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EFEK PERTANIAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN Diabstraksikan oleh: smno.jurstnh.fpub.sept2013 Bahan kajian pada MK. Pertanian Berlanjut.

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Presentasi berjudul: "EFEK PERTANIAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN Diabstraksikan oleh: smno.jurstnh.fpub.sept2013 Bahan kajian pada MK. Pertanian Berlanjut."— Transcript presentasi:

1 EFEK PERTANIAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN Diabstraksikan oleh: smno.jurstnh.fpub.sept2013 Bahan kajian pada MK. Pertanian Berlanjut

2 Bagaimana Pertanian mengubah Lingkungan Pertanian merupakan aktivitas yang snagat penting bagi kehidupan manusia, dan menjadi salah satu sumber kerusakan lingkungan Problematik lingkungan yang serius: –Soil erosion –Sediment transport and deposition downstream –On-site pollution from overuse and secondary effects of fertilizers and pesticides –Off-site pollution of other ecosystems, of soil, water and air

3 Problematik lingkungan yang serius: –Deforestation –Desertification –Degradation of aquifers –Salinization –Akumulasi senyawa organik toksik –Kehilangan biodiversitas Bagaimana Pertanian mengubah Lingkungan

4 BAHAYANYA PERTANIAN Industrial Key: AWL to Study, Low-frequency Vocabulary What are the hazards of industrial agriculture?

5 PERTANIAN ORGANIK: SEDANG BERKEMBANG Permintaan konsumen akan produk pertanian organik meningkat sebesar 20% setiap tahun. Pertumbuhan paling cepat di Argentina, US, dan China. Masyarakat semakin menyadari bahaya dari pertanian industrial, dimana ada fokus memaksimumkan profit dengan mengorbankan kesehatan dan lingkungan. Bagaimana pemikiran anda bahwa pertanian-industrial berkontribusi pada pemanasan global dan pencemaran air?

6 RISIKO KESEHATAN : METODE Industrial Residu pestisida pada hasil pertanian  remain after washing and peeling.  have links to cancer. Antibiotik dimakan manusia  Dari hasil tanaman dna ternak  lead to the development of untreatable superbugs Apakah anda khawatir tentang adanya residu pestisida atau antibiotik di dalam bahan pangan produk pertanian ?.

7 RISIKO KESEHATAN Hormon pertumbuhan tanaman dan ternak  Mengganggu sistem endocrine.  Mengakibatkan pubertas dini. Rekayasa biologis  Unregulated items are virtually invisible in stores.  Manipulation of genetic code could impact health. How do you think genetically modified food might impact your health?

8 BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN Environmental hazards comprise air pollution, global warming, dan problem lainnya problems. Pupuk-pupuk sintetis  largest source of nitrous oxide emissions  300 times more toxic than carbon dioxide gases  will affect air pollution and intensify global warming if continued Are you concerned about air pollution in your country? Why or why not?

9 TANAH YANG TIDAK LESTARI Industri mono-cropping: Satu spesies tanaman ditanam berulang kali pada sebidang lahan tertentu.  The process relies on the use of synthetic fertilizers.  Mono-cropping kills microorganisms needed to produce soil nutrients.  Infertile soil leads to erosion, unsustainable farmlands, and reduced biodiversity. If mono-cropping is destroying farmlands and biodiversity, what is the alternative?

10 PERTANIAN ORGANIK Organic farming prohibits the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, hormones, antibiotics, and genetically modified organisms. It ensures soil sustainability and overall quality. What are the advantages of eating organic food?

11 ROTASI TANAMAN Teknik pertanian yang holistik  infuse soil with essential nutrients.  ensure different crops are planted every year.  vary the nutrient demand in soil.  create sustainable soil.

12 KESEJAHTERAAN TERNAK Small-scale organic farms are  less likely to confine livestock to small spaces.  against the use of antibiotics. Free-range farms  allow animals to roam freely.  reduce stress and susceptibility to disease. How do you feel about confining animals to small spaces in order to produce food?

13 The Plow Puzzle Nothing in nature like the plow –Big difference between soils of an unplowed forest and soils of previously forested land that has been plowed and used for ag Soil difference noted in Marsh’s book –Man and Nature in 1864 Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

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15 Semakin kritis kondisi tanah, semakin banyak input produksi yang diperlukan, seperti pupuk, pestisida, air irigasi dan lainnya. Diunduh dari sumbernya: 22/10/2012 The Plow Puzzle

16 Pengendalian Hama Pests are undesirable –Competitors, parasites, and predators In agriculture pests are mainly –Insects, nematodes, bacterial and viral diseases, weeds and vertebrates. Loss can be large –Estimated at 1/3 of potential harvest and 1/10 of the harvested crop Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

17 Because a farm is maintained in a very early stage of ecological succession and enriched by fertilizers and water – It is a good place for crops –AND early-successional plants (weeds) Weeds compete for all resources –Light, water,nutrients, and space to grow. Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 Pengendalian Hama

18 Sejarah Pestisida Pre- Industrial Revolution methods –Slash and burn agriculture –Planting aromatic herbs that repel insects Modern science-based agriculture –Search for chemicals that would reduce abundance of pests –The first, like arsenic, toxic to all life Killed pest and beneficial organisms Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

19 Second stage began in the 1930 –Petroleum based sprays and natural plant chemicals (e.g., nicotine) Third stage was the development of artificial organic compounds –DDT, broad-spectrum –Aldrin and dieldrin used to control termites Toxic to humans, has been found in breast milk Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 Sejarah Pestisida

20 Forth stage is a return to biological and ecological knowledge. Biological control- the use of biological predators and parasites to control pests –The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) –Proved safe and effective Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 Sejarah Pestisida

21 Other biological control agents –Small wasps that parasitize caterpillars Both effective and narrow spectrum –Ladybugs –Sex pheromones (chemicals released to attract opposite sex) used as bait in traps Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 Sejarah Pestisida

22 Integrated Pest Management (Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu) Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

23 No-till or low-till agriculture another feature of IPM –Helps build levels of natural enemies of pests Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 Integrated Pest Management (Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu)

24 Monitoring Pesticida di Lingkungan World pesticide use exceeds 2.5 billion kg –US use exceeds 680 million kg –$32 billion worldwide, $11 billion in US Once applied may decompose in place or be carried by wind and water –Breakdown products can also be toxic –Eventually fully decompose but can take a very long time Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

25 To establish useful standards for pesticide levels in the environment and to understand the environmental effects, it is necessary to monitor the concentrations. –Standards have been set for some but not all compounds Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 Integrated Pest Management (Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu)

26 Genetically Modified Crops (Tanaman rekayasa genetik) Three methods –1. Faster and more efficient development of new hybrids –2. Introduction of the “terminator gene” –3. Transfer of genetic properties from widely divergent kinds of life Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

27 Hibrida Baru From an environmental perspective, genetic engineering to develop hybrids w/in a species is likely to be a benign as the development of agricultural hybrids has been w/ conventional methods. Modifikasi genetik mungkin dapat menghasilkan: –“superhybrids” –Dapat menjadi hama atau transfer genes ke gulma yang terdekat Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

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29 The Terminator Gene Makes seeds from a crop sterile –Done for environmental and economic reasons –Prevents a gmo from spreading –Protects the market for the corporation that developed it Catatan Kritis –Farmer’s in poor nations must be able to grow next years crops from their own seeds Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012

30 Genes transfer from one major life form to another –Most likely to have negative and undesirable impacts Misalnya Bacillus thuringiensis –Menghasilkan toksin yang membunuh caterpillars –Gene diidentifikasi dan ditransfer ke tanaman jagung –Tanaman jagung hasil rekayasa genetik ini mampu menghasilkan pestisidanya sendiri Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012 TRANSFER GEN

31 Tanaman Bt dianggap sebagai tahapan konstruktif dalam pengendalian hama –Tidak perlu penyemprotan pestisida Tanaman Bt menghasilkan toksin dalam semua sel –Even in pollen that can spread –Monarch butterflies that eat pollen may die Diunduh dari sumbernya: ………… 20/10/2012


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