Zaman Gelap Abad ke-5 sampai Abad ke-10 Akhir Cendekiawan Arab Setelah tahun 1100, cendekiawan Arab terus berkurang (tidak ada penerus) Alkemi Arab juga.
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Presentasi berjudul: "Zaman Gelap Abad ke-5 sampai Abad ke-10 Akhir Cendekiawan Arab Setelah tahun 1100, cendekiawan Arab terus berkurang (tidak ada penerus) Alkemi Arab juga."— Transcript presentasi:
Zaman Gelap Abad ke-5 sampai Abad ke-10 Akhir Cendekiawan Arab Setelah tahun 1100, cendekiawan Arab terus berkurang (tidak ada penerus) Alkemi Arab juga meneruskan kegiatan alkemi Mereka memadukan alkemi dari Yunani dengan alkemi dari Cina (dari Taoisme) Kelompok eksoterik menguat lagi sehingga kedua-duanya esoterik dan eksoterik sama kuatnya Dari kegiatan mereka ditemukan bahan alkali caustik (soda alkali) Zaman Pertengahan Zaman Gelap disusul oleh Zaman Pertengahan (Medieval) pada abad ke-10
Zaman Pertengahan Abad ke-10 sampai Abad ke-15 Karakteristik Zaman Kehidupan di Eropa relatif lebih tenang Kegairahan belajar mulai bangkit lagi. Mulai ada pendidikan di luar katedral Karya Yunani dan Arab diterjemahkan dari bahasa Arab ke bahasa Latin terutama oleh orang Yahudi Perhatian kepada filsafat tararah ke metafisika dan bahkan diperdebatkan Filsafat digunakan untuk menjustifikasi agama Universitas dengan istilah universitas mulai muncul pada zaman ini Metoda induktif mulai digunakan di dalam pencarian pengetahuan
Zaman Pertengahan Filsafat Metafisika Aliran Filsafat Sejak zaman Yunani Kuno sudah ada perbedaan aliran di bidang metafisika Pada zaman pertengahan, setiap aliran mengemukakan argumentasi masing-masing Ada yang berpegang kepada Plato serta ada yang berpegang kepada Aristoteles Perdebatan Ada kalanya, aliran berbeda saling berdebat Argumentasi cukup marak pada abad ke-12 sampai ke-14; Universitas juga mempelajari esensi universal pada filsafat Dari zaman ke zaman terjadi pergeseran anutan dari satu aliran ke aliran lainnya
Zaman Pertengahan Studium dan Universitas Studium Bermunculan studium yakni tempat orang mempelajari bidang pengetahuan tertentu di bawah pengajar Ada tiga studium yang sangat terkenal yakni studium di Salerno (medik), Bologna (hukum dan teologi), dan Paris (seni dan teologi); semacam program studi sekarang Studium Generale Studium generale adalah studium yang terbuka untuk semua pelajar (dari berbagai negeri) Jadi generale di sini berarti terbuka untuk semua jenis pelajar Biasanya studium yang terkenal berbentuk studium generale
Zaman Pertengahan Studium dan Uunivesitas Docendi, Doctor, Magister Pengajaran di studium dilakukan melalui docendi (menggurui) Kemudian pengajar dibekali lisensi mengajar oleh katedral atau kaisar berupa licentiae docendi dan ius ubique docendi (berhak mengajar di mana-mana) Pelaksana docendi adalah doctor sehingga arti doctor adalah pemberi docendi atau guru Pengajar juga dikenal sebagai magister yang artinya juga guru Doctor dan magister adalah sejajar. Ada jenis studium yang menggunakan istilah doctor dan ada yang menggunakan istilah magister
Zaman Pertengahan Studium dan Universitas Legere Jarang ada buku sehingga buku hanya dimiliki oleh para pengajar Pengajaran berlangsung melalui pembacaan (legere, lectus) oleh pengajar dan pelajar mencatatnya Pengajar yang membaca dikenal sebagai lektor yakni mereka yang membaca (sekarang dikenal sebagai lektor) Ada juga commentatio (komentar) dan summa (ringkasan) Disputatio dan Tesis Sewaktu-waktu ada disputatio yakni perdebatan Di dalam disputatio, ada yang mendudukkan atau menempatkan (thesis) pemikiran yang perlu dipertahankannya terhadap sanggahan Secara harfiah, thesis berarti mendudukkan atau menempatkan
Disputations Like other university-educated men, the doctor was rational in a dialectical way, in using Aristotle’s logic and its medieval developments. He was trained in this according to statutory rules that governed how often pupils and masters should dispute. In most universities masters were obliged to respond to questions, including quodlibets. Bolognese doctors who were entitled to teach had to dispute once a week and make arrangements for the publication of their solution to the questions. Physicians and philosophers of standing were also obliged to dispute on or near feast days; we know that Dino del Garbo did so in Bologna and that he once disputed with Gentile da Foligno in the street.. We have seen how, even in the twelfth century, logic was popular in the heroic schools, and now that the Posterior Analytics of Aristotle seemed to supply a programme for investigating the natural world, its range and power were greatly increased. Disputations were exercises in sustaining one thesis over another by questioning its premisses or logic, and an important technique was the ‘distinction’ where different meanings could be drawn out of single term. The result could be an exciting or noisy meeting (we have noted Bacon’s complaint that doctors were too anxious to dispute). They were also public affairs and provided an external face of university rationality, whether medical or otherwise
Dubia The written form of disputation was the dubium, the disputed question. This had a rigid and complex form and some disputed questions were hugely elaborate. These two features have repelled both sixteenth-century Hellenists and humanists and some later historians, but it will serve our purposes to take a quick look at the form. A disputed question was one that arose from the study of a text and normally took the form of a question that expected a positive answer, beginning An …or Utrum…(‘Whether…’). Then came a section in which all the negative arguments were brought forward. Ideally, the form of the argument was syllogistic, with both major and minor propositions being drawn from the text, from the words of another authority or from sensory experience. These arguments were then attacked and destroyed in the same way, leaving the positive answer unscathed. Along the way other small objections or ‘instances’ were brought up and disposed of, as if to show that all possible objections could be satisfied. Commentators such as Dino del Garbo and Gentile da Foligno in the first half of the fourteenth century commonly put the objections in the mouth of the reader, a sort of student-figure: ‘But you will at once say …’, Sed statim tu dices …
Zaman Pertengahan Studium dan Universitas Tujuan Belajar Tujuan belajar di studium adalah untuk menjadi doctor atau magister dengan hak mengajar (dengan semua hak yang berkenaan dengan jabatannya) Gelar Kecuali hukum, medik, dan teologi, semua lainnya adalah filsasat, sehingga gelar lulusan menjadi PhD Lulusan medik adalah MD dan luluan hukum LLD (bukan PhD) Pakaian Di Oxford dan Cambridge, toga adalah pakaian sehari-hari (kini dipakai pada upacara saja)
Base Converter (from Internet) A German merchant of the fifteenth century asked an eminent professor where he should send his son for a good business education. The professor responded that German universities would be sufficient to teach the boy addition and subtraction but he would have to go to Italy to learn multiplication and division. Before you smile indulgently, try multiplying or even just adding the Roman numerals CCLXIV, MDCCCIX, and MLXXXI without first translating them John Allen Paulis, Beyond Numeracy
From Byte Magazine –April 1883 –Professor Eaton Zweiback of Slippery Rock University recently announced the discovery oa a new number system called “Binary System.” This system uses only two numerals, 0 and 1, as opposed to the decimal system which uses ten. Professor Zweiback claims that the binary system will have no practical value and will be used mostly as a mathematical novelty –April 1883 –Havard anthropologists have discovered the remains of an ancient Arabian city just 75 miles north of where ancient Babylon one stood. Little is known about the inhabitants of this city except for the fact for some unknown reason they wrote the numeral zero with a slash through it. The anthropologists are completely puzzled as to why these people used such a strange symbol.
Zaman Pertengahan Studium dan Universitas Universitas Scholarium Dalam bahasa Latin, universitas berarti organisasi atau korporasi Karena mahasiswa luar kota di Bologna mengalami sejumlah kesulitan (pemondokan, makan), pada tahun ± 1158, mereka membentuk universitas scholarium (korporasi pelajar) Mahasiswa berasal dari setiap negeri membentuk consiliarii masing-masing Mereka mengangkat rector scholarium (rektor pelajar) untuk menentukan kurikulum dan upah pengajar Dari Bologna, model universitas scholarium menyebar ke Padua, Roma, Montpellier, Salamanca, Perancis bagian selatan (umumnya di Eropa selatan)
Zaman Pertengahan Studium dan Universitas Universitas Magistrorum Di Paris, universitas dibentuk oleh para magister menjadi universitas magistrorum (korporasi pengajar) Pimpinan dan organisasi universitas dipegang oleh para magister Model universitas magistrorum menyebar ke Oxford, Cambridge, dan Eropa utara (dan ke jajahan mereka) Cessatio Cessastio adalah berhenti (mogok). Cessatio terjadi kalau timbul masalah serius Pada tahun 1229, terjadi cessatio di Universitas Paris selama hampir dua tahun. Banyak magister dan pelajar pergi ke Oxford
Zaman Pertengahan Studium dan Universitas Tradisi di Universitas Paris Metoda ajar belajar: collatio (kuliah) dan lectio (penjelasan) Masa kuliah: 1. St Remi (Okt) - Lent, dan 2. Easter - St. Pierre (29 Juni) Lulusan: di bawah magister adalah determinatio (baccaulaureate) dengan hak mengajar di bawah supervisi magister Upacara di Universitas Paris Di Paris terdapat upacara wisuda berupa pidato pengukuhan (sekarang: untuk guru besar), duduk di kursi magister dan memakai topi magister
Zaman Pertengahan Studium dan Universitas Pembentukan Universitas Baru Mula-mula reputasi universitas bergantung kepada namanya yang terkenal Pengajar dari universitas kurang terkenal yang pindah ke universitas lebih terkenal sering harus menempuh ujian dulu Kaisar atau raja ingin mendirikan universitas. Agar memiliki reputasi, pendiriannya dilakukan melalui keputusan kaisar atau raja Sering terjadi bahwa kaisar atau raja sendiri yang menjadi kepala dari universitas itu dan menjabat sebagai chancellor Dengan demikian, orang yang sehari-hari mengepalai universitas menjadi vice chancellor. Di sejumlah universitas, tradisi ini masih berlaku sampai sekarang
University (from MD Pacific) In early medieval Europe all learning was contained in the monasteries, teaching was limited to the training of the clergy. When Charlemagne invited Alcuin of York to Aix to set up a palace school, Alcuin’s first task was to teach the emperor himself, as well as the young princes, to read and write. By the year 1000 the feudal system was established, some governments were stabilized, commerce revived, towns prospered. Learning was still a monopoly of the cathedral schools, with one noteworthy exception: since early in the 10 th century, scholars had gathered at Salerno in Italy to teach and study medicine. The Civitas Hippocratica, the city Hippocrates, was the first secular academic community in Europe and a direct offshoot of Arabic learning: the legend of its founding by a Greek, a Latin, an Arab, and a Jewish physician symbolized the four non-ecclesiastic sources of knowledge. Although it became famous throughout Europe and was eventually called a university, it remained a medical school only and had no role in the new academe. The first true universities, and the models for those that followed, were those of Bologna and Paris. Both were born that founded: they were already thriving centers of learning when they won notice from
popes and kings. Within a century their counterparts were growing up everywhere, organized by students as in Bologna in Italy, southern France, and Spain, or by teachers as in Paris. The universities became the pets or princes; the learned to balance the competing favors of church and state and became the third force [catatan: sacerdotium, emporium of regnum, and studium] in the flowering of European culture in the Middle Ages. A center of learning was then a studium, a place of study. Until 1200 when medicine and philosophy were added, Bologna had only two branches of study, civil law and canon law. Its students were mostly men of mature years already holding church or state office; unlike the lusty youths who late overran Paris’s Left Bank and sober Oxford town, they took their pleasures discreetly. But they came in numbers that nearly doubled the town’s population: they were foreigners and without legal rights, and the Bolognese mulcted them mercilessly for their lodgings, food, textbooks, and teaching fees. The emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), with four
doctors of law of Bologna to advise him, in 1158 issued the first charter of student rights, freeing them from civil jurisdiction and placing them under their teachers’ authority. But in Bologna the teachers were Bolognese and unlikely to pass judgment against a fellow townsman. Finally for mutual protection the students organized themselves into a universitas, a term that meant merely “the whole” and was the name of any medieval guild. By threatening to leave in a body for some other city with teachers of law, the universitas scholarum, the guild of scholars, was able to fix reasonable prices for board and lodgings. They also dictated fees, lecture hours, curriculum, and permi9ssible absences for their teachers. Through their elected officers, a rector at the head of each guild and a council of representatives from each student “nation” who were empowered to remove the rector, the students became the administration of the Bologna studium. The pattern of student governance was followed by Padua, Rome, and seven other Italian universities born in the 13 th to 15 th centuries. It was adopted by Montpellier, with its strong faculties of medicine and law, and all the French universities south of the Loire, and was specified for Salamanca by Alfonso X (“the Wise”), Spain’s brilliant intellectual king, in his charter of A parallel birth began in Paris in the 12 th century
when scholars flocked from everywhere in Europe to the Ile de la Cite to hear Peter Abelard discourse on theology and logic in the cathedral school of Notre-Dame. His disciples in turn became masters and, as in Bologna, the masters and scholars multiplied until they spilled from the Ile to the gabled wooden houses of the Petit Pont, the “little bridge,” and on to the left bank of the Seine. In Paris the masters rather than the scholars first organized a universitas as a curb on the chancellor, who was appointed by the bishop and had the sole power to grant a teaching license, often for an exorbitant bribe. The universitas magistrorum, the guild of masters, was able as a body to exclude even a chancellor’s licentiate from teaching withour their approval by refusing to admit him to the ruild. They instituted the inception, a ceremony at which the candidate delivered his inaugural address, was crowned with the magisterial cap, and seated in the magisterial chair. This was the first formal graduation and awarding of an academic degree. In 1200, after a bloody town-gown riot in which five students were killed, king Philip Augustus of France granted the masters and scholars of Paris full rights as clergy and placed them under the ecclesiastic rather than the civil courts. In 1211 Innocent III invited the masters’
guild of Paris to send a representative (proctor) to the papal court, and 20 years later Gregory IX with his bull Parens scientiarum, “Mother of Learning,” placed the papal seal on the university’s hardwon independence. The Spanish kings were among the first of many sovereigns who established universities, but a papal bull or an imperial charter was necessary to create a studium generale whose masters had the ius ubique docendi, the right to teach everywhere. Palencia, founded about 1212 by Alfonso IX, never gained this international standing; Salamanca struggled under three kings, from 1220 to 1255, when with a papal bull it flowered into one of the leading universities in Europe. England first university was born when Henry II, in his quarrel with Thomas a Becket, forbade ecclesiastic travel across the Channel and summoned the English clergy home; apparently in retaliation, France expelled all alien scholars. The English masters and scholars, hurrying home from Paris, gravitated toward the thriving commercial town of Oxford, which had no cathedral with its attendant school but had housed learned residents
from time to time. With a charter from king John in 1200 but no papal recognition, Oxford won international acceptance on its repute alone. Some of the most distinguished medieval universities were borne out of the touchy pride of the scholarly communities which magnified quarrels into riots and resulted in mass migrations. Cambridge was founded in 1209 by 2000 angry masters and scholars from Oxford when king John consented to the hanging of several scholars in retaliation for the death of a woman of the town. The entire students body of Bologna migrated twice, in 1220 and 1260, to Padua where the merchant princes of the Venetian republic eventually nurtured a greater university than its parent. Portugal’s university, founded in 1290, shuttled repeatedly between hostile Lisbon and isolated Coimbra until 1537, when it settled permanently in the provincial city. A university could alight anywhere: it consisted only of masters and scholars and they had a universal language in Latin. Nothing physical remains of the 11 th, 12 th, or 13 th century universities because they had nothing: no land, buildings, classrooms, libraries. Textbooks were rented from booksellers, often by the page. Assemblies and doctoral inceptions were held in the cathedral or
local church. A master taught in his own lodgings or hired a hall out of his students’ fees; from about 1400, when the student nations began acquiring their own buildings or “colleges,” he might rent his classroom from them. All that remains of medieval Bologna is one such building, the College of Spain. Padua’s handsome buildings date from the Renaissance; Oxford’s architectural treasures, such as Magdalen tower and the Bodleian, are Tudor. Merton College, dating back before 1300 and probably the oldest extant university building, was the first of the autonomous residential colleges, governed by their own faculty and fellows (i.e. graduates), which became Oxford’s special contribution to the university concept. Elsewhere the college existed only as the property of a student nation or as a philanthropic hospice for poor students. The black gowns still worn as daily dress at Oxford and Cambridge, the billowing long gowns and colorful hoods that adorn an academic procession, are an evolved form of medieval scholarly dress; the mortar-board is an 18 th century English development of the square magisterial cap, or biretum.
By the end of the middle ages 80 universities had been established in Europe, from Prague and Heidelberg in the east to St. Andrews in Scotland, from Uppsala in Sweden and Copenhagen in Denmark to Valladolid and Barcelona in Spain. Spain had also given the New World its first universities at Lima in 1551, Mexico city in 1553, and Bogota Not all the medieval universities survived, and some remained modest. Of the great ones, Paris at its peak may have had 7000 students, Oxford To their successors the studia of the Middle Ages bequeathed the name university to designate a community of mastersand scholars; the concept of a curriculum of study leading within a stated period to examinations and a degree; the form of governance, the organization of learning by faculties, and the ideal of academic freedom form control by the state.
Zaman Pertengahan Metoda Deduktif dan Induktif Metoda Deduktif Dimulai dari yang telah diketahui (premis), melalui penalaran, mencapai konklusi Metoda ini digemari karena argumentasinya sangat kuat dan lagi pula mereka tidak usah melakukan kegiatan manual (kegiatan manual dilakukan oleh para budak) Asumsi Kelemahan metoda deduktif terletak pada kasus ketika yang diketahui itu (premis) tidak ada Diciptakan asumsi untuk dijadikan yang diketahui itu yakni dijadikan premis Asumsi tidak diuji, terserah mau diterima atau tidak
Zaman Pertengahan Metoda Deduktif dan Induktif Belantara Asumsi Karena banyak hal tidak memiliki atau menemukan premis, maka asumsi bermunculan tanpa kendali Hal yang sama dapat diterangkan melalui asumsi yang berbeda-beda Parsimoni (Pisau Cukur Ockham) William Ockham mempopulerkan kegiatan untuk hanya memilih argumentasi yang paling sederhana untuk diterima dan yang lainnya ditolak (seperti dicukur) Prinsip untuk hanya menerima argumentasi yang paling sederhana dikenal sebagai parsimoni atau pisau cukur Ockham Parsimoni berlaku sampai sekarang
OCKHAMS’S RAZOR Ockham’s razor, also spelled Occam’s razor, also called Law of Economy, or Law of Parsimony, name given to the principle stated by William of Ockham ( ?), a Scholastic, that non sunt multiplicanda entia practer necessitatum; i.e. entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity. The principle was, in fact, invoked before Ockham by Durand de Saint-Pourçain, a French Dominican theologian and philosopher of dubious orthodoxy, who used it to explain that abstraction is the apprehension of some real entity, such as an Aristotelian cognitive species, an active intellect, or a disposition, all of which he spurned as unnecessary. Likewise, in science, Nicole d’Oresme, a 14 th -century French physicist, invoked the law of economy, as did Galileo later, in defending the simplest hypothesis of the heavens. Other later scientists stated similar simplifying laws and principles. Ockham, however, mentioned the principle so frequently and employed it so sharply that it was called
“Ockham’s frazor.” He used it, for instance, to dispense with relations, which he held to be nothing distinct from their foundation in things; with efficient causality, which he tended to view merely as regular succession; with motion, which is merely the reappearance of a thing in a different place; with psychological powers distinct for each mode of sense; and with the presence of ideas in the mind of the Creator, which are merely the creatures themselves.
Zaman Pertengahan Metoda Deduktif dan Induktif Kisah Gigi Kuda Dikisahkan pada tahun 1432, terjadi perdebatan di biara tentang berapa jumlah gigi di mulut kuda Semua karya kuno dan karya besar dibaca untuk dicari premis, tetapi belum juga ditemukan Dengan izin para tetua, biarawan muda membantu dengan menyeret kuda ke dalam ruangan dan menghitung giginya Dianggap sebagai cara hina, biarawan muda dan kuda diusir dan perdebatan berlangsung Setelah lelah berdebat, mereka berdamai dengan kesimpulan: jumlah gigi di mulut kuda adalah suatu misteri, tidak mungkin diketahui
THE STORY OF HORSE TEETH In the year of our Lord, 1432, there arose a grievous quarrel among the brethren over the number of teeth in the mouth of a horse. For thirteen days the disputation raged without ceasing. All the ancient books and chronicles were fetched out, and wonderful and ponderous erudition was made manifest. At he beginning of the fourteenth day a youthful friar of goodly bearing asked his learned superiors for permission to add a word, and straightaway, to the wonder of the disputants, whose deep wisdom he sorely vexed, he beseeched them in a manner coarse and unheard of, to look in the mouth of a horse and find answers to their questionings. At this, their dignity being grievously hurt, they waxed exceedingly wroth; and joining in a mighty uproar they flew upon him and smote him hip and thigh and cast him out forthwith. For, they said, “Surely Satan hath tempted this bold neophyte to declare unholy and unheard-of ways of finding truth, contrary to all the teachings of the fathers.” After many days of grievous strife the dove of peace set on the assembly, and they, as one man, declaring the problem to be an everlasting mystery because of a dearth of historical and theological evidence thereof, so ordered the same writ down. –Dari Francis Bacon as cited by CEK Mees, “Scientific thought and Social Reconstruction,” American Scientist 22 (1934):
Zaman Pertengahan Metoda Deduktif dan Induktif Metoda Induktif Diperlukan metoda induktif untuk menemukan jumlah gigi di mulut kuda, sehingga metoda induktif mulai digunakan Kelemahan: terjadi lompatan induktif yang membuat argumentasi lemah Penganut: Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, John Duns Scotus, William Ockham Bahaya Metoda Induktif Metoda induktif dapat menghasilkan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan doktrin penguasa Contoh: Kopernikus menemukan sistem heliosentris yang bertentangan dengan doktrin katedral (yang geosentris)
Zaman Pertengahan Alkemi Terjemahan Terjemahan tulisan Arab ke Latin juga mencakup alkemi Alkemi menyerap berbagai sumber termasuk dari Cina (alkemi Tao) Buku Jabir Pada 1310, Jabir menerbitkan 4 buku alkemi Logam memiliki prinsip terbakar dan karatan dari belerang serta prinsip cair dan lebur dari merkuri Paduan yang cocok dari belerang dan merkuri dapat menghasilkan emas Eksoterik dan esoterik sama majunya Ada kalanya menghasilkan bahan kimia baru
ALCHEMY Alchemy, the pseudoscience whose aims were to transform base metals such as lead or copper into silver or gold. Although such attempts have involved chemical procedures, evidence linking the pseudoscience with the development of chemistry itself remains inconclusive. The theory that five elements (air, water, earth, fire, space) in various combinations constitute all matter was postulated in almost identical form in ancient China, India, and Greece. Further, the world of matter was seen to function by means of antagonistic, opposing “forces”—e.g., hot and cold, wet and dry, positive and negative, male and female. Under their similar astrological heritages, philosophers of these three cultures found correspondences among the elements, planets, and metals. Astrologers believed that events in the macrocosm of the natural world were reflected in the human microcosm, and vice versa. Thus, under the proper astrological influences, a “perfection,” or “healing,” of lead into gold might occur, just as the human soul could achieve a perfect state in heaven. The artisan in his laboratory could perhaps hasten this process by careful nurture and long heating, by “kill-
ing” the metal and then “reviving” it in a finer form. While the practical alchemists invented and used many laboratory apparatuses and procedures that in modified form are used today, they were still essentially artisans and did not wish to reveal their trade secrets. In an effort to preserve the esoteric nature of their practices, they devised many concealing, symbolic names for the materials with which they work. In addition, Greek writers usually ascribed their manuscripts to some god, hero, king, or philosopher of old as a further concealment. The confusing tendencies were intensified as the mystically minded began to develop alchemical ideas. As Hellenistic philosophy shifted more and more from the technical scientific viewpoint to the emphasis on divine revelation of Gnosticism, Neoplatonism, and Christianity, the alchemical writings became esoteric to the point of total obscurity. In time the Chinese practitioners, who sought to make gold not for its own sake but as an elixir of immortality, also came to emphasize the esoteric aspects at the expense of all practical technique, and the art degenerated into a mass of superstition. Alchemy in India eventually met with a similar fate. Arabic alchemy is as mysterious in its origins
as the other currents. It presumably migrated to Egypt during the Hellenistic period, where it became incorporated into the work of the first alchemist whose identity has been authenticated, Zomisos of Panopolis. Through their contact with China, the Arabs adopted the use of a transmuting “medicine,” the mysterious substance that appears later in European alchemy as the philosopher’s stone. Translations of the Arabic works of ar-Razi (c or 924) by Christian scholars in the 12 th century led to a revival of the art in Europe. By 1300 the subject was being discussed by the leading philosophers, scientists, and theologians of the day. Important alchemical discoveries of the period include the mineral acids and alcohol. Medical chemistry, or pharmacy, emerged from this revival two centuries later under the influence of Paracelsus ( ), a Swiss-German alchemist. Renaissance physicists and chemists began to discount the possibility of transmutation on the basis of a renewed interest in Greek atomism. The chemical facts that had been accumulated by the alchemists were now reinterpreted and made the basis upon which modern chemistry was erected. It was not until the 19th
century, however, that the possibility of chemical gold- making was conclusively contradicted by scientific evidence. Sporadic revivals of alchemical philosophies and techniques persisted into the 20 th century.
Zaman Pertengahan Filsafat Scholaticism Filsafat Scholasticism Pada zaman pertengahan, sejumlah biarawan menjadi ahli filsafat Di antaranya St. Agustin, St. Anselmus, St. Thomas Aquinas Mereka menggunakan filsafat untuk menerangkan agama dan doktrin katedral Aliran filsafat mereka dikenal sebagai scholaticism Thomas Aquinas: Eternal law, natural law, human law, divine law Scholaticism dan Induksi Scholasticism tidak menolak metoda induksi dengan syarat Syaratnya adalah seluruh kegiatan induktif tidak boleh bertentangan dengan doktrin katedral
Zaman Pertengahan Filsafat Scholasticism Di Universitas –Metoda Pilih buku terkenal disebut auctor Perisksa semua dokumen lain tentang itu Cari perbedaan Perbedaan dianalisis (kata dan logik) untuk dipertemukan –Genre Dua genre: quetiones dan summa Quetiones yakni pertanyaan untuk dicari pro dan dan kontra Summa yakni sistem semua pertanyaan yang dapat menjawab semua pertanyaan
Zaman Pertengahan Filsafat Scholasticism Sekolah –Pertama adalah lectio yakni pengajar membaca tetapi tidak boleh bertanya –Kedua adalah disputatio yakni perdebatan Biasa yakni pertanyaan sudah diumumkan terlebih dahulu dan dipersiapkan Quodlibetal yakni pertanyaan pelajar tanpa diumumkan terlebih dahulu sehingga tanpa persiapan Pengajar menjawab dan pelajar menyanggah bolak balik Ada yang mencatat sehingga pengajar dapat membuat ringkasan untuk diumumkan besok hari
Zaman Kebangkitan Abad ke-15 sampai Abad ke-18 Karakteristik Zaman Disebut sebagai Renaissance, banyak perubahan terjadi pada zaman ini Kemajuan di bidang observasi dan eksperimen Sintesis agung ilmu dengan matematika Metoda ilmiah Alkemi menjadi kimia Kemajuan di bidang matematika dan ilmu alam Kemajuan di bidang pertukangan Penjelajahan Terjadi penjelajahan ke seluruh dunia Columbus tiba di benua Amerika Vasco da Gama mengelilingi Afrika ke Timur Magellan mengelilingi bumi James Cook sampai ke Australia Belanda sampai ke Banten
Zaman Kebangkitan Observasi dan Eksperimen Observasi Ilmiah Observasi astronomi melalui teropong dilakukan oleh Kopernikus, Galileo, Tycho Brahe Lahir teori heheliosentris (berbeda dengan geosentris) dan ditemukan bulan di planet saturnus Heliosentris ditentang oleh Katedral (kini dilindungi dengan kebebasan akademik) Temuan Kopernikus mengemukakan sistem heliosentri dengan garis edar lingkaran Kepler (dengan data Tycho Brahe) menemukan garis edar berbentuk elips Galileo menemukan bulan di planet Jupiter melalui teropong
Zaman Kebangkitan Observasi dan Eksperimen Eksperimen Ilmiah Galileo menjatuhkan benda dari menara Pisa dan menemukan bahwa benda ringan dan berat tiba di tanah dalam waktu yang sama (membantah asumsi Aristoteles) Galileo melakukan percobaan tentang gerak benda pada bidang miring dan menyusun rumus gerak benda Dinamika Gerak (Gallileo) Sebelum Newton, Galileo menemukan dinamika gerak Termasuk rumus gerak, gerak parabola, gaya sentripetal
SCHOLASTICISM The philosophical systems and speculative tendencies of various medieval Christian thinkers who, working on a background of fixed religious dogma, sought to solve anew general philosophical problems (as of faith and reason, will and intellect, realism and nominalism, and the provability of the existence of God), initially under the influence of the mystical and intuitional tradition of patristic philosophy and especially Augustinianism and later under that of Aristotle. In the early Middle Ages the authority of the Church Fathers still remain important especially that of the Pseudo-Dionysus, with his hierarchically ordered cosmos. (Pseudo-Dionysus wrote under the name of Dionysus the Areopagite—one of St. Paul’s convents— around AD 500 in order to clothe his own works in a borrowed authority.) The impact of the controversial theologian Peter Abelard in the 11 th century, however, brought logic to the forefront of scholastic philosophy and rendered reliance upon the authority of the Fathers alone inadequate. For such medieval theologians as Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, reasoned assumed an important role in theology, not as the antithesis of faith, but as its supplement. Thus, the scholastics made a systematic attempt to map out the field of theology as a science and
in so doing developed new treatises on matters that had previously belonged to preaching (e.g. the sacraments). They began to prevail over the more contemplative and monastic schools, which held that theology considered in wisdom rather than in science. They borrowed freely from the philosophy of Aristotle, which came to them largely via the Islamic philosophers Averoes ( ) and Avicenna ( ). They aimed at a synthesis of learning in which theology surmounted the hierarchy of knowledge. The primary methods of teaching were the lectio (lecture) and the disputatio (formal debate), which consisted largely in the presentation and analysis of syllogisms. Although there was fairly general agreement as to method and aim, Scholastics did not always agree among themselves on points of doctrines. Distinct schools of theology emerged, the most influential being those of the Franciscan Duns Scotus, for whom a world created in God’s groundless, absolute freedom could exhibit no “necessary reasons,” and the Dominican St. Thomas Aquinas, for whom faith, in general, presupposed and therefore required natural reason. The Thomist position tended increasingly to prevail, and Aquinas was eventually declared “common doctor” of the church and consider-
ed the repository of sound and orthodox doctrine. His Summa Theologiae (“Summary of Theology”) became the standard textbook of theology, and the era of the great commentaries on Aquinas began. One of the most famous was that of a 16 th -century Dominican, Cardinal Thomas de Vio, commonly known as Cajetan. The polemical atmosphere of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation introduced a new factor. While Protestant theologians stressed scriptural and patristic authority and despised the Scholastics as logic-chopping obscurantists, Catholic theologians came to rely on the latter more and more heavily. The Metaphysical Disputations of the late 16 th -century Jesuit Francisco Suares, however, reveal a concern for the spirit rather than the letter of Scholasticism. Rather than commentary on Aquinas, his work is an original philosophical treatises inspired by Aquinas and others. The first author to try to extract a philosophy (apart from theology) from Aquinas was the Dominican John of St. Thomas in the 17 th century with his Cursus Philosophicus, and this example was much followed. The medieval synthesis was still further fragmented as new treatises were devised on such subjects as ecclesiology, apologetics, moral theology, and cosmology. Nevertheless, the medieval were retained
as a point of reference, and these philosophers and theologians saw themselves as the heirs to the Scholastic tradition. Th18th and 19 th centuries were a period of decadent Scholasticism. The tradition survived as a form of emasculated Aristotelianism out of touch with contemporary thought and science, it continues to be taught in Latin, providing what amounted to a memory test for Catholic seminarians. A Thomist revival was announced and stimulated by Pope Leo XIII’s encyclical Aeterni Puris (1879); so called Neoscholasticism became the dominant school in the Roman Catholic universities, although it proved at first incapable of dialogue with contemporary philosophy and played a conservative role in the Modernist crisis of the early years of the 20 th century. Subsequently, however, Neoscholasticism and Neothomism earned renewed respect on the basis of the historical scholarship of the French Christian philosopher Etienne Gilson and others, who traced the original contributions of the Scholastics and their influence on subsequent philosophy.
Zaman Kebangkitan Observasi dan Eksperimen Teori Newton Newton mengemukakan teori mekanika: kelembaman dan gravitasi Merupakan salah satu temuan terbesar di bidang ilmu Sintesis Agung Observasi, eksperimen, dan teori Newton menggunakan matematika sehingga terjadi sintesis di antara ilmu alam dengan matematika Sintesis ini sangat produktif sehingga menghasilkan kemajuan yang pesat di bidang ilmu Matematika Mengalami kemajuan yang pesat, dari ahli matematika Italia, ke Perancis, dan ke Jerman
Zaman Kebangkitan Observasi dan Eksperimen Alkemi Alkemi eksoterik dan esoterik terus berkembang Mereka mencari suatu bahan yang dinamakan elixir (al-iksir) atau philosopher’s stone yang dipercaya dapat menjadi katalisator pembuatan emas dari bahan murah Elixir dapat membuat orang panjang umur Pembuatan emas tidak mereka peroleh, tetapi mereka menemukan sejumlah bahan baru Kegiatan mereka mendekati kegiatan kimia Bernard Trevisan Ada kisah tentang Bernard Trevisan yang sejak muda berusaha membuat emas tetapi tidak berhasil (agaknya fiktif)
Zaman Pertengahan Observasi dan Eksperimen Paracelsus dan Pengobatan Nama aslinya adalah Theophratus Philippus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim, kemudian menggunakan nama Paracelsus ( ) Anak seorang dokter dan kemudian belajar di Universitas Basel dan menjadi dokter Paracelsus percaya bahwa bahan dari alkemi dapat dijadikan obat sehingga bertengkar dengan para dokter dan farmasi yang masih menggunakan pengobatan cara kuno Ketika diangkat menjadi guru besar medik di Universitas Basel, pada tahun 1527, di depan umum, Paracelsus membakar buku pengobatan kuno Dimusuhi banyak orang, Paracelsus pergi meninggalkan Basel dan berkelana
The most important name in this period is Philippus Aurolius Paracelsus (Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, ) who cast alchemy into a new form, rejecting some of the occultism that had accumulated over the years and promoting the use of observations and experiments to learn about the human body. He rejected Gnostic traditions, but kept much of the Hermetical, neo-Platonic, and Pythagorean philosophies; however, Hermetical science had so much Aristotelian theory that his rejection of Gnosticism was practically meaningless. In particular, Paracelsus rejected the magic theories of Agrippa and Flamel. He did not think of himself as magician, and scorned those who did. Paracelsus pioneered the use chemicals and minerals in medicine, and wrote “Many have said of Alchemy, that it is for the making of gold and silver. For me such is the aim, but to consider only what virtue and power may lie in medicines.” His hermetical views were that sickness and health in the body relied on the harmony of man the microcosm and Nature the macrocosm. He took an approach different from those before him, using this analogy not in the manner of soul-purification but in the manner that humans must have certain balances of minerals in their bodies, and that certain illnesses of the
body had chemical remedies that could cure them. While his attempt of treating diseases with such remedies as Mercury might seem ill-advised from a modern point of view, his basic idea of chemically produced medicines has stood time surprisingly well.
Zaman Pertengahan Observasi dan Eksperimen Paracelsus dan Alkemi Paracelsus percaya bahwa alkemi dapat mengubah bahan alami dan menghasilkan bahan baru untuk keperluan baru Walaupun gagal membuat emas, para alkemi berhasil menemukan sejumlah bahan baru Alkemi Menjadi Kimia Dibantu dengan teori ilmiah, alkemi memudar dan hilang Dirintis oleh Lavoisier, muncul kimia yang mengenal teori dan eksperimen di laboratorium Pembetulan Kalender Pada tahun 1527, Paus Gregorius membetulkan kalender (ada lompatan 10 hari di bulan Oktober)
Zaman Pertengahan Observasi dan Eksperimen Sistem Metrik Pada tahun 1798 pada kongres ilmu internasional, satuan meter diterima sebagai sistem metrik yang baru. Satu meter adalah 1/ bagian dari ¼ keliling bumi dari kutub ke kutub. Dari satuan meter, ditentukan satuan liter dan kilogram (massa 1 liter air) Sistem metrik menggunakan kelipatan 10, mili-, centi-, deci- (Latin) dan deca-, hecto-, kilo- (Yunani)
In 1788, a year in which there were 2000 units of measure current in France (most of them used only in one locality), a commission of six scientists was set up to consider how to establish a uniform system. Its members, who included Coulomb, Laplace and Lavoisier, could hardly have been more distinguished. It would start work in 1789, exactly a thousand years after Charlemagne had established uniform measures throughout his empire (some of which still survived in Britain). The Commission’s first decision was to make a completely new start, with some constant of physics as its base. There were two possibilities (neither of which would have been open to Charlemagne). One was to make use of Christiaan Huygens’ discovery that the period of oscillation of a pendulum depended only on its length (so that, for instance, the standard could be the length of a pendulum with a period of one second). The other possibility was to base the standard on the length of a meridian (that is, a great circle passing through the two poles). The National Assembly could not make up its mind: on 8 May 1790 it decided for the pendulum; on 30 March 1791, for a quarter of meridian (that is, the distance between a pole and the equator). At the same time Lavoisier had devised a means for accurately determining the weight of a prescribed unit volume of water: this would then provide a new measure of weight, linked to that for length.
At the end of the day the pendulum was rejected, partly because it lacked charisma—but also for the good scientific reason (already known to Newton) that gravity varies slightly over the world’s surface. The problem, then, was to measure the meridian: the only practical way to do this was to find a meridian, running precisely from north to south and joining two coastal locations. The difference in the two latitudes (determined astronomically) then provides the means for measuring the length of the quarter-meridian. Conveniently France proved to be the only country in the world where a meridian could be found satisfying the requisite conditions; even more conveniently it could be chosen to pass through the Paris Observatory. In fact, the meridian so chosen intersects the coast of the Mediterranean just inside Spain, but with a little diplomacy French surveyors could be allowed to start their work there. this was exactly how the operation was planned: two surveyors would map the line of the meridian by means of the triangulation process established by Snel two centuries earlier. One would start at the north end, and the other at the south, to meet, by prearrangement, somewhere in the middle. And in 1791, Lavoisier, who has become Treasurer of the Academy, arranged for the necessary finance.
Two astronomers, Pierre Méchain ( ) and Jean-Baptiste Delambre ( ), were appointed to the task and equipped with a new instrument, superior to the English theodolite, invented by the chevalier de Borda in The two could hardly have been more different, as would be reflected in the way they carried out their work and surmonted the many obstacles encountered: Méchain, who would work north from the coast near Barcelona, was pessimistic and withdrawn, while Delambre, who would work south from Dunkirk, was optimistic and outgoing. The distanced to be covered by each were measured in toises, then the unit most commonly used (but due to be superseded as a result of the task in hand). Because the Spanish sector was almost unknown, Méchain was assigned much the shorter distance, 170,000 toises, where Delambre got 380,000. The two would then meet in the small town of Rodez, somewhere south of the Dordogne. The modus operandi was to carry out successive triangulations by sighting standard signals, in the form fo large coloured boards, placed on lical high points, sometimes natural (e.g. the summit of a hill), sometimes man-made (e.g. the top of a bell-tower). These then defined stations for locating succeeding triangulation points. In addition, there would be five astronomical stations, located by star-sights as with sea navigation. Two of these were the terminal points, Dunkirk and Barcelona, a third was the Panthéon in Paris, and the
remaining, Carcassonne in south, and Evaux in central France. The result was that there would be four separate stages in measuring the distance by triangulation. The time was hardly propitous for such an undertaking: the French Revolution did not make life easier for Méchain and Delambre, and suspicious local people, without any idea of what was going on, obstructed the work when their help was needed. With the rudimentary infrastructure of the time, many triangulation points were almost inaccessible—and things were worse when the weather was bad. The operation was carried out with two baselines, each 12 kilometres long. This distance had to measured with extreme accuarcy; othrwose the whole project would be worthless. The was the problem of finding two areas, along the meridian, each with a straight road across perfectly flat terrain. In the north this was the main road between Melun and Lieusaint, just south of Paris. Delambre built two stone pyramids, 25 metres high, at each end: even so, 500 trees had to be cut down to clear the line of sight between them. Equally thorough preparations were needed for the southern baseline near Perpignan. The actual measurement, taking some seven weeks in the early summer of 1789, was carried out by olacing, successively end to end, four identical platinum rules of standard length. Endless care was to taken to protect them from sunlight, to ensure perfect alignment and fit
between two successive rulers. Using a system devised by Lavoisier (who by this time had lost his head to the guillotine), a copper ruler, with a different coefficient of expansion, was used for corrections taking into account changes caused by heat in the length of the platinum standard. Some idea of the care taken is shown by an average rate of progress of 20 metres per hour. At the end of the day, when two baselines were compared as a result of the triangulations carried out across the distance seperating them, the error was of the order of 3 centimetere over a distance of 12 kilometres—and astonishing degree of accuracy. Méchain and Delambre were busy for more than six years, but while they were still at work, the Commission in Paris was also involved. First, it had to decide on new names for the measures, and then how they were to ber relatied. To ensure that the new system could be used internationally, new terms were coined from Latin and Greek roots (following the practice, recently adopted, for the newly discovered chemical elements). The key units, named mètre, litre and gramme, could be subdivided into smaller units, defined by Latin suffixes, milli-, centi- and déci-, and consolidated into large units, with Greek suffixes, déca, hecto and kilo. At the same time the liquid measure, the litre, was defined as 1 cubic décimetre, so that the weight of a litre of water would then define a kilogramme.
In 1798, the year of completion, Napoleon who would become first consul of France a year later, had led French armies in conquests that radically changed the political alignment of Europe. Talleyrand, the French Foreign Minister, acting on the principle of carpe diem, convened what was effectively the first ever international scientific congress. Its agenda had one main item: the adoption of the new metric system. The powers invited to the congress were either neutral or allied, the later consisting largely of recently constituted French puppet states, such as the Cutch Bavarian Republic. England, which on 1 August 1798 had destroyed the French fleet at the battle of Aboukir, was not invited, nor were Prussia and the United States. The English-speaking world, with its archaic system of weights and measures, is still paying the price. The rest of the world has had the benefit of the metric system for more than 200 years.
Zaman Pertengahan Observasi dan Eksperimen Rekapitulasi Perkembangan Kopernikus: heliosentrik (tata surya) Kepler (dengan data dari Tycho Brahe): gerakan benda langit adalah elips Galileo Galilei: dinamika gerak (percepatan jatuh dan sentrifugal, gerak parabola dan proyektil), bulan di Jupiter Isaac Newton: teori gravitasi Dampak Bumi hanya planet kecil, arti manusia di jagad raya menjadi kecil Komet bisa diterangkan, banyak tahayul lenyap Tuhan berurusan dengan jagad raya yang besar sehingga urusan manusia hanya bagian kecil
Zaman kebangkitan Metoda Ilmiah Metoda Ilmiah Descartes Rene Descartes menulis Risalat Metoda Ada empat aturan pada metoda ilmiah ini yang dimulai dari meragukan apa yang belum diyakini secara pasti Ragukan masa kini, masa lalu, masa depan, dan pikiran orang lain Bahkan Descartes meragukan keberadaan dirinya sendiri. Katanya cogito ergo sum (saya berpikir maka saya ada) Pengaruh Metoda Descartes Aturan Descartes ini berpengaruh sampai sekarang Metoda ini digunakan pada metodologi penelitian
METHODIC DOUBT Methodic doubt in Cartesian philosophy, a way of searching for certainty by systematically though tentatively doubting everything. First, all statements are classified according to type and source of knowledge—e.g. knowledge from tradition, empirical knowledge, and mathematical knowledge. Then, examples from each class are examined. If a way can be found to doubt the truth of any statement, then all other statements of that type are also set aside as dubitable. The doubt is methodic because it assures systematic completeness, but also because no claim is made that all—or even that any—statements in a dubitable class are really false or that one must or can distrust them in an ordinary sense. The method is to set aside as conceivably false all statements and types of knowledge that are not indubitably true. The hope is that, by eliminating all statements and types of knowledge the truth of which can be doubted in any way, one will find some indubitable certainties. In the first half of the 17 th century, the French
Rationalist Rene Descartes used methodic doubt to reach certain knowledge of self-existence in the act of thinking, expressed in the indubitable proposition cogito, ergo sum (“I think, therefore I am”). He found knowledge from tradition to be dubitable because authorities disagree; empirical knowledge dubitable because of illusions, hallucinations, and dreams; and mathematical knowledge dubitable because people made errors in calculating. He proposed an all- powerful, deceiving demon a a way of involving universal doubt. Although the demon could deceive men regarding which sensations and ideas are truly of the world, or could even make them think that there is an external world when there is none, the demon could not make men think that they exist when they do not.
Zaman Kebangkitan Metoda Ilmiah: Aturan Descartes Aturan #1 Jangan menerima sesuatu sebagai kebenaran selama kita tidak mengetahui secara jelas bahwa sesuatu itu adalah demikian (ini dikenal sebagai methodic doubt) Aturan #2 Membagi kesulitan yang sedang diperiksa ke dalam sebanyak mungkin bagian dan seperlu mungkin untuk memperoleh pemecahan yang pantas (kemudian dikritik sebagai reduksionis karena melihat sesuatu dari bagian-bagian dan bukan secara menyeluruh)
Zaman Kebangkitgan Metoda Ilmiah Aturan #3 Mengatur pikiran kita menurut urutan sehingga dengan memulai penelitian pada obyek yang paling sederhana dan yang paling mudah untuk diketahui, langkah demi langkah, ke bagian yang lebih kompleks Aturan #4 Di dalam setiap kasus kita membuat perhitungan yang lengkap dan ditinjau secara umum sehingga kita dapat memastikan bahwa tidak ada cara yang terlewatkan
Zaman Kebangkitan Metoda Ilmiah Kritik terhadap Descartes Metoda ilmiah Descartes masih kita pergunakan sampai sekarang Di semua penelitian, kita membagi dan membatasi masalah kita ke dalam bagian tertentu Kemudian kita membatasi masalah kita pada bagian tertentu saja Muncul kritik yang mengatakan bahwa metoda ini adalah reduksionis karena melihat sesuatu dari bagian-bagian Ada yang mengusulkan metoda wholistic yakni memecahkan masalah secara keseluruhan
Zaman Kebangkitan Observasi dan Eksperimen Contoh Tubuh Manusia Tubuh dipecah menjadi jiwa dan raga Jiwa dipecah menjadi psikiatri dan psikologi Raga dipecah menjadi banyak bagian (mata, kulit, jantung, dan lainnya) Tiap bagian dipelajari tersendiri dengan keahlian terpisah Ada yang ingin melihat tubuh manusia secara utuh Tidak jelas bagaimana sebenarnya metoda wholistic ini Masih di dalam pembicaraan
Zaman Kebangkitan Bidang Pertukangan Bidang Pertukangan Bidang pertukangan juga mengalami kemajuan yang cepat Terjadi sumbangan secara silang di antara ilmu dan pertukangan Pertukangan membuat alat yang lebih canggih (teropong, kompas) untuk digunakan oleh ilmu Sebaliknya temuan ilmiah dapat dimanfaatkan oleh pertukangan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan pertukangan Teknik dan Teknologi Ilmu dan pertukangan yang maju kelak menjadi ilmu teknik dan teknologi
Changes in the University (from MD Pacific) As early as the 14 th century the poet Petrarch urged the founding of a chair of Greek in Florence, and by the next century Renaissance enthusiasm for the new learning began its sweep through the academic communities. In Italy the universities were hospitable also to men like Vesalius and Galideo at Padua, although elsewhere the surge of scientific interest was expressed mainly in academies of aristocratic amateurs, often founded by royalty. As Aristotle and medieval scholasticism gave way to Plato and classic literature, history and belles-lettres, a university education became for the first time a gentleman’s and not merely a cleric’s or lawyer’s pursuit. The clash of Reformation and Counter-Reformation threw the universities into their first historic crisis: at Luther’s own university of Wittenberg enrollment fell from 330 to 85 within a year of his rebellion, and Paris’ 40 colleges were nearly deserted for a time, until rulers of both creeds began reinvigorating the old universities and establishing new ones. Out of the Protestant effort came Leyden, Jena, Koenigsberg, which later produced Immanuel Kant, Halle (1693) with its famous medical school, Goettingen, which inherited a great monastic library and was liberally endowed besides by George II
of England as Elector of Hanover in The teaching order of Jesuits founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1541 became a powerful educational force in the Catholic world. Royalty
Zaman Modern Abad ke-18 sampai Sekarang Revolusi Industri Revolusi industri pada abad ke-18 digunakan sebagai waktu dimulainya zaman modern Kemajuannya dapat kita saksikan pada zaman ini, terutama di bidang ilmu dan teknologi Ada yang mengidentifikasi zaman sekarang ini sebagai zaman informasi pascaindustri Filsafat Ada sejumlah aliran filsafat yang berkembang pada zaman modern (Hegel, Marx, Satre, dan lainnya), namun di sini, kita hanya melihat aliran yang banyak sangkut pautnya dengan filsafat ilmu Mereka mencakup filsafat positivisme, filsafat analitik (linguistik), dan filsafat postivisme logika
Zaman Modern Abad ke-18 sampai sekarang Bill Mckibben (National Geographic, August 2006, p. 39) “The industrial revolution began the day in 1712 that Thomas Newcomen figured out how to use a steam engine to pump water out of a coal mine, so that it could be mined more cheaply and easily, thus allowing more steam engines.”
Zaman Modern Aliran Filsafat Filsafat Positivisme Diidentifikasi juga sebagai filsafat ilmu Membatasi filsafat kepada hal-hal yang dapat diuji secara empirik Filsafat Analitik Dikenal juga sebagai filsafat linguistik (bahasa) Filsafat diungkapkan dan dikomunikasikan melalui bahasa sehingga masalah filsafat adalah masalah bahasa Filsafat Positivisme Logika Positivisme ditambahkan dengan logika dan analisis bahasa Metodologi penelitian bertumpu juga pada filsafat ini
Zaman Modern Kemajuan Ilmu dan Teknologi Kemajuan Ilmu Kemajuan pesat terjadi di berbagai cabang ilmu Muncul jurnal untuk publikasi temuan ilmiah Terdapat hadiah (termasuk Nobel) bagi temuan yang dinilai sangat menonjol Penerapan temuan ilmu ke teknologi terjadi dalam tenggang waktu yang makin singkat Kemajuan Ilmu Teknik Ilmu teknik juga mengalami kemajuan pesat Terpecah ke dalam sejumlah disiplin Menggunakan temuan di bidang ilmu Membuat alat canggih untuk penelitian di bidang ilmu
Zaman Modern Kemajuan Ilmu dan Teknologi Beberapa dimensi kemajuan Sangat kecil sampai ke partikel subatomik dan bahkan partikel elementer Sangat besar sampai ke galaksi dan cluster galaksi Sangat cepat pada siklotron dan pencepat partikel subatomik lainnya Sangat jauh melalui pesawat antariksa dan bahkan ke luar tata surya Sangat mendekati inti kehidupan sampai ke genetika dan gnome Sangat cerdas sampai ke komputer dan kecerdasan buatan Sangat menyentuh kesehatan sampai ke transplantasi dan cloning Sangat halus sampai ke nanoelektronika dengan skala nanometer (submikron)
Zaman Modern Kemajuan Ilmu dan Teknologi Segi Positif Ada mesin tenaga alam sehingga hewan dan budak menjadi bebas Ada mesin terampil dan robot sehingga membebaskan manusia dari pekerjaan monoton dan berbahaya Ada mesin komupter sehingga membebaskan manusia dari hitung yang lambat Ada pengobatan canggih sehingga membebaskan manusia dari banyak jenis penyakit Segi Negatif Alat digunakan untuk perang dan membunuh orang secara massal Senjata nuklir dapat memusnahkan peradaban manusia
Zaman Modern Kemajuan Ilmu dan Teknologi Moral Ilmuwan Ilmuwan makin berbahaya sehingga diperlukan ilmuwan yang bermoral dan jujur Diperlukan etika untuk eksperimen, biasanya, dilakukan melalui dewan etika Ada juga etika publikasi yang perlu dipatuhi oleh para ilmuwan Konvensi Internasional Larangan senjata pembunuh massal Perlindungan terhadap bumi Perlindungan terhadap hewan dan tumbuhan Hak asasi manusia
Zaman Modern Ilmu dan Teknologi Dari Ilmu ke Teknologi Dua abad lalu, tidak diketahui apa gunanya listrik Satu setengah abad lalu, tidak diketaui apa gunanya sistem bilangan biner Pada waktu lalu, tidak diketahui apa gunanya bilangan prima Kecepatan Kemajuan Tiap 18 tahun isi perpustakaan melipat dua Jumlah organisasi ilmuwan bertambah Waktu antara ilmu ke teknologi makin singkat Kecepatan gerak yang dihasilkan manusia makin besar