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Ch. 5-1 Strategies in Action Long-Term Objectives Grand Strategies Strategy Implementation Fauzan Asmara.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Ch. 5-1 Strategies in Action Long-Term Objectives Grand Strategies Strategy Implementation Fauzan Asmara."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Ch. 5-1 Strategies in Action Long-Term Objectives Grand Strategies Strategy Implementation Fauzan Asmara

2 Contoh soal Uniliver selain memproduksi pasta gigi pepsodent juga membuat sikat gigi formula Samsung mengeluarkan tipe baru yang bisa dual on card gsm dan cdma. PT. Sampoerna menjual sahamnya ke Philip morries. Sonny dan Erickson sepakat membuat perusahaan Sony Erickson © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch. 5-2

3 Contoh soal SCTV membuat SCFM PT Bogasari diakuisisi oleh Indofood untuk menjamin ketepatan pasokan terigu untuk industrinya. Toyota mendirikan Auto 2000 untuk showroom, penjualan, service, dan suku cadang. © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch. 5-3

4 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch. 5-4 Strategies in Action Nature of Long-Term Objectives (Results expected from pursuing certain strategies; time line 2 to 5 years) Quantitative Measurable Realistic Understandable Challenging Hierarchical Obtainable Congruent among organizational units

5 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch. 5-5 Strategies in Action Nature of Long-Term Objectives Objectives are associated with a time line and stated in terms: Growth in assets Growth in sales Profitability Market share HRD Increasing Capability Social responsibility

6 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch. 5-6 Strategies in Action Nature of Long-Term Objectives Objectives are the basis for: Designing jobs Organizing activities Providing direction Organizational synergy Standards for evaluation

7 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch. 5-7 Grand Strategies Vertical Integration Strategies Forward integration Backward integration Horizontal integration

8 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch. 5-8 Grand Strategies Defined Memperoleh kepemilikan atau meningkatkan kendali atas distributor atau dealer Example General Motors mengakuisisi 10 persen saham dealer Forward Integration

9 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch. 5-9 Grand Strategies Guidelines for Forward Integration Distributor yang ada saat ini mahal, tidak dapat diandalkan, tidak dapat memenuhi kebutuhan perusahaan Kualitas distributor saat ini terbatas Bila perusahaan bersaing dalam industri yang diharapkan sedang tumbuh Keunggulan berproduksi stabil sangat tinggi Distributor yang ada saat ini memiliki profit margin yang tinggi

10 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Defined Mendapatkan kepemilikian atau meningkatkan kendali atas pemasok Example Hotel membeli perusahaan biro perjalanan; mebel;etc. Backward Integration

11 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Guidelines for Backward Integration Pemasok yang ada saat ini mahal, tidak dapat diandalkan, tidak dapat memenuhi kebutuhan perusahaan Jumlah pemasok kecil, sedang jumlah pesaing besar Sektor industri tumbuh besar Perusahaan memiliki modal dan sumberdaya untuk mengelola bisnis baru Keunggulan dari harga yang stabil sangat penting Pemasok yang ada mendapatkan profit margin yang tinggi

12 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Defined Mendapatkan kepemilikan atau mengambil alih perusahaan pesaing Example Hotel Hilton membeli Hotel Promus Horizontal Integration

13 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand strategies Guidelines for Horizontal Integration Perusahaan dapat memperoleh monopoli tanpa menentang aturan yang berlaku Bersaing di industri yang sedang tumbuh Meningkatnya skala ekonomi memberikan keunggulan bersaing yang besar Ada keraguan tidak memiliki kehlian managerial atau membutuhkan sumberdaya khusus

14 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Intensive Strategies Market penetration Market development Product development

15 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Defined Meningkatkan pangsa pasar dengan produk dan jasa yang ada pada pasar yang ada dengan usaha-usaha pemasaran Example Unilever membelanjakan uang untuk iklan TV sebesar 1.2 Trilyun sepanjang tahun 2005 Market Penetration

16 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Guidelines for Market Penetration Pasar yang ada belum jenuh Tingkat penggunaan pelanggan yang ada dapat ditingkatkan secara signifikan Market shares of competitors declining while total industry sales increasing Increased economies of scale provide major competitive advantages

17 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Defined Memperkenalkan produk atau jasa yang ada pada daerah atau pasar baru Example Fren pemain seluler CDMA sekarang mulai merambah ke Makasar dan palembang setelah Jawa, Madura dan Bali. Market Development

18 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Guidelines for Market Development Adanya saluran distribusi baru yang dapat diandalkan, murah, dan berkualitas. Bila perusahaan sangat sukses dalam kegiatannya Adanya pasar baru yang belum tergarap dan belum jenuh Adanya modal dan sumberdayamanusia yang dapat digunakan untuk perluasan operasi Adanya kelebihan kapasitas Industri dasarnya dengan cepat menjadi global

19 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Defined Merubah atau memodifikasi produk perusahaan dan dijual pada pasar yang sudah ada Example Apel mengembangkan Chip G4 yang memiliki kecepatan 500 megahertz. Product Development

20 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Guidelines for Product Development Produk berada pada tahap kedewasaan di siklus kehidupannnya Bila organisasi bersaing pada karekteristik teknologi yang berkembang cepat Bila pesaing menawarkan produk dengan kualitas yang lebih baik dengan harga yang sebanding (pantas) Bersaing dalam industri yang tumbuh tinggi Meniliki kapabilitas riset dan pengembangan yang kuat

21 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Diversification Strategies Concentric diversification Conglomerate diversification

22 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Defined Menambah produk atau jasa baru, yang masih berkaitan (pasar, produk, dan teknologi) Example Sebuah bank membeli perusahaan asuransi. Concentric Diversification

23 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Guidelines for Concentric Diversification Bersaing dalam industri tanpa pertumbuhan atau lambat Bila penambahan produk baru dan berkaitan akan secara signifikan menambah penjualan produk yang sudah ada Produk baru dan berkaitan dapat ditawarkan dengan harga yang bersaing Produk yang ada berada dalam tahap penurunan dalam siklus produknya Memiliki tim manajemen yang kuat

24 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Defined Menambah produk atau jasa baru yang tidak berkaitan Example PT. Sampoerna mulai melirik bisnis properti untuk kelangsungan hidup grup sampoerna Conglomerate Diversification

25 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Guidelines for Conglomerate Diversification Penjualan dan laba tahunan mengalami penurunan Ada modal dan bakat (talenta) manejerial yang diperlukan untuk sukses di industri baru Ada sinergi keuangan antara perusahaan yang dibeli dan yang membeli Pasar yang ada untuk produk saat ini sudah jenuh

26 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Defensive Strategies Joint venture Retrenchment Divestiture Liquidation

27 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Defined Dua atau lebih perusahaan mensposnori untuk membentuk perusahaan baru terpisah dengan tujuan yang sama Example Lucent Technologies and Philips Electronic NV formed Philips Consumer Communications to make and sell telephones. Joint Venture Grand Strategies

28 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Guidelines for Joint Venture Kombinasi perusahaan swasta dan publik dapat secara sinergis dikombinasikan Perusahaan domestik dan perusahaan asing membentuk usaha patungan, dapat memperoleh sumberdaya lokal dan mengurangi risiko Kompetensi khusus dua perusahaan atau lebih dapat saling melengkapi Bila seuatu proyek berisiko besar memerlukan sumberdaya besar, namun juga memiliki potensi keuntungan yang besar. Dua atau lebih perusahaan kecil memiliki masalah dalam bersaing dengan perusahaan besar Ada kebutuhan untuk memperkenalkan teknologi baru secara cepat

29 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Defined Mengubah pengelompokan melalui pengurangan biaya dan aset untuk memperbaiki penjualan dan laba yang menurun. Example Perusahaan Perkebunan Negara merampingkan organisasi; melakukan rasionalisasi; pengurangan perjalanan dinas dan fasilitas mewah untuk menekan kerugian. Retrenchment Turn Around

30 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Guidelines for Retrenchment Firm has failed to meet its objectives and goals consistently over time but has distinctive competencies Firm is one of the weaker competitors Inefficiency, low profitability, poor employee morale, and pressure from stockholders to improve performance. When an organization’s strategic managers have failed Very quick growth to large organization where a major internal reorganization is needed.

31 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Defined Selling a division or part of an organization Example Harcourt General, the large US publisher, is selling its Neiman Marcus division. Divestiture

32 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Guidelines for Divestiture When firm has pursued retrenchment but failed to attain needed improvements When a division needs more resources than the firm can provide When a division is responsible for the firm’s overall poor performance When a division is a misfit with the organization When a large amount of cash is needed and cannot be obtained from other sources.

33 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Defined Selling all of a company’s assets, in parts, for their tangible worth Example Bank Summa menjual seluruh asetnya untuk menutup kewajibannya Liquidation

34 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Grand Strategies Guidelines for Liquidation When both retrenchment and divestiture have been pursued unsuccessfully If the only alternative is bankruptcy, liquidation is an orderly alternative When stockholders can minimize their losses by selling the firm’s assets

35 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Michael Porter’s Generic Strategies Cost Leadership Strategies Differentiation Strategies Focus Strategies

36 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Types of Business-Level Strategies Business-level strategies are intended to create differences between the firm’s position relative to those of its rivals Business-level strategies are intended to create differences between the firm’s position relative to those of its rivals To position itself, the firm must decide whether it intends to perform activities differently or to perform different activities as compared to its rivals To position itself, the firm must decide whether it intends to perform activities differently or to perform different activities as compared to its rivals

37 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Five Generic Strategies Competitive Advantage Competitive Scope CostUniqueness Broad target Narrow target Cost Leadership Differentiation Focused Cost Leadership Focused Differentiation Integrated Cost Leadership/Differentiation

38 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Cost Leadership Strategy An integrated set of actions designed to produce or deliver goods or services at the lowest cost, relative to competitors with features that are acceptable to customers – relatively standardized products – features acceptable to many customers – lowest competitive price

39 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Cost Leadership Strategy Cost saving actions required by this strategy: – building efficient scale facilities – tightly controlling production costs and overhead – minimizing costs of sales, R&D and service – building efficient manufacturing facilities – monitoring costs of activities provided by outsiders – simplifying production processes

40 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Differentiation Strategy An integrated set of actions designed by a firm to produce or deliver goods or services (at an acceptable cost) that customers perceive as being different in ways that are important to them – price for product can exceed what the firm’s target customers are willing to pay – nonstandardized products – customers value differentiated features more than they value low cost

41 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Differentiation Strategy Value provided by unique features and value characteristics Value provided by unique features and value characteristics Command premium price Command premium price High customer service High customer service Superior quality Superior quality Prestige or exclusivity Prestige or exclusivity Rapid innovation Rapid innovation

42 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Differentiation Strategy Differentiation actions required by this strategy: – developing new systems and processes – shaping perceptions through advertising – quality focus – capability in R&D – maximize human resource contributions through low turnover and high motivation

43 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Factors That Drive Differentiation Unique product features Unique product features Unique product performance Unique product performance Exceptional services Exceptional services New technologies New technologies Quality of inputs Quality of inputs Exceptional skill or experience Exceptional skill or experience Detailed information Detailed information

44 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Focused Business-Level Strategies A focus strategy must exploit a narrow target’s differences from the balance of the industry by: – isolating a particular buyer group – isolating a unique segment of a product line – concentrating on a particular geographic market – finding their “niche”

45 © 2001 Prentice Hall Ch Factors That May Drive Focused Strategies Large firms may overlook small niches Large firms may overlook small niches Firm may lack resources to compete in the broader market Firm may lack resources to compete in the broader market May be able to serve a narrow market segment more effectively than can larger industry-wide competitors May be able to serve a narrow market segment more effectively than can larger industry-wide competitors Focus may allow the firm to direct resources to certain value chain activities to build competitive advantage Focus may allow the firm to direct resources to certain value chain activities to build competitive advantage


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