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1 Pendahuluan Jurusan Teknik Informatika – FTI UPN “Veteran” Jawa Timur 2008 Mobile Computing.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Pendahuluan Jurusan Teknik Informatika – FTI UPN “Veteran” Jawa Timur 2008 Mobile Computing."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Pendahuluan Jurusan Teknik Informatika – FTI UPN “Veteran” Jawa Timur 2008 Mobile Computing

2 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 2 Tujuan Umum Membentuk dan menumbuhkan pengetahuan dan pemahaman mengenai konsep dasar komunikasi mobile dan nirkabel, yang mencakup teknologi jaringan, protokol, dan aplikasi. Membentuk dan menumbuhkan kemampuan dalam mengimplementasikan protokol maupun mengembangkan aplikasi-aplikasi mobile dan wireless sederhana.

3 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 3 Tujuan Khusus Mahasiswa mengetahui dan mampu memahami dasar-dasar teknologi mobile dan nirkabel. Mahasiswa mampu memahami konsep yang melatarbelakangi perancangan protokol mobile dan nirkabel. Mahasiswa mampu mengembangkan aplikasi- aplikasi mobile dan wireless.

4 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 4 Lingkup Bahasan Overview Sistem Komunikasi Bergerak: Memberikan overview tentang frekuensi, transmisi radio, sinyal dan propagasi, multiplexing, modulasi, dan medium access control pada jaringan mobile dan wireless, spread spectrum, dan sistem seluler. Memberikan uraian mengenai arsitektur dan protokol beberapa teknologi komunikasi mobile. Aplikasi Internet Mobile berbasis WAP : Memberikan uraian mengenai beberapa implementasi dan tools untuk mendukung pengaksesan internet melalui perangkat mobile dan wireless. Pemrograman Divais berbasis JAVA : Memberikan uraian mengenai dasar-dasar pemrograman mobile devices.

5 5 Motivasi Jurusan Teknik Informatika – FTI UPN “Veteran” Jawa Timur 2008 Mobile Computing

6 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 6 Mengapa Wireless & Mobile Trend pemakaian komputer & komunikasi mobile meningkat Aplikasi: – Kendaraan – Emergencies – Bisnis – Menggantikan wired networks – Hiburan – Layanan yang bergantung lokasi

7 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 7 Masalah Pada Wireless & Mobile Mobile device – Power consumption – Loss of data – Antar muka terbatas – Memori terbatas Wireless – Higher loss rate – Pembatasan frekuensi (regulasi) – Bandwidth kecil – Delay tinggi – Keamanan rendah – Shared medium

8 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 8 Pengertian Nirkabel Sistem Komunikasi menggunakan frekuensi/spektrum radio, yang memungkinkan transmisi (pengiriman/penerimaan) informasi (suara, data, gambar, video) tanpa koneksi fisik Dibedakan dari sistem transmisi yang memerlukan koneksi fisik, seperti kabel/kawat tembaga atau fiber optik Bersifat tetap (fixed) atau bergerak (mobile) Dibatasi oleh ketersediaan spektrum (pita frekuensi), karena adanya interferensi (saling mengganggu) jika digunakan bersama

9 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 9 Komunikasi Nirkabel Dapat dilakukan “dimana saja” (mobile) Bisa bersifat lebih personal Dibatasi oleh sifat antarmuka terminal: – Layar kecil (ponsel) sampai menengah (laptop) – Tombol terbatas – Daya terbatas

10 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 10 Pemanfaatan Teknologi Nirkabel Layanan Bersifat tetap (fixed): – Penggunaan sekitar rumah (Cordless-DECT) – Sambungan lokal (wireless local loop-WLL) – Bluetooth: jarak pendek, kecepatan rendah – WiFi: jarang menengah, kecepatan cukup tinggi – WIMAX: jarak jauh, kecepatan tinggi – Satellite: jangkauan luas, kecepatan menengah – RFID: jangkauan sangat kecil Layanan Bersifat bergerak (mobile): – Limited Mobility (Flexi) – Cellular (GSM, CDMA, 3G) – Satellite (GMPCS)

11 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 11 Berbagai Teknologi Nirkabel Degree of mobility Standing Walking Driving User data rate 10Mbps IEEE a,d 1100 HSDPA IEEE e WLAN (IEEE x) GSM GPRS DECT EDGE FlashOFDM (802.20) Systems beyond 3G > BlueTooth UMTS CDMA EV-DO EV-DV UMTS

12 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 12 Standard Nirkabel IEEE UWB, Bluetooth Wi-Media, BTSIG, MBOA WAN MAN LAN PAN ETSI HiperPAN IEEE Wi-Fi Alliance ETSI-BRAN HiperLAN2 IEEE d WiMAX ETSI HiperMAN & HIPERACCESS IEEE IEEE e 3GPP (GPRS/UMTS) 3GPP2 (1X--/CDMA2000) GSMA, OMA Sensors IEEE (Zigbee Alliance) RFID (AutoID Center) IEEE , IEEE RAN IEEE (BAN) BAN: Body Area Network

13 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 13 Year st Generation Analog voice 2 nd Generation Digital voice & Low rate data 3 rd Generation ~ G+ PDC,GSM,PHS, etc. 2G PDC,GSM,PHS, etc. 3G W-CDMA, Cdma2000, etc. 3G+ HSDPA, cdma2000(3X), etc. 4G 1995 WLAN a,HiSWANa, HIPERLAN2, etc. Bluetooth, etc. UWB, etc. WLAN n, etc. WLAN++ Generation (Cellular) Mobile Local Nomadic 4 th Generation ALL-IP Broadband Ubiquitous & Seamless Voice & High speed data Multimedia WiMAX System Evolution Scenario

14 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 14 GSM Evolution UMTS Up to 2 Mbps or 384 in mobility GSM HSCSD Up to 38,4 kbps GSM CS Up to 9,6 Kbps GSM GPRS Up to 115 kbps 2G 2.5G 3G Operators prefer choose direct going to GPRS technology rather than going to GSM HSCSD technology because no HSCSD handset availability and short time stage EDGE

15 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 15 CDMA Standards Evolution CDMA2000 PCN/Mobile IP Interworking function CDMA2000 cdmaOne All IP IS-95A CDMA Voice, packet- 9.6/14.4 Kbps IS-95B CDMA Voice, packet- 64 Kbps IS X 144 Kbps 600 Kbps peak IS XEV-DO 600 Kbps; 2.4 Kbps peak IS XEV-DV 2-5 Mbps peak Source: CDMA2000-A world view

16 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 16 IMT-2000 (Family of Standards) IMT-2000 CDMA Direct Spread IMT-2000 CDMA Multi Carrier IMT-2000 CDMA TDD IMT-2000 TDMA Single Carrier IMT-2000 FDMA/ TDMA IMT-2000 Terrestrial Radio Interfaces WCDMA (UMTS) CDMA2000 1X and 3X UTRA TDD And TD-SCDMA UWC-136/ EDGE DECT CDMATDMAFDMA

17 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 17 Berbagai jenis Content & Aplikasi

18 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 18 Intermezzo

19 19 Wireless Communication & Achitecture Mobile Devices Jurusan Teknik Informatika – FTI UPN “Veteran” Jawa Timur 2008 Mobile Computing

20 Modul 1 Pendahuluan Wireless Communication Transmisis suara dan data menggunakan gelombang elektromagnetik menuju ruang bebas Gelombang elektromagnetik Kecepatan cahaya (c = 3x10 8 m/s) Memiliki frekuensi (f) dan panjang gelombang ( ) c = f x Penggunaan frekuensi lebih tinggi umumnya medium meredam lebih besar

21 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 21 Spektrum frekuensi IRUVX-Rays Cosmic Rays Radio Spectrum 1MHz ==100m 100MHz ==1m 10GHz ==1cm < 30 KHz VLF KHz LF 300KHz – 3MHz MF 3 MHz – 30MHz HF 30MHz – 300MHz VHF 300 MHz – 3GHz UHF 3-30GHz SHF > 30 GHz EHF Micro wave Visible light

22 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 22 Contoh : panjang gelombang GSM : – Frekuensi ~= 900 Mhz – Panjang gelombang ~= 33cm PCS – Frekuensi ~= 1.8 Ghz – Panjang gelombang ~= 17.5 cm Bluetooth: – Frekuensi ~= 2.4Gz – Panjang gelombang ~= 12.5cm

23 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 23 Frequency Carrier/Kanal – Informasi yang dikirim menuju receiver dilewatkan pada band frekuensi tertentu. Disebut sebagai kanal (channel) – Tiap kanal memiliki bandwidth yang tetap (dalam KHz) dan kapasitas (bit-rate) – Band frekuensi yang berbeda (atau kanal) dapat digunakan untuk mentransmisikan informasi secara paralel dan independen (konsep multiple access).

24 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 24 Example – Assume a spectrum of 90KHz is allocated over a base frequency b for communication between stations A and B – Assume each channel occupies 30KHz. – There are 3 channels – Each channel is simplex (Transmission occurs in one way) – For full duplex communication: Use two different channels (front and reverse channels) Use time division in a channel Channel 1 (b - b+30) Channel 2 (b+30 - b+60) Channel 3 (b+60 - b+90) Station A Station B

25 Modul 1 Pendahuluan Simplex Communication Normally, on a channel, a station can transmit only in one way. This is called simplex transmision To enable two-way communication (called full- duplex communication) We can use Frequency Division Multiplexing We can use Time Division Multiplexing

26 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 26 Duplex Communication - FDD FDD: Frequency Division Duplex Base Station B Mobile Terminal M Forward Channel Reverse Channel Forward Channel and Reverse Channel use different frequency bands

27 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 27 Duplex Communication - TDD TDD: Time Division Duplex Base Station B Mobile Terminal M A singe frequency channel is used. The channel is divided into time slots. Mobile station and base station transmits on the time slots alternately. MBMBMB

28 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 28 Example - Frequency Spectrum Allocation in U.S. Cellular Radio Service … … … … MHz MHz Reverse ChannelForward Channel Channel NumberCenter Frequency (MHz) Reverse Channel 1 <=N <= <= N <= 1023 Forward Channel 1 <=N <= <= N <= N (N-1023) N (N-1023) (Channels are unused) Channel bandwidth is 45 MHz

29 Modul 1 Pendahuluan What is Mobility Initially Internet and Telephone Networks is designed assuming the user terminals are static No change of location during a call/connection A user terminals accesses the network always from a fixed location Mobility and portability – Portability means changing point of attachment to the network offline – Mobility means changing point of attachment to the network online

30 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 30 Degrees of Mobility Walking Users Low speed Small roaming area Usually uses high-bandwith/low-latency access Vehicles High speeds Large roaming area Usually uses low-bandwidth/high-latency access Uses sophisticated terminal equipment (cell phones)

31 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 31 What is Mobility Initially Internet and Telephone Networks is designed assuming the user terminals are static No change of location during a call/connection A user terminals accesses the network always from a fixed location Mobility and portability – Portability means changing point of attachment to the network offline – Mobility means changing point of attachment to the network online

32 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 32 Mobile phone subscribers worldwide

33 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 33 Development of mobile telecommunication systems 1G 2G3G 2.5G IS-95 cdmaOne IS-136 TDMA D-AMPS GSM PDC GPRS IMT-DS UTRA FDD / W-CDMA EDGE IMT-TC UTRA TDD / TD-CDMA cdma2000 1X 1X EV-DV (3X) AMPS NMT IMT-SC IS-136HS UWC-136 IMT-TC TD-SCDMA CT0/1 CT2 IMT-FT DECT CDMA TDMA FDMA IMT-MC cdma2000 1X EV-DO

34 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 34 GSM: overview fixed network BSC MSC GMSC OMC, EIR, AUC VLR HLR NSS with OSS RSS VLR BTS BSS MS

35 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 35 GSM: elements and interfaces NSS MS BTS BSC GMSC IWF OMC BTS BSC MSC A bis UmUm EIR HLR VLR A BSS PDN ISDN, PSTN RSS radio cell MS AUC OSS signallng O BSS: Base Station subsystem BTS: Base transfer station BSC: Base Station Controller MS: Mobile Station MSC: Mobile Switching Center VLR:Visitor Location Register HLR: Home location Register GMSC: Gateway MSC IWF: InterWorking Function AUC: Authentication Center EIR: Equipment Identity Register OMC: Operation and Maintenance Center PDN: Public Data Network PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network ISDN: Integrated Service Digital Network

36 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 36 UmUm A bis A BSS radio subsystem MS BTS BSC BTS BSC BTS network and switching subsystem MSC fixed partner networks IWF ISDN PSTN PSPDN CSPDN SS7 EIR HLR VLR ISDN PSTN GSM: system architecture

37 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 37 System architecture: radio subsystem Components – MS (Mobile Station) – BSS (Base Station Subsystem): consisting of BTS (Base Transceiver Station): sender and receiver BSC (Base Station Controller): controlling several transceivers Interfaces – U m : radio interface – A bis : standardized, open interface with 16 kbit/s user channels – A: standardized, open interface with 64 kbit/s user channels UmUm A bis A BSS radio subsystem network and switching subsystem MS BTS BSC MSC BTS BSC BTS MSC

38 Modul 1 Pendahuluan 38 System architecture: network and switching subsystem Components oMSC (Mobile Services Switching Center): oIWF (Interworking Functions) oISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) oPSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) oPSPDN (Packet Switched Public Data Net.) oCSPDN (Circuit Switched Public Data Net.) Databases oHLR (Home Location Register) oVLR (Visitor Location Register) oEIR (Equipment Identity Register) network subsystem MSC fixed partner networks IWF ISDN PSTN PSPDN CSPDN SS7 EIR HLR VLR ISDN PSTN


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