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DESAIN KOMPON Oleh : Dr. Suharto Honggokusumo. . SPESIFIKASI TEKNIS. BIAYA PENGOLAHAN. PROCESSABILITY (KEMUDAHAN OLAH) ELEMEN YANG PENTING DALAM MERANCANG.

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Presentasi berjudul: "DESAIN KOMPON Oleh : Dr. Suharto Honggokusumo. . SPESIFIKASI TEKNIS. BIAYA PENGOLAHAN. PROCESSABILITY (KEMUDAHAN OLAH) ELEMEN YANG PENTING DALAM MERANCANG."— Transcript presentasi:

1 DESAIN KOMPON Oleh : Dr. Suharto Honggokusumo

2 . SPESIFIKASI TEKNIS. BIAYA PENGOLAHAN. PROCESSABILITY (KEMUDAHAN OLAH) ELEMEN YANG PENTING DALAM MERANCANG KOMPON

3 Hampir semua kompon baru dimodifikasi dari formula yang telah ada. Saat ini pengembangan kompon yang baru sama sekali jarang dilakukan. Agar efisien dalam pembuatan kompon karet, seorang pakar seharusnya memanfaatkan informasi teknis yang tersedia. Ia harus cermat menganalisis, memiliki sumber informasi dan referensi dan inovatif. Di bawah ini disajikan tata cara untuk membimbing pengembangan kompon. TATACARA PENGEMBANGAN KOMPON

4 1.Susun tujuan yang spesifik (sifat, harga dll). 2.Pilih elastomer dasar. 3.Studi data uji kompon yang ada. 4.Survey formula kompon dan data sifat yang tersedia di distributor bahan kimia karet. 5.Pilih formula yang digunakan sebagai titik awal 6.Kembangkan kompon di laboratorium untuk mencapai tujuan. 7.Hitung biaya dari kompon yang dipilih untuk evaluasi selanjutnya 8.Evaluasi kemudahan proses di pabrik. 9.Buat contoh barang jadi dari kompon yang dipilih. 10.Uji contoh barang jadi dan cocokkan dengan spesifikasi

5 TAHAP PENGOLAHAN BARANG JADI KARET MASALAH 1.PENANGANAN BAHAN YANG BERDEBU/BAHAYA 2. OTOMATISASI/PE NIMBANGAN MASALAH 1. KALOR TIMBUL /GESERAN 3. DISPERSI PENGISI/LUBRIKASI 3. VISKOSITAS KARET/NERVY 4. HOMOGENISASI 5. PELEPASAN DARI GILINGAN 6. KEPADATAN CAMPURAN 7. BIAYA PENCAMPURAN MASALAH 1.ALIRAN 2.PENGERUTAN/ DIE SWELL 3.KELEKATAN 4.GREEN STRENGTH 5.KENAMPAKAN PERMUKAAN 6.SCORCH 7.BLOOM MASALAH 1.SCORCH 2.ALIRAN 3.DISPERSI BAHAN PEMVULKANIS 4.PELEPAS CETAKAN 5.PENGOTORAN CETAKAN 6.PEMBERSIHAN CETAKAN 7.KENAMPAKAN PERMUKAAN BAHAN BAKU PLASTISASI PEMBENTUKAN VULKANISASI KARET BHN PENGISI AKTIVATOR BHN PEMVULKANIS AKSELERATOR BHN TAMBAHAN PENCAMPURAN PENGGILINGAN EKSTRUSI KALENDER PEMBENTUKAN PENCE- TRANSFER TAKAN KOMPRESI INJEKSI PEMASAKAN KONTINU PRODUK AKHIR {

6 KLASIFIKASI BAHAN PENYUSUN KOMPON 1.KARET/ELASTOMER 2.BAHAN PEMVULKANIS/VULCANIZING AGENT (PEMATANG/CURATIVE) 3.AKSELERATOR/ACCELERATOR 4.AKTIVATOR DAN PENGHAMBAT/RETARDER 5.ANTIDEGRADAN (ANTIOKSIDAN, ANTIOZONAN,MALAM/LILIN PELINDUNG) 6.BAHAN BANTU PENGOLAHAN (PEPTIZER,PELUMAS/ LUBRICANT, BAHAN PELEPAS/RELEASE AGENT) 7.BAHAN PENGISI/FILLER (CARBON BLACK, BAHAN BUKAN -HITAM) 8.PLASTICIZER, PELUNAK /SOFTENER, DAN PELEKAT/TACKIFIER 9.PIKMEN PEWARNA 10.BAGIAN KHUSUS ( PENUTUP/BLOWING AGENT,PENGHILANG BAU/REODORANT. DLL)

7 BAHANJENIS BAHANKWANTITAS (phr*) KARET ALAM/RSS 1ELASTOMER SOFT CLAYFILLER CALCIUM CARBONITEFILLER50.00 NAPHTENIC OILPLASTICIZER5.00 ACTIVATED DITHIO – BISBEN- ZANILIDE(PEPTON 44) PROCESSING AID (PEPTIZER) 0.25 STEARIC ACIDACTIVATOR2.00 ZINC OXIDEACTIVATOR2.00 RED IRON OXIDECOLOUR PIGMENT15.00 PARAFFIN WAXPROCESSING AID2.00 ALKYLATED BIS-PHENOLSANTIDEGRADANT2.00 DPGACCELERATOR (SECONDARY) 0.50 MBTSACCELERATOR (PRIMARY)1.00 SULFURVULCANIZING AGENT FORMULA KOMPONEN KHAS

8 PRODUK YANG BERGUNA HANYA DAPAT DIHASILKAN MELALUI KOMBINASI YANG COCOK DARI BAHAN KOMPON, PENGOLAHAN,VULKANISASI DAN INSPEKSI. FAKTOR – FAKTOR TERSEBUT DIRINGKAS SEBAGAI BERIKUT : PROSES PEMBUATAN KOMPON

9 ELASTOMERFILLERBAHAN BANTU PROSES BAHAN PELINDUNG SISTEM VULKANISASI ADITIF KHUSUS PROSES VULKANISASI PRODUK

10 1. SUMBER PANAS 1 ARAH PENAMBAHAN TEBAL SETIAP 1/4 INCI DITAMBAH 5 MENIT SUMBER PANAS 2 ARAH PENAMBAHAN TEBAL SETIAP ¼ INCI DITAMBAH 2,5 MENIT 2. SUMBER PANAS 1 ARAH PENAMBAHAN TEBAL SETIAP 1 MM DITAMBAH 5 MENIT SUMBER PANAS 2 ARAH PENAMBAHAN TEBAL SETIAP 1 MM DITAMBAH 1 MENIT KOREKSI WAKTU MASAK VS TEBAL (DIPERTANYAKAN KEBENARANNYA)

11 PENGARUH VULKANIS TERHADAP SIFAT FISIS

12 PENGARUH VULKANISASI TERHADAP SIFAT SIFAT VULKANISAT

13 PEMILIHAN ELASTOMETER

14 Klasifikasi karet berdasarkan sifat penggunaan KELOMPOKJENIS KARET% KARET UNTUK BAN Karet Kegunaan Khusus (Special Purpose Rubber) Karet Sangat Khusus (Speciality rubber) Karet alam/natural rubber (NR) Styrene-Butadiene Rubbers (SBR) Polybutadiene Rubbers (BR) Ethylene-propylene Rubbers (EPM & EPDM) Butyl Rubber (IIR) Chloroprene Rubber (CR) Nitrile Rubber (NBR) Synthetic Isoprene Rubber (IR) Acrylic Rubbers (ACM) Ethylene-acrylate Rubbers (AEM) Ethylene acetate Rubbers (EAM) Fluororubber (FKM CFM) Silicone Rubber (MQ, VMQ, PMQ, PVMQ) Fluorosilicone Rubber (FVMQ) Epichlorohydrin Rubber (CO,ECO, AECO) Propylene Oxide Rubber (GPO) Chlorinated Polyethylene (CM) Chlorosulphonated Polyethylenes (CSM) Polynorbornene Rubber (PNR) Polyoctenamer ,5 4 3,5 2,5 1,5

15 KELOMPOKJENIS KARET% Karet Luar Biasa (Exotic Rubber) Karet Termoplastik (Thermoplastic Rubber) Karet olah cair (Liquid Processing Rubbers) Perfluorinated Rubbers (FFKM) Phosphonitrile Rubbers. Carboxynitroso Rubbers (AFMU) Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) Styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) Thermoplastic polyclefin Rubbers (TPO) Thermoplastic polyester Rubbers (YTPO) Thermoplastic Polyamide Rubbers Thermoplastic Polyurethane Rubbers Polyurethane cair Liquid Slicone Rubbers (LSR)

16 Comparative Properties of Rubbers

17 Key To PolymersKey To RatingsFootnotes 1.Isoprene Rubbers 2.Styrene-Butadiene 3.Ethylene-Propylene 4.Neoprene 5.Butyl 6.Halobutyl 7.Nitrile 8.Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (HYPALON) 9.Epichlorohydrin 10.Chlorinated polyethylene 11.Polyacrylate 12.Urethane 13.Polysulfide (Thiokol) 14.Silicone 15.Flourocarbon 16.Flourosilicone O = Outstanding E = Excellent VG = Very Good G = Good F = Fair P = Poor L = Low VL = Very Low A.Hexane, isooctane, etc B.Acetone, methyl-ethyl ketone, etc C.Chloroform, perchloroeth ylene, etc D.Toluena, xylena, etc E.Kerosene, gasoline, etc F.Animal and vegatable products

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19 Table 3.14 : Some Major Uses of Different Rubbers (+ = major;(+)=occasional use) UsesRubber NR IR SBR BT NBR ACM CR ECO CSM Passenger car tires Tread Carcass Truck Tires Tread Carcass Belting Conveyor belts V-belts Suspension Elements (+) (+) + (+) ++(+)

20 UsesRubber NR IR SBR BT NBR ACM CR ECO CSM Hose Fuel hose Milking machine hose Heating and cooling hose Oil and grease resistant hose Chemical resistant hose Others Seals Profiles Shaft seals Heat resistant seals Oil resistant seals Other seals Food and pharmaceutical product Fatty foods Nipples Others Sanitary rubber products and balloons Rubberized fabrics Gloves Cables Shoes and soling Latex Products (+) + (+) + (+) + (+) + (+) (+) + Table 3.14 (continued): Some Major Uses of Different Rubbers ( +: major; (+)=occasional use)

21 UsesRubber FKM (X)IIR EPDM EAM Q AU TM SBS CM Passenger car tires Tread Carcass Truck Tires Tread Carcass Belting Conveyor belts V-belts Suspension Elements + (+) + Table 3.14 (continued): Some Major Uses of Different Rubbers ( +: major; (+)=occasional use)

22 UsesRubber FKM (X)IIR EPD M EAM Q AU TM SBS CM Hose Fuel hose Milking machine hose Heating and cooling hose Oil and grease resistant hose Chemical resistant hose Others Seals Profiles Shaft seals Heat resistant seals Oil resistant seals Other seals Food and pharmaceutical product Fatty foods Nipples Others Sanitary rubber products and ballons Rubberized fabrics Gloves Cables Shoes and soling Latex Products (+) + (+) + (+) + (+) + (+) + (+) + (+) + (+) + + (+) + + (+) + (+) + Table 3.14 (continued): Some Major Uses of Different Rubbers ( + : major; (+)=occasional use)

23 THE PROPERTY OF OIL RESISTANT RUBBER OIL POLYMER GASOLINE LIGHT OIL BENZENE TOLUENE DI –ESTERIC LUBRICANT PHOSPHORIC DIFF.OIL MeOHEtOH NBR CR AU ECO FKM (co polymer) FKM (ter polymer) ACM VMQ CSM HSN 0 o 0 o * # = o 0 *X**00X****X**00X*** X # o X # X # = o X**X**X***X**X**X*** #oX#*0Xo0##oX#*0Xo0# oo*oo0Xo0ooo*oo0Xo0o 0 exellent 0 fairly good # good * slightly bad X bad

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25 PEMILIHAN BAHAN PENGISI DAN PLATICIZER

26 PENGARUH UKURAN DAN STRUKTUR TERHADAP SIFAT KOMPON SIFAT KOMPON PENURUNAN UKURAN PARTIKEL (STRUKTUR TETAP) PENINGKATAN STRUKTUR (UKURAN TETAP) KEKERASAN KUAT TARIK MODULUS PERPANJANGAN PUTUS RESILIENCE DISPERSIBILITY KEMANTAPAN DIMENSI (GREEN STRENGTH) EXTRUSION SHRINKAGE DAN DIE SWELL NAIK NAIK TAK BERPENGARUH TAK BERPENGARUH TURUN TAK BERPENGARUH NAIK VARIABLE NAIK TURUN TAK BERPENGARUH NAIK NAIK TURUN

27 PEMILIHAN CARBON BLACK PRODUKJENIS CARBON BLACK 1.TELAPAK BAN (Ketahanan kikis dan sobek tinggi) 2.CONVEYOR BELT, HAK DAN SOL SEPATU HITAM 3.CARCASS BAN (Kalor timbul rendah) 4.BARANG-BARANG EKSTRUSI, WEATHER STRIP 5.KARET ANTI STATIK 6.GENERAL PURPOSE MOULDING 7.OIL, SEAL, O-RING (Tahan oli dan pampatan rendah) HAF, ISAF, SAF HAF SRF, GPF FFF, GPF-HS ISAF, HAF GFF, SRF SRF, MT, FT

28 UKURAN DAN STRUKTUR CARBON BLACK KLASIFIKASI INDEKS UKURAN PARTIKEL INDEKS STRUKTUR N 220 (ISAF) N 300 (HAF) N 550 (FEF) N 762 (SRF-LM) N 990 (MT)

29 Table 9.7 EFFECT OF BLACK PARTICLE SIZE ON PHYSCAL PROPERTIES Carbon Black type Code ASTM Particle size(nm) HAF N – FEF N GPF N NR* Tensile strength (MPa) Stress at 300% strain (MPa) Elongation at break (%) / SBR+ Tensile strength (MPa) Stress at 300% strain (MPa) Elongation at break (%)

30 NR formulation : NR. RSS 100 Zinc oxide4 Stearic acid3 Carbon black (as shown)50 Process oil5 Antioxidant1 CBS0.5 Sulphur2.5 Vulcanisation. 30 min at 148° C SBR formulation : SBR Zinc oxide4 Stearic acid2 Carbon black (as shown)50 Process oil10 PBN1 CBS1 Sulphur2 Vulcanisation. 30 min at 148° C

31 Carbon Black type HAF - LS (N – 326) HAF (N-330) HAF-HS (N-347) Structure level (DBP Absorption) (cm 3 /100g) Tensile strength (MPa) Stress at 300% strain (MPa) Elongation at break (%) 70 27·8 11· ·4 15· ·0 16·8 450 EFFECT OF BLACK STRUCTURE (NR FORMULATION AS FOR TABLE 9.7 )

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33

34 Thermal Black Usage-Where and Why XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Seals X Hose X Electrical X Tires X Rolls X Mechanical Molded Goods X Calendered Goods.. X Extrusion X Sponge X Belting X XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX X XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXX X XXXXXXXX Viscosity control Polymer nerve control Compression set Low shaft wear Resilience Low permeability Oil + chemical resistance Speclfication Flex resistance Dielectric properties Dynamic properties low heat build-up

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36

37 Estimation of Shore A Durometer 1. Write recipe on basis of 100 parts ol polymer. 2. Only polymer, fillers and softeners are considered. 3. To base durometer, add durometer change for each filler and softener FOR 100 PARTS POLYMER BASE DUROMETER Neoprene and Nitrile rubber44 Natural rubber and cold rubber40 Hot rubber37 Butyl35 25 parts oil extended cold rubber ½ parts oil-extended cold rubber 26 FILLERS AND SOFTENERS BASE DUROMETER FEF, HAF, channel blacks+1/2 of part loading ISAF black+1/2 of part loading +2 SAF black +1/2 of part loading +4 SRF black +1/3 of part loading Thermal blacks and hard clay +1/4 of part loading Whiting (in natural rubber) +1/7 of part loading Factice and mineral rubber -1/5 of part loading Most liquid softeners -1/2 of part loading SOURCE: PHILLIPS PETROLEUM CO “RUBBER COMPOUNDING FORMULARY”

38 KOMPATIBILITAS BEBERAPA MINYAK PENGOLAHAN DENGAN KARET KARETMINYAK VISTAMEX BUTYL EPDM KARET ALAM SBR BR CHLOROPRENE NITRILE PARAFIN ARIMATIK AROMATIK AROMATIK ATAU ESTER (DOP)

39 Table II Polymer/Plasticizer Polarity Chart PLASTICIZER CLASS AROMATIC SULFONAMIDES AROMATIC PHOSPHATE ESTERS ALKYL PHOSPHATE ESTERS DIALKYLETHER AROMATIC ESTERS DIALKYLETHER DIESTERS TRICARBOXYLIC ESTERS POLYMERIC PLASTICIZERS POLYGLYCOL DIESTERS ALKYL ALKYLETHER DIESTERS AROMATIC DIESTERS AROMATIC TRIESTERS (trimellitates) ALIPHATIC DIESTERS EPOXIDIZED ESTEERS ALKHYLETHER MONOESTERS ALKYL MONOESTERS POLYMER NYLON 6/6 NYLON 6 CELLULOSE ACETATE NBR (50%ACN) POLYURETHANE NBR(40%ACN) NITROCELLULOSE EPOXY POLYCARBONATE ACRYLIC(PMMA) POLYVINYL ACETATE NBR (30% ACN) ACRYLATE ELASTOMERS EPICHLOROPHYDRIN CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE POLYVINUL CHRLORIDE CELLULOSE ACETATE BUTYRATE POLYSTYRENE POLYCHLOROPRENE NBR (20% ACN) CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE HIGHLY SATURATED NITRILE SBR POLYBUTADIENE NATURAL RUBBER ILALOGENATED BUTYL EPDM EPR BUTYL FLOURINATED POLYMERS SIICONE HIGH LOW

40 THE EFFECT OF SILANE COUPLINC AGENTS ON VULCANISATE PROPERTIES PROPERTY SILANE ACTIVE GROUPNO SILANE VINYLAMINOMERCAPTO Sulphur vulcanised Hardness IRHD Tensile strength (MPa) Elongation at break (%) Stress at 300% strain (MPa) Peroxide vulcanised Hardness IRHD Tensile Strength (MPa) Elongation at break (%) Stress at 300% strain (MPa)

41 Formulation Sulphur vulcanisedPeroxide vulcanised EPDM 100 Talc 100 Naphthenic oil 40 Zinc oxide 5 Stearic acid 1 Sulphur 1.5 TMTD 1.5 MBT 0.5 Silane 1 EPDM 100 Clay 100 Zinc oxide 5 Dicumyl peroxide 5 Silane 1

42 PEMILIHAN ANTIDEGRADAN

43 FAKTOR PENYEBAB DEGRADASI SIFAT ANTIDEGRADAN - OKSIGEN - CAHAYA DAN CUACA - ION LOGAM (PRO-OKSIDAN) - "DYNAMIC FATIQUE” - OZON - DISCOLORATION - VOLATILITY - SOLUBILITY - CHEMICAL STABILITY - PHISICAL FORM - CONCENTRATION

44 KARAKTERISTIK PENGUSANGAN DAN / ATAU KETAHANAN PANAS BERGANTUNG PADA : 1. FORMULASI - TERUTAMA JENIS KARET 2. PENGGUNAAN - LINGKUNGAN : - OKSIDASI, SUHU TINGGT, OZON DLL - PENGGUNAAN : - DINAMIS, STATIS, ATAU BERGANTIAN KEDUANYA HITAM ATAU BUKAN HITAM 3. BAHAN PROTEKSI YANG DIGUNAKAN - BIAYA / KESEDIAAN 4. SISTEM VULKANISASI

45 TEORI OKSIDASI DAN PENCEGAHANNYA

46 Oxidation is a cyclic free radical chain process: Initiation:R-R  2 R. Propagation: R ∙ + O2  ROO. Step 1 R-H+ROO. -> +R. +ROOH Step 2 ROOH  RO. + HO.Step 3

47 P-Phenylinediamine-Derivatives(strongly discoloring) WTR-Number N-Isopropyl-N’- Phenyl-p-phenylenediamine N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N’-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine N-N’-Bis-(1,4-dimethylpentyl)-p-phenylenediamine N,N’-BIS-(1-ethyl-3methylpentyl)-p-phenylenedi- amine N,N'-Diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine N,N'-Ditolyl-p-phenylenediamine N,N'- Di-β-naphthyi-p-phenylenediamine Dihydroquinoline-Derivatives (strongly discoloring) 6- Ethoxy-2,2,4-trimethyl- 1,2-dihydroquinoline 2,2,4 -TrimethyI- 1,2-dihydroquinoline, poIymerized Naphthylamine-Derivatives(strongly discoloring) Phenyl-α-naphthylamine Phenyl-β-naphthylamine IPPD1 6PPD2 77PD3 DOPD DPPD4 DTPD4a DNPD ETMO6 TMO7 PAN10 PBN11 Abbreviations for aging protectors (antioxidants) classified acoording to their chemical composition

48 Diphenylamine-Derivatives(strongly discoloring) Octylated diphenyylamine Styrinated diphenylamine Acetone/disphenylamine condensation product Benzemidazole-Deravatives (non-dicoloring) 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole Zinc-2-mercaptobenzimidazole Methyl-2-mercaptobenzimidazole Zinc-2-methylmercaptobenzimidazole Bisphenol-Derivatives (non-discoloring) 2.2’-Methylene-bis-(4-methyl-6-tert.butylphenol) 2.2’-Methylene-bis-(4-methtl-6-cyclohexylphenol) 2.2’-isobutylidene-bis-(4-methyl-6-tert.butyphenol) ODPA8 SDPA16a ADPA9 MBI12 ZMBI MMBI12a ZMMBI BPH14 CPH IBPH

49 Monophenol Derivatives (non-discoloring) 2,6-Di-tert.butyl-p-cresol Alkylated phenol Styrenated and alkylated phenol Styrenated phenol Other Materials (non-discoloring) Tris-nonylphenylphosphite Polycarbodiimide Benzofuran derivative Enolether BHT15 APH16b APH16a SPH16 TNPP17 PCD BD EE Numbers are WTR proposals, compare page 234. Alphabetic list of abbreviations see section 8.2, page 564 WTR= Working Group Toxicology of Rubber Auxiliaries

50

51 ANTI OZONANT - PETROLEUM WAX -NICKEL DIBUTYLDITHIOCARBAMATE -6-ETHOXY -2,2,4-TRIMETHYL -1,2-DIHYDROQUINOLINE -SUBSTITUTED PARA PHENYLENEDIAMINES (PPD) DIAKYL PPD ALKYL-ARYL PPD DIARYL PPD

52 TEORI PELINDUNGAN ANTIOZONAN 1.SCAVENGER ANTIOZONAN DIFUS KE PERMUKAAN KARET MEMBENTUK FILM DAN BEREAKSI DENGAN OZON 2. PROTECTIVE FILM SAMA DENGAN DI ATAS KECUALI HASIL REAKSI ANTIOZONAN- OZON MEMBENTUK FILM MELINDUNGI KARET.

53 3. RELINKING ANTIOZONAN MELINDUNGI MOLEKUL KARET YANG TERSERANG OZON SEHINGGA TIDAK PUTUS DAN MENYAMBUNG MOLEKUL KARET YANG PUTUS DISEBABKAN OZON ISASI 4. SELF-HEALING FILM ANTIOZONAN BEREAKSI DENGAN MOLEKUL KARET YANG TEROZONISASI (ZWITTERION) MEMBENTUK FILM PADA PERMUKAAN KARET

54 MEKANISME ANTIOZONAN

55 BAHAN LAIN - BAHAN BANTU OLAH - PEPTISER - DISPERSING AGENT - HOMOGENIZING AGENT - FLOW IMPROVEMENT - MOULD RELEASE - DIMENSION STABILITY - TACKIFIER / PELEKAT - BLOWING AGENT / PENIUP - SUHU DEKOMPOSISI - PROMOTOR

56 Reasons for use of processing aids Type of processing aidMain area of application 1. Dispersing agentImprove filler dispersion, reduce mixing time 2. Lubrication agentImprove compound flow / release 3. Chemical peptizerReduce polymer viscosity by chain scission 4. Physical peptizer Reduce polymer viscosity by internal lubrication/improve down line processing 5. Homogenizing agentImprove polymer blends and compund uniformity 6. TackifierImprove green tack plus homogenizing benefit 7. Plasticizer Improve product performance under extreme service conditions, i.e. heat, cold or low extractability in solvent 8. Curative dispersionsEase of handling, more uniform dispersion of curatives 9. Mould release agent Long lasting semi permanent film to improve product Without contamination 10. Mould cleaning compundIn situ mould cleaning, saving mould down time. Extending mould life

57 PEMILIHAN SISTEM VULKANISASI

58 HUBUNGAN WAKTU DAN SUHU VULKANISASI

59  SKALA FAHRENHEIT  TEBAL HINGGA ¼ INCHI  KOEFISIEN SUHU VULKANISASI  PADA PERUBAHAN 10° F = 1,5 CONTOH: 300 ° F : WAKTU MATANG 30 MENIT 310 ° F : WAKTU MATANG 20 MENIT 290 ° F : WAKTU MATANG 45 MENIT PERSAMAAN (T2-T1)/10 T2 = T1/(1,5) t2 = WAKTU MATANG PADA SUHU T2 t1 = WAKTU MATANG PADA SUHU T1 HUBUNGAN WAKTU DAN SUHU VULKANISASI

60 CONTOH t1 = 30 MENIT T1 = 290°F T2 = 310°F, BERAPA t2 ? ( )/10 t2 = 30/(1.5) (2) = 30/(1,5) 13,3 MENIT

61

62 VULKANISASI PADA KARET YANG TEBAL

63 Keep Contact with us Web: Web: Telp (Hunting), Fax Alamat: Office: Jl. Radin Inten II No. 62 Duren Sawit, Jakarta INDONESIA Workshop: Jl. Pahlawan Revolusi No. 22B Jakarta INDONESIA

64 PENGARUH KANDUNGAN ACN PADA SIFAT KARET NITRIL BOBOT JENIS PROCESSABILITY LAJU VULAKNISASI KEKERASAN KETAHANAN OLI KOMPATIBILITAS DENGAN KARET POLAR KEPEGASAN FLEKSIBILITAS SUHU RENDAH KELARUTAN DI DALAM AROMATIK PERMEABILITAS NAIK TURUN


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