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VERBAL COMMUNICATION. The basis of communication is the interaction between people. Verbal communication is one way for people to communicate face-to-face.

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Presentasi berjudul: "VERBAL COMMUNICATION. The basis of communication is the interaction between people. Verbal communication is one way for people to communicate face-to-face."— Transcript presentasi:

1 VERBAL COMMUNICATION

2 The basis of communication is the interaction between people. Verbal communication is one way for people to communicate face-to-face. Some of the key components of verbal communication are sound, words, speaking, and language Words alone have no meaning. Only people can put meaning into words Verbal comm consists of symbols in the form of spoken or written word

3 Cognitive Factor Controling these mechanism are the brain and the nervous system -  enable us to sense, make sense of and relate to our environment and one another Importance of particular areas the brain of linguistic function

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6 The Nature of Language Every language has an identifiable pattern and set of Phonology : The way sounds are combine to form word Syntax : The way words are combined into sentences Semantics : The meanings of words on the basis of their relationship to one another and to elements in the environment Pragmatics : The way in which language is used practice

7 Language Acquisition There are two board perspective on language development The psycholinguistic approach : Early utterances –protowords (the forerunners of words) and words themselves – ara based on a child’s personalized understanding of the world The sociolinguistic approach : language is learned through social interaction and is a means for accomodating the demands of social life

8 Language role in human interaction Representation Conversation Social and Public Communication

9 Representation Language enables us to name and symbolically represent elements in our world Some lebels refer to tangible and concrete --  teacher, friends, book Language -  we represent abstract concepts -  friendships, learning, love, freedom Through language, we are able to manipulate symbols in our thinking We can create,test, refine our theories or understanding the world The words and concepts we have available to represent experience guide us particular ways f understanding reality

10 Limitation of language for representation The principle of nonidentity ( A is not A ) The principle of Non-Allness (A is not all A) The principle of Self-Reflexiveness

11 Conversation Negotiation of meaning Through language we are able to coordinate our own activities with those of others, to discuss and solve problems, to share in the pursuit of personal and social needs Interactional perspective -  language is a tool for the negotiation of meaning between and among individual When we create a spoken & written message, our language serve as the medium to convey our representation -  ideas

12 Conversation In any conversation/written exchange, language as a medium through individuals : 1.Code and externalize meaning 2.Decode and internalize meaning 3.Discover discrepancies and/or similarities in their meaning 4.Negotiate a mutually of meaning appropriate to the purposes at hand

13 Conversation Rules and Ritual: 1.Cooperativeness 2.Informativeness 3.Responsiveness 4.Interactiveness 5.Conformance

14 Conversation Language and gender 1.Initiation 2.Conversational maintenance and question asking 3.Argumentativeness 4.Lexical and phonological charateristic 5.Content and relationship 6.Metacommunication

15 Conversation Language and gender Women and man use language differently, as consequence of different patterns of experience Women are more forthcoming as a conversation initiators, question askers, conversation maintainers Men may be more argumentative and may work harder to maintain conrol of conversation

16 Social and Public Communication Production and Distribution of social realities Language is the primary used for social and public expression Language provides the medium through which social and public communicaton take place and the means through which share communication realities are created Message and meanings which are widely distributed and popularized through public communication become accepted realities Through social and public comm that shared realities. Realities of language and meanings are created,perpetuated, reaffirmed, or altered

17 Premis tradisi ini adalah ketika orang berbicara, mereka sesungguhnya sedang memproduksi dan memproduksi kembali budaya. Sebagian besar dari kita beranggapan bahwa kata-kata mencerminkan apa yang sebenarnya terjadi. Pandangan kita tentang realitas dibentuk oleh bahasa yang telah kita gunakan sejak lahir. Ahli bahasa Universitas Chicago, Edwar Sapir dan Benyamin Lee Whorf adalah pelopor tradisi sosio cultural. Hipotesis yang diusungnya adalah struktur bahasa suatu budaya menentukan apa yang orang pikirkan dan lakukan. Dapat dibayangkan bagaimana seseorang menyesuaikan dirinya dengan realitas tanpa menggunakan bahasa, dan bahwa bahasa hanya semata-mata

18 Bagaimana manusia belajar bahasa? Menurut pandangan Psikologi ( teori belajar dari aliran behaviorisme ) dan teori nativisme dari Noam Chomsky. Menurut teori belajar anak – anak memperoleh pengetahuan bahasa melalui tiga proses : Asosiasi : melazimkan suatu bunyi dengan obyek tertentu Imitasi ; menirukan pengucapan dan struktur kalimat yang didengarnya Peneguhan : ungkapan kegembiraan yg dinyatakan ketika anak mengucapkan kata – kata dengan benar

19 Fungsi Bahasa Penamaan ( naming/labelling): mengidentifikasi obyek, tindakan, orang dengan menyebut nama Interaksi : berbagi gagasan, emosi Transmisi informasi : penyampaian informasi ( Larry L. Barker) Alat bantu memori Mengabstraksikan pengalaman

20 Keterbatasan Bahasa Verbal Bahasa terbatas dalam menggambarkan realitas : Bahasa statis, realitas dinamis Bahasa terbatas, realitas relatif tak terbatas Bahasa abstrak, realitas nyata. Kata – kata bersifat ambigu dan kontekstual Kata – kata mengandung bias budaya Pencampradukan fakta, penafsiran dan penilaian

21 Hal –hal yg perlu dihindari dalam pemakaian bahasa Abstraksi kaku Identifikasi yg tidak layak Penilaian hanya dengan memakai dua nilai Mengacaukan kata dengan rujukan

22 Masalah bahasa Bahasa abstrak Inferensi : suatu kesimpulan/penilaian yg diperoleh dari bukti/asumsi Dikotomi : kata – kata yg bertolak belakang ( popular words) Eufimisme : penggantian istilah yg lugas dengan yg agak halus Bahasa equivokal : memiliki dua tau lebih interpretasi

23 Simbol dan referen Simbol : sesuatu yg dipandang sebagai wakil sesuatu lainnya. Kata merupakan simbol verbal bagi obyek yg dinyatakan

24 Makna Makna muncul ketika sign yg mengacu pada obyek dipakai pengguna sign ( Fiske 1980) Makna muncul tatkala suatu simbol yg mengacu pada suatu obyek mengenai pikiran seseorang ( Odgen & I.A. Richard )

25 TEORI MAKNA Charles S.Pierce Odgen & I.A. Richard

26 Tiga dimensi makna Dimensi referential : kata, simbol yg digunakan untuk menunjukkan obyek, situasi, kondisi, pernyataan. Dimensi eksperential : makna merupakan bagian terbesar dari pengalaman obyek Dimensi purpossive :dipakainya simbol karena ada tujuan yg hendak dicapai oleh simbol ( Little John)

27 MAKNA Kata bisa bermakna setelah diasosiasikan dengan referen. Manusia memberi makna pada kata. Makna tidak melekat pada kata – kata, tetapi kata – kata membangkitkan makna dalam pikiran seseorang. Makna bergantung pada konteks ruang dan waktu

28 Denotasi & Konotasi Denotasi ; asosiasi primer yg dimiliki sebuah kata bagi seorang/anggota masyarakat. Konotasi ; asosiasi sekunder yg dimiliki sebuah kata

29 High –Low Context Culture Budaya konteks – rendah –----> komunikasi konteks rendah : pesan verbal & eksplisit, gaya bicara langsung, lugas, terus terang. Sifat komunikasi : cepat, mudah berubah, tidak menyatukan kelompok. Budaya konteks – tinggi > komunikasi konteks tinggi : pesan bersifat implisit, tidak langsung, tidak terus terang. Sifat Komunikasi : tahan lama, lamban berubah, mengikat kelompok


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