# LOGO Unit Operation and Process Heat Transfer Widelia Ika Putri, S.T.P., M.Sc.

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LOGO Unit Operation and Process Heat Transfer Widelia Ika Putri, S.T.P., M.Sc.

wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012  Pasteurization of milk, juice, etc.  Refrigeration of fruits and vegetables.  Meat freezing.  Thermal sterilization in canned food.  Evaporation  Distillation  Drying

wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012 Heat transfer  A dynamic process in which heat is transferred spontaneously from one body to another a lower temperature body.  The rate of heat transfer depends upon the differences between the bodies, the greater the difference in temperature, the greater the rate of heat transfer.  Temperature difference between the source of heat and the receiver of heat is therefore the driving force in heat transfer.  An increase in the temperature difference increases the driving force and therefore increases the rate of heat transfer.

wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012 Heat transfer Radiation Convection Conduction

 Rate of transfer = driving force / resistance  Rate of heat transfer = temperature difference / heat flow resistance of medium. wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

Ohm’s Law  The rate of transport (the quantity transported per unit time) is proportional to the driving force and inversely proportional to the resistance of the medium to the transport. wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

 q = dQ/dt = the rate of heat transfer  F = driving force  R = resistance of the medium to heat transfer  k = conductance of the medium to heat transfer  Heat flux (J) = the rate of transport proportional to the area A available to the transport (the rate of transport per unit area) => q/A wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

Steady State Conductive Heat Transfer  Steady state => all the properties that define the ‘state’ of the system (temperature, pressure, chemical composition, etc.) remain constant with time.  Fourier’s 1 st Law wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012  Q = heat transferred (J)  T = temperature (K)  t = time (s)  k = thermal conductivity of the medium (J/s.m.K)(W/m.K)  z = distance in the direction of the transport (m)

Thermal conductivity A property of the material (the material’s ability to transfer heat). Thermal diffusivity The ratio of thermal conductivity to the “volumetric heat capacity” of material (the ratio of the material’s ability to transfer heat to its capacity to store heat). wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

Soal 1. Hitung kecepatan transfer panas dari bahan 3x4 m, tebal 0,2m, di satu sisi 0 o C dan di sisi lainnya 35 o C. Jika bahan tersebut adalah: a. alumunium; b. kuningan; c. besi; d. tembaga; e. karet wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

Sweat (1986)  k = 0.25X c + 0.155X p + 0.16X f + 0.135X a + 0.58X w  X = mass fraction  c = carbohydrate  p = protein  f = fat  a = ash  w = water wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

Soal 1.Hitung thermal conductivity dari bahan berikut ini: wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012 foodWater (%) Protein (%) Fat (%) Carbohydrate (%) Apel84.10.30.414.9 Brokoli89.93.30.25.5 Tepung gandum 12.09.21.073.8 Susu sapi87.03.53.94.9 Ayam panggang 66.020.212.60 Ikan cod82.616.50.40 Almond4.718.654.119.6

 Steady State Conduction through a Single Slab wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012  Steady State Conduction through a Multilayer Slab

Soal wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012 1.Dinding dari ruang penyimpan tersusun dari 3 lapisan, dari yang terdalam: Stainless steel, tebal 2mm Thermal insulation, tebal 80mm (k = 0.03 J/s.m.C) Beton, tebal 150mm Bila sisi terdalam adalah -18 o C dan sisi terluar 20 o C, hitung flux panas yang melalui dinding?

 Steady State Conduction through a Cylinder Slab wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

Soal www.themegallery.com Company Logo 1. Pipa baja berdiameter 5cm membawa uap air pada 150 o C. Pipa disekat dengan lapisan penyekat silinder ketebalan 3cm (k=0.03W/mK). Hitung kecepatan panas hilang per meter panjang pipa, jika suhu lapisan terluar adalah 35 o C?

wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012 Steady State Convective Heat Transfer Natural Convection The movement is caused by heat transfer itself. Convection Forced Convection The movement is caused by factor independent of the transfer.

 A stationary layer (film) of fluid which in contact with the solid’s surface -> thickness δ  Temperature in the bulk -> T 2 ; temperature in the boundary layer -> T 1  A coefficient convective of heat transfer -> wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

 h -> depends on the properties of the fluid (specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity), the turbulence (average velocity), and the geometry of the system -> these parameters are dimensionless group used in heat transfer. wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012 Natural convection sphere vertical

Soal 1.Papan gabus tebal 10 cm pada satu sisi bersuhu -12 o C dan sisi lain 21 o C. Berapa kecepatan transfer panas melalui 1m 2 dinding? 2.Sebuah cold storage memiliki dinding yang tersusun dari: 11 cm batu bata pd bag. terluar, kmdn 7,5 cm beton, dan 10 cm gabus. Suhu rata2 di bag. dalam -18 o C dan di bagian luar dinding 18 o C. Hitung kecepatan transfer panas melalui 1m 2 dinding? wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

Soal 1. Hitung kecepatan panas yang hilang dari dinding vertical suatu oven dengan konveksi alami. Suhu dinding 50 o C dan di udara ambient 20 o C. Tinggi dinding 1.2m dan lebar 3m? wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012 Forced convection turbulent viscous sphere

Soal 1. Jus jeruk, didinginkan, mengalir dengan kecepatan 4m 3 /jam melalui pipa berdiameter 0.05m. Sifat dari jus jeruk pada suhu pengolahan adalah: ρ= 1060kg/m 3 ; µ= 3.10 -3 Pa.s; c p = 3900J/kg.K; k= 0.54 W/m.K. Hitung koeffisien panas konveksi antara jus jeruk yang mengalir di dalam pipa dengan dinding pipa? wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012 2. Gandum pipilan dikeringkan dengan udara panas dalam aliran turbulent di fluidized bed dryer. Kecepatan udara 0.5m/s dengan suhu 93 o C. Pipilan gandum diasumsikan berbentuk bulat dengan diameter 1mm. Hitung koeffisien transfer panas konveksi?

Radiation wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012  Radiation covers a vast array of phenomena that involve energy transport in the form of waves, in the wavelength range of 10 -7 to 10 -4 m.  Radiation => cooling the emitting body and heating the receiving body.  > 0 o K => all substances emit electromagnetic radiation.  Heat transfer by radiation does not require the presence of material medium.

 Black body => a body that absorb the incident radiation totally; the absorbtivity of black body is unity and its reflectivity and transmissivity are both zero. wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012

wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012  Emmisivity (ε) => the ratio of emissive power of a real body to that of a black body at the same temperature; always less than unity.

Soal wideliaikaputri@ub.ac.id March 2012 1. Hitung net heat transfer dengan radiasi dari sebongkah roti di oven pada suhu 177 o C, jika emissivitasnya 0,85 dgn total luas area 0.0645 m 2 dan suhu 100 o C?

Heat Exchanger  Device for the exchange of heat between two fluids separated by partition.  The partition is a heat conducting solid wall, usually made of metal.  Extensively used in the food industry for heating (e.g. pasteurizer), cooling (chilled water generator), and heat induced phase change (freezing, evaporation). www.themegallery.com Company Logo

Flow Pattern www.themegallery.com Company Logo Parallel flow 1 Countercurrent flow 2 Cross flow 3

www.themegallery.com Company Logo

Jacketed PanKumparan pemanasPlate Heat Exchanger www.themegallery.com Company Logo

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