is capable of wielding great power even against ruthless rulers and military regimes, because it attacks the most vulnerable characteristic of all hierarchical institutions and governments: dependence on the governed” (Sharp cited in Ackerman and Duvall 2000: 9)

10 198 methods of nonviolent action 52 metode protes & persuasi 16 metode nonkooperasi sosial 49 metode nonkooperasi ekonomi 38 metode nonkooperasi politik 41 metode intervensi

11 collective disappearance “… when the Japanese approach, the people evacuate the village completely, bury their food, remove all animals and utensils, and retire to the hills. The Japanese must, therefore, bring with them everything they need” (George Taylor, cited in Sharp 1973: 211)

12 rude gestures “… each morning an entire platoon of Chinese soldiers would march out on the ice and lowering their trousers train their buttocks towards the Soviet side, the ultimate in Chinese insults. This exercise continued until one morning just as the Chinese assumed their positions the Russians set up large portraits of Mao facing in their direction. The Chinese hastily covered themselves and retired in confusion. There were no repetitions” (Edmund Stevens, cited in Sharp 1973: 145)

13 lysistratic nonaction “The year was 1600, or thereabouts, when these tribal feminists decided that they had enough of unregulated warfare by their men. Lysistratas among the Indian women proclaimed a boycott on lovemaking and childbearing. Until the men conceded to them the power to decide upon war and peace, there would be no more warriors. Since the Iroquois men believed that women alone knew the secret of birth, the feminist rebellion was instantly successful” (Stan Steiner, cited in Sharp 1973: 191)

14 revolution You say you want a revolution. Well, you know, we all want to change the world. You tell me that it’s evolution, Well, you know, we all want to change the world. But when you talk about destruction, don’t you know that you can count me out. Don’t you know it’s going to be alright, alright, alright. You say you got a real solution. Well, you know, we’d all love to see the plan. You ask me for a contribution. Well, you know, we’re all doing what we can. But if you want money for people with minds that hate, all I can tell you is brother you have to wait. You say you’ll change the constitution. Well, you know, we all want to change your head. You tell me it’s the institution. Well, you know, you better free your mind instead. But if you go carrying pictures of chairman Mao, you ain’t gonna make it with anyone anyhow.

15 diskusikan mengapa melawan secara nirkekerasan? apa yang dapat dilakukan supaya tingkat keberhasilan aksi nirkekerasan makin tinggi?

16 toby olditch oxford, 38 tahun carpenter pernah ingin bergabung dengan angkatan laut, bukan seorang pacifist malvinas/falkland anti neo-nazi bradford peace studies

17 tidak setuju dengan perang di iraq, menentang keikutsertaan inggris 18 maret 2003, bersama philip pritchard pergi ke pangkalan raf di fairford, gloucestershire guna mencegah pesawat b-52 terbang ke iraq

18 memotong pagar kawat, menyelinap, tertangkap yang dibawa: aneka sekrup, foto anak2 iraq, tanda “rusak”, peluit, sikat gigi, prangko, helm kelap-kelip

19 dipenjara selama 3 bulan, dilepaskan dengan jaminan, proses pengadilan berkepanjangan dengan dakwaan “conspiring to cause criminal damage” mengaku tidak bersalah, karena perang di Iraq tidak sah juri tidak menerima argumen tsb, tuntutan penjara 10 tahun, kriminal vs politis

20 pengadilan tahap kedua, 2007, mengubah argumen: melindungi masyarakat sipil iraq, melindungi properti di iraq, mencegah pesawat tersebut (dipakai untuk) melakukan war crime bebas mei 2007, boleh melakukan kerusakan untuk mencegah kerusakan yang lebih besar, preseden untuk protestan lain

21 housekeeping announcements tugas mingguan : wawancara & membuat profil damai peserta psp ’08 pertanyaan wajib: apa yang akan dilakukan jika menjadi menteri perdamaian? didiskusikan pada tutorial minggu depan proyek kelas : rancangan didiskusikan pada tutorial 2 minggu ke depan psp & hi cine : rabu, 23 dan 30 april, wib


Download ppt "Aksi nirkekerasan pengantar studi perdamaian 08. PP / NK / I / ? Anak-anak muda menggunakan kaos bergambar Che Guevara (tokoh revolusi sosial Amerika."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google