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Dr. Suharto Honggokusumo

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Presentasi berjudul: "Dr. Suharto Honggokusumo"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Dr. Suharto Honggokusumo
DESAIN KOMPON Oleh : Dr. Suharto Honggokusumo

2 ELEMEN YANG PENTING DALAM MERANCANG KOMPON
. SPESIFIKASI TEKNIS . BIAYA PENGOLAHAN . PROCESSABILITY (KEMUDAHAN OLAH)

3 TATACARA PENGEMBANGAN KOMPON
Hampir semua kompon baru dimodifikasi dari formula yang telah ada. Saat ini pengembangan kompon yang baru sama sekali jarang dilakukan. Agar efisien dalam pembuatan kompon karet, seorang pakar seharusnya memanfaatkan informasi teknis yang tersedia. Ia harus cermat menganalisis, memiliki sumber informasi dan referensi dan inovatif. Di bawah ini disajikan tata cara untuk membimbing pengembangan kompon.

4 Susun tujuan yang spesifik (sifat, harga dll).
Pilih elastomer dasar. Studi data uji kompon yang ada. Survey formula kompon dan data sifat yang tersedia di distributor bahan kimia karet. Pilih formula yang digunakan sebagai titik awal Kembangkan kompon di laboratorium untuk mencapai tujuan. Hitung biaya dari kompon yang dipilih untuk evaluasi selanjutnya Evaluasi kemudahan proses di pabrik. Buat contoh barang jadi dari kompon yang dipilih. Uji contoh barang jadi dan cocokkan dengan spesifikasi

5 TAHAP PENGOLAHAN BARANG JADI KARET
BAHAN BAKU PLASTISASI PEMBENTUKAN VULKANISASI { KARET BHN PENGISI AKTIVATOR BHN PEMVULKANIS AKSELERATOR BHN TAMBAHAN PENCE TRANSFER TAKAN KOMPRESI INJEKSI PEMASAKAN KONTINU PENCAMPURAN PENGGILINGAN EKSTRUSI KALENDER PEMBENTUKAN PRODUK AKHIR MASALAH SCORCH ALIRAN DISPERSI BAHAN PEMVULKANIS PELEPAS CETAKAN PENGOTORAN CETAKAN PEMBERSIHAN CETAKAN KENAMPAKAN PERMUKAAN MASALAH PENANGANAN BAHAN YANG BERDEBU/BAHAYA 2. OTOMATISASI/PE NIMBANGAN MASALAH 1. KALOR TIMBUL /GESERAN 3. DISPERSI PENGISI/LUBRIKASI 3. VISKOSITAS KARET/NERVY 4. HOMOGENISASI 5. PELEPASAN DARI GILINGAN 6. KEPADATAN CAMPURAN 7. BIAYA PENCAMPURAN MASALAH ALIRAN PENGERUTAN/DIE SWELL KELEKATAN GREEN STRENGTH KENAMPAKAN PERMUKAAN SCORCH BLOOM

6 KLASIFIKASI BAHAN PENYUSUN KOMPON
KARET/ELASTOMER BAHAN PEMVULKANIS/VULCANIZING AGENT (PEMATANG/CURATIVE) AKSELERATOR/ACCELERATOR AKTIVATOR DAN PENGHAMBAT/RETARDER ANTIDEGRADAN (ANTIOKSIDAN, ANTIOZONAN,MALAM/LILIN PELINDUNG) BAHAN BANTU PENGOLAHAN (PEPTIZER,PELUMAS/ LUBRICANT, BAHAN PELEPAS/RELEASE AGENT) BAHAN PENGISI/FILLER (CARBON BLACK, BAHAN BUKAN -HITAM) PLASTICIZER, PELUNAK /SOFTENER, DAN PELEKAT/TACKIFIER PIKMEN PEWARNA BAGIAN KHUSUS ( PENUTUP/BLOWING AGENT,PENGHILANG BAU/REODORANT. DLL)

7 FORMULA KOMPONEN KHAS 285.50 BAHAN JENIS BAHAN KWANTITAS (phr*)
KARET ALAM/RSS 1 ELASTOMER 100.00 SOFT CLAY FILLER CALCIUM CARBONITE 50.00 NAPHTENIC OIL PLASTICIZER 5.00 ACTIVATED DITHIO – BISBEN- ZANILIDE(PEPTON 44) PROCESSING AID (PEPTIZER) 0.25 STEARIC ACID ACTIVATOR 2.00 ZINC OXIDE RED IRON OXIDE COLOUR PIGMENT 15.00 PARAFFIN WAX ALKYLATED BIS-PHENOLS ANTIDEGRADANT DPG ACCELERATOR (SECONDARY) 0.50 MBTS ACCELERATOR (PRIMARY) 1.00 SULFUR VULCANIZING AGENT 2.75 285.50

8 PROSES PEMBUATAN KOMPON
PRODUK YANG BERGUNA HANYA DAPAT DIHASILKAN MELALUI KOMBINASI YANG COCOK DARI BAHAN KOMPON, PENGOLAHAN,VULKANISASI DAN INSPEKSI. FAKTOR – FAKTOR TERSEBUT DIRINGKAS SEBAGAI BERIKUT :

9 PROSES VULKANISASI PRODUK ELASTOMER FILLER BAHAN BANTU PROSES BAHAN
PELINDUNG SISTEM VULKANISASI ADITIF KHUSUS PROSES VULKANISASI PRODUK

10 KOREKSI WAKTU MASAK VS TEBAL (DIPERTANYAKAN KEBENARANNYA)
1. SUMBER PANAS 1 ARAH PENAMBAHAN TEBAL SETIAP 1/4 INCI DITAMBAH 5 MENIT SUMBER PANAS 2 ARAH PENAMBAHAN TEBAL SETIAP ¼ INCI DITAMBAH 2,5 MENIT 2. SUMBER PANAS 1 ARAH PENAMBAHAN TEBAL SETIAP 1 MM DITAMBAH 5 MENIT SUMBER PANAS 2 ARAH DITAMBAH 1 MENIT

11 PENGARUH VULKANIS TERHADAP SIFAT FISIS

12 PENGARUH VULKANISASI TERHADAP SIFAT SIFAT VULKANISAT

13 PEMILIHAN ELASTOMETER

14 Klasifikasi karet berdasarkan sifat penggunaan
KELOMPOK JENIS KARET % KARET UNTUK BAN Karet Kegunaan Khusus (Special Purpose Rubber) Karet Sangat Khusus (Speciality rubber) Karet alam/natural rubber (NR) Styrene-Butadiene Rubbers (SBR) Polybutadiene Rubbers (BR) Ethylene-propylene Rubbers (EPM & EPDM) Butyl Rubber (IIR) Chloroprene Rubber (CR) Nitrile Rubber (NBR) Synthetic Isoprene Rubber (IR) Acrylic Rubbers (ACM) Ethylene-acrylate Rubbers (AEM) Ethylene acetate Rubbers (EAM) Fluororubber (FKM CFM) Silicone Rubber (MQ, VMQ, PMQ, PVMQ) Fluorosilicone Rubber (FVMQ) Epichlorohydrin Rubber (CO,ECO, AECO) Propylene Oxide Rubber (GPO) Chlorinated Polyethylene (CM) Chlorosulphonated Polyethylenes (CSM) Polynorbornene Rubber (PNR) Polyoctenamer 43 27 11 5,5 4 3,5 2,5 1,5

15 KELOMPOK JENIS KARET % Karet Luar Biasa (Exotic Rubber)
Karet Termoplastik (Thermoplastic Rubber) Karet olah cair (Liquid Processing Rubbers) Perfluorinated Rubbers (FFKM) Phosphonitrile Rubbers. Carboxynitroso Rubbers (AFMU) Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) Styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) Thermoplastic polyclefin Rubbers (TPO) Thermoplastic polyester Rubbers (YTPO) Thermoplastic Polyamide Rubbers Thermoplastic Polyurethane Rubbers Polyurethane cair Liquid Slicone Rubbers (LSR)

16 Comparative Properties of Rubbers

17 Key To Polymers Key To Ratings Footnotes Isoprene Rubbers Styrene-Butadiene Ethylene-Propylene Neoprene Butyl Halobutyl Nitrile Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (HYPALON) Epichlorohydrin Chlorinated polyethylene Polyacrylate Urethane Polysulfide (Thiokol) Silicone Flourocarbon Flourosilicone O = Outstanding E = Excellent VG = Very Good G = Good F = Fair P = Poor L = Low VL = Very Low Hexane, isooctane, etc Acetone, methyl-ethyl ketone, etc Chloroform, perchloroethylene, etc Toluena, xylena, etc Kerosene, gasoline, etc Animal and vegatable products

18

19 Table 3.14 : Some Major Uses of Different Rubbers (+ = major;(+)=occasional use)
NR IR SBR BT NBR ACM CR ECO CSM Passenger car tires Tread Carcass Truck Tires Belting Conveyor belts V-belts Suspension Elements + (+) + +

20 Table 3.14 (continued): Some Major Uses of Different Rubbers ( +: major; (+)=occasional use)
NR IR SBR BT NBR ACM CR ECO CSM Hose Fuel hose Milking machine hose Heating and cooling hose Oil and grease resistant hose Chemical resistant hose Others Seals Profiles Shaft seals Heat resistant seals Oil resistant seals Other seals Food and pharmaceutical product Fatty foods Nipples Sanitary rubber products and balloons Rubberized fabrics Gloves Cables Shoes and soling Latex Products + (+)

21 Uses Rubber FKM (X)IIR EPDM EAM Q AU TM SBS CM Passenger car tires
Table 3.14 (continued): Some Major Uses of Different Rubbers ( +: major; (+)=occasional use) Uses Rubber FKM (X)IIR EPDM EAM Q AU TM SBS CM Passenger car tires Tread Carcass Truck Tires Belting Conveyor belts V-belts Suspension Elements + (+)

22 Table 3.14 (continued): Some Major Uses of Different Rubbers ( + : major; (+)=occasional use)
FKM (X)IIR EPDM EAM Q AU TM SBS CM Hose Fuel hose Milking machine hose Heating and cooling hose Oil and grease resistant hose Chemical resistant hose Others Seals Profiles Shaft seals Heat resistant seals Oil resistant seals Other seals Food and pharmaceutical product Fatty foods Nipples Sanitary rubber products and ballons Rubberized fabrics Gloves Cables Shoes and soling Latex Products + (+)

23 THE PROPERTY OF OIL RESISTANT RUBBER
POLYMER GASOLINE LIGHT OIL BENZENE TOLUENE DI –ESTERIC LUBRICANT PHOSPHORIC DIFF.OIL MeOH EtOH NBR CR AU ECO FKM (co polymer) (ter polymer) ACM VMQ CSM HSN o * # = o X # 0 exellent fairly good # good * slightly bad X bad

24

25 PEMILIHAN BAHAN PENGISI DAN PLATICIZER

26 PENURUNAN UKURAN PARTIKEL PENINGKATAN STRUKTUR (UKURAN TETAP)
PENGARUH UKURAN DAN STRUKTUR TERHADAP SIFAT KOMPON SIFAT KOMPON PENURUNAN UKURAN PARTIKEL (STRUKTUR TETAP) PENINGKATAN STRUKTUR (UKURAN TETAP) KEKERASAN KUAT TARIK MODULUS PERPANJANGAN PUTUS RESILIENCE DISPERSIBILITY KEMANTAPAN DIMENSI (GREEN STRENGTH) EXTRUSION SHRINKAGE DAN DIE SWELL NAIK NAIK TAK BERPENGARUH TAK BERPENGARUH TURUN NAIK VARIABLE NAIK TURUN NAIK NAIK TURUN

27 PEMILIHAN CARBON BLACK
PRODUK JENIS CARBON BLACK TELAPAK BAN (Ketahanan kikis dan sobek tinggi) CONVEYOR BELT, HAK DAN SOL SEPATU HITAM CARCASS BAN (Kalor timbul rendah) BARANG-BARANG EKSTRUSI, WEATHER STRIP KARET ANTI STATIK GENERAL PURPOSE MOULDING OIL, SEAL, O-RING (Tahan oli dan pampatan rendah) HAF, ISAF, SAF HAF SRF, GPF FFF, GPF-HS ISAF, HAF GFF, SRF SRF, MT, FT

28 INDEKS UKURAN PARTIKEL
UKURAN DAN STRUKTUR CARBON BLACK KLASIFIKASI INDEKS UKURAN PARTIKEL INDEKS STRUKTUR N 220 (ISAF) N 300 (HAF) N 550 (FEF) N 762 (SRF-LM) N 990 (MT) 22 27 41 75 250 114 102 121 62 42

29 Table 9.7 EFFECT OF BLACK PARTICLE SIZE ON PHYSCAL PROPERTIES
Carbon Black type Code ASTM Particle size(nm) HAF N – 330 32 FEF N-550 47 GPF N-660 70 NR* Tensile strength (MPa) Stress at 300% strain (MPa) Elongation at break (%) 26-0 14-/7 475 24.5 13.7 500 22.5 11.3 530 SBR+ Tensile strength (MPa) Stress at 300% strain (MPa) 22.8 20.5 12.3 525 19.3 8.9 560

30 NR formulation : NR . RSS Zinc oxide 4 Stearic acid 3 Carbon black (as shown) 50 Process oil 5 Antioxidant 1 CBS 0.5 Sulphur 2.5 Vulcanisation. 30 min at 148° C SBR formulation : SBR Zinc oxide 4 Stearic acid 2 Carbon black (as shown) 50 Process oil 10 PBN 1 CBS 1 Sulphur 2 Vulcanisation. 30 min at 148° C

31 EFFECT OF BLACK STRUCTURE (NR FORMULATION AS FOR TABLE 9.7)
Carbon Black type HAF - LS (N – 326) HAF (N-330) HAF-HS (N-347) Structure level (DBP Absorption) (cm3/100g) Tensile strength (MPa) Stress at 300% strain (MPa) Elongation at break (%) 70 27·8 11·3 575 105 25·4 15·1 480 125 25·0 16·8 450

32

33

34 Thermal Black Usage-Where and Why
Oil + chemical resistance Polymer nerve control Dielectric properties Dynamic properties low heat build-up Low permeability Viscosity control Compression set Low shaft wear Flex resistance Speclfication Resilience Seals X Hose X Electrical X Tires X Rolls X Mechanical Molded Goods X Calendered Goods.. X Extrusion X Sponge X Belting X X X X X X X X X X X

35

36

37 Estimation of Shore A Durometer
1. Write recipe on basis of 100 parts ol polymer. 2. Only polymer, fillers and softeners are considered. 3. To base durometer, add durometer change for each filler and softener FOR 100 PARTS POLYMER BASE DUROMETER Neoprene and Nitrile rubber 44 Natural rubber and cold rubber 40 Hot rubber 37 Butyl 35 25 parts oil extended cold rubber 31 37 ½ parts oil-extended cold rubber 26 FILLERS AND SOFTENERS BASE DUROMETER FEF, HAF, channel blacks +1/2 of part loading ISAF black +1/2 of part loading +2 SAF black +1/2 of part loading +4 SRF black +1/3 of part loading Thermal blacks and hard clay +1/4 of part loading Whiting (in natural rubber) +1/7 of part loading Factice and mineral rubber -1/5 of part loading Most liquid softeners -1/2 of part loading fix SOURCE: PHILLIPS PETROLEUM CO “RUBBER COMPOUNDING FORMULARY”

38 KOMPATIBILITAS BEBERAPA MINYAK PENGOLAHAN DENGAN KARET
VISTAMEX BUTYL EPDM KARET ALAM SBR BR CHLOROPRENE NITRILE PARAFIN ARIMATIK AROMATIK AROMATIK ATAU ESTER (DOP)

39 Polymer/Plasticizer Polarity Chart
Table II Polymer/Plasticizer Polarity Chart PLASTICIZER CLASS AROMATIC SULFONAMIDES AROMATIC PHOSPHATE ESTERS ALKYL PHOSPHATE ESTERS DIALKYLETHER AROMATIC ESTERS DIALKYLETHER DIESTERS TRICARBOXYLIC ESTERS POLYMERIC PLASTICIZERS POLYGLYCOL DIESTERS ALKYL ALKYLETHER DIESTERS AROMATIC DIESTERS AROMATIC TRIESTERS (trimellitates) ALIPHATIC DIESTERS EPOXIDIZED ESTEERS ALKHYLETHER MONOESTERS ALKYL MONOESTERS POLYMER NYLON 6/6 NYLON 6 CELLULOSE ACETATE NBR (50%ACN) POLYURETHANE NBR(40%ACN) NITROCELLULOSE EPOXY POLYCARBONATE ACRYLIC(PMMA) POLYVINYL ACETATE NBR (30% ACN) ACRYLATE ELASTOMERS EPICHLOROPHYDRIN CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE POLYVINUL CHRLORIDE CELLULOSE ACETATE BUTYRATE POLYSTYRENE POLYCHLOROPRENE NBR (20% ACN) HIGHLY SATURATED NITRILE SBR POLYBUTADIENE NATURAL RUBBER ILALOGENATED BUTYL EPDM EPR BUTYL FLOURINATED POLYMERS SIICONE HIGH LOW

40 THE EFFECT OF SILANE COUPLINC AGENTS ON VULCANISATE PROPERTIES
PROPERTY SILANE ACTIVE GROUP NO SILANE VINYL AMINO MERCAPTO Sulphur vulcanised Hardness IRHD Tensile strength (MPa) Elongation at break (%) Stress at 300% strain (MPa) Peroxide vulcanised Tensile Strength (MPa) 58 10.5 600 3 67 6 720 56 12.5 700 68 9.5 480 7.5 10.0 550 5.5 11 350 10 59 63 400 8

41 Formulation Sulphur vulcanised Peroxide vulcanised EPDM 100 Talc 100
Naphthenic oil Zinc oxide Stearic acid Sulphur TMTD MBT Silane EPDM Clay Zinc oxide Dicumyl peroxide Silane

42 PEMILIHAN ANTIDEGRADAN

43 FAKTOR PENYEBAB DEGRADASI
- OKSIGEN - CAHAYA DAN CUACA - ION LOGAM (PRO-OKSIDAN) - "DYNAMIC FATIQUE” - OZON SIFAT ANTIDEGRADAN - DISCOLORATION - VOLATILITY - SOLUBILITY - CHEMICAL STABILITY - PHISICAL FORM - CONCENTRATION

44 KARAKTERISTIK PENGUSANGAN DAN / ATAU KETAHANAN PANAS BERGANTUNG PADA :
1. FORMULASI - TERUTAMA JENIS KARET 2. PENGGUNAAN - LINGKUNGAN : - OKSIDASI, SUHU TINGGT, OZON DLL - PENGGUNAAN : - DINAMIS, STATIS, ATAU BERGANTIAN KEDUANYA HITAM ATAU BUKAN HITAM 3. BAHAN PROTEKSI YANG DIGUNAKAN - BIAYA / KESEDIAAN 4. SISTEM VULKANISASI

45 TEORI OKSIDASI DAN PENCEGAHANNYA

46 Oxidation is a cyclic free radical chain process:
Initiation: R-R  2 R . Propagation: R ∙ + O2  ROO . Step 1 R-H+ROO. -> +R. +ROOH Step 2 ROOH  RO. + HO . Step 3

47 Abbreviations for aging protectors (antioxidants) classified acoording to their chemical composition
P-Phenylinediamine-Derivatives(strongly discoloring) WTR-Number N-Isopropyl-N’- Phenyl-p-phenylenediamine N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N’-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine N-N’-Bis-(1,4-dimethylpentyl)-p-phenylenediamine N,N’-BIS-(1-ethyl-3methylpentyl)-p-phenylenedi- amine N,N'-Diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine N,N'-Ditolyl-p-phenylenediamine N,N'- Di-β-naphthyi-p-phenylenediamine Dihydroquinoline-Derivatives (strongly discoloring) 6- Ethoxy-2,2,4-trimethyl- 1,2-dihydroquinoline 2,2,4 -TrimethyI- 1,2-dihydroquinoline, poIymerized Naphthylamine-Derivatives(strongly discoloring) Phenyl-α-naphthylamine Phenyl-β-naphthylamine IPPD 1 6PPD 2 77PD 3 DOPD DPPD 4 DTPD 4a DNPD ETMO 6 TMO 7 PAN 10 PBN 11

48 Diphenylamine-Derivatives(strongly discoloring)
Octylated diphenyylamine Styrinated diphenylamine Acetone/disphenylamine condensation product Benzemidazole-Deravatives (non-dicoloring) 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole Zinc-2-mercaptobenzimidazole Methyl-2-mercaptobenzimidazole Zinc-2-methylmercaptobenzimidazole Bisphenol-Derivatives (non-discoloring) 2.2’-Methylene-bis-(4-methyl-6-tert.butylphenol) 2.2’-Methylene-bis-(4-methtl-6-cyclohexylphenol) 2.2’-isobutylidene-bis-(4-methyl-6-tert.butyphenol) ODPA 8 SDPA 16a ADPA 9 MBI 12 ZMBI MMBI 12a ZMMBI BPH 14 CPH IBPH

49 WTR= Working Group Toxicology of Rubber Auxiliaries
Monophenol Derivatives (non-discoloring) 2,6-Di-tert.butyl-p-cresol Alkylated phenol Styrenated and alkylated phenol Styrenated phenol Other Materials (non-discoloring) Tris-nonylphenylphosphite Polycarbodiimide Benzofuran derivative Enolether BHT 15 APH 16b APH 16a SPH 16 TNPP 17 PCD BD EE Numbers are WTR proposals, compare page 234. Alphabetic list of abbreviations see section 8.2, page 564 WTR= Working Group Toxicology of Rubber Auxiliaries

50

51 ANTI OZONANT - PETROLEUM WAX NICKEL DIBUTYLDITHIOCARBAMATE
6-ETHOXY -2,2,4-TRIMETHYL -1,2-DIHYDROQUINOLINE SUBSTITUTED PARA PHENYLENEDIAMINES (PPD) DIAKYL PPD ALKYL-ARYL PPD DIARYL PPD

52 TEORI PELINDUNGAN ANTIOZONAN
SCAVENGER ANTIOZONAN DIFUS KE PERMUKAAN KARET MEMBENTUK FILM DAN BEREAKSI DENGAN OZON 2. PROTECTIVE FILM SAMA DENGAN DI ATAS KECUALI HASIL REAKSI ANTIOZONAN-OZON MEMBENTUK FILM MELINDUNGI KARET.

53 3. RELINKING ANTIOZONAN MELINDUNGI MOLEKUL KARET YANG TERSERANG OZON SEHINGGA TIDAK PUTUS DAN MENYAMBUNG MOLEKUL KARET YANG PUTUS DISEBABKAN OZON ISASI 4. SELF-HEALING FILM ANTIOZONAN BEREAKSI DENGAN MOLEKUL KARET YANG TEROZONISASI (ZWITTERION) MEMBENTUK FILM PADA PERMUKAAN KARET

54 MEKANISME ANTIOZONAN

55 BAHAN LAIN - PEPTISER - DISPERSING AGENT - HOMOGENIZING AGENT
-BAHAN BANTU OLAH - PEPTISER - DISPERSING AGENT - HOMOGENIZING AGENT - FLOW IMPROVEMENT - MOULD RELEASE - DIMENSION STABILITY - TACKIFIER / PELEKAT - BLOWING AGENT / PENIUP - SUHU DEKOMPOSISI - PROMOTOR

56 Reasons for use of processing aids
Type of processing aid Main area of application 1. Dispersing agent Improve filler dispersion, reduce mixing time 2. Lubrication agent Improve compound flow / release 3. Chemical peptizer Reduce polymer viscosity by chain scission 4. Physical peptizer Reduce polymer viscosity by internal lubrication/improve down line processing 5. Homogenizing agent Improve polymer blends and compund uniformity 6. Tackifier Improve green tack plus homogenizing benefit 7. Plasticizer Improve product performance under extreme service conditions, i.e. heat, cold or low extractability in solvent 8. Curative dispersions Ease of handling, more uniform dispersion of curatives 9. Mould release agent Long lasting semi permanent film to improve product Without contamination 10. Mould cleaning compund In situ mould cleaning, saving mould down time. Extending mould life

57 PEMILIHAN SISTEM VULKANISASI

58 HUBUNGAN WAKTU DAN SUHU VULKANISASI

59 HUBUNGAN WAKTU DAN SUHU VULKANISASI
SKALA FAHRENHEIT TEBAL HINGGA ¼ INCHI KOEFISIEN SUHU VULKANISASI PADA PERUBAHAN 10° F = 1,5 CONTOH: 300 ° F : WAKTU MATANG 30 MENIT 310 ° F : WAKTU MATANG 20 MENIT 290 ° F : WAKTU MATANG 45 MENIT PERSAMAAN (T2-T1)/10 T2 = T1/(1,5) t2 = WAKTU MATANG PADA SUHU T2 t1 = WAKTU MATANG PADA SUHU T1

60 CONTOH t1 = 30 MENIT T1 = 290°F T2 = 310°F, BERAPA t2 ? ( )/10 t2 = 30/(1.5) (2) = 30/(1,5) ,3 MENIT

61

62 VULKANISASI PADA KARET YANG TEBAL

63 Keep Contact with us Web: Web: Telp (Hunting), Fax Alamat: Office: Jl. Radin Inten II No. 62 Duren Sawit, Jakarta INDONESIA Workshop: Jl. Pahlawan Revolusi No. 22B Jakarta INDONESIA

64 PENGARUH KANDUNGAN ACN PADA SIFAT KARET NITRIL
BOBOT JENIS PROCESSABILITY LAJU VULAKNISASI KEKERASAN KETAHANAN OLI KOMPATIBILITAS DENGAN KARET POLAR KEPEGASAN FLEKSIBILITAS SUHU RENDAH KELARUTAN DI DALAM AROMATIK PERMEABILITAS NAIK TURUN


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