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5-1. 5-2 C H A P T E R 5 STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION AND STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS Intermediate Accounting IFRS Edition Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield.

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Presentasi berjudul: "5-1. 5-2 C H A P T E R 5 STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION AND STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS Intermediate Accounting IFRS Edition Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield."— Transcript presentasi:

1 5-1

2 5-2 C H A P T E R 5 STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION AND STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS Intermediate Accounting IFRS Edition Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield

3 Explain the uses and limitations of a statement of financial position Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position Prepare a classified statement of financial position using the report and account formats Indicate the purpose of the statement of cash flows Identify the content of the statement of cash flows Prepare a basic statement of cash flows Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows Determine additional information requiring note disclosure Describe the major disclosure techniques for financial statements. Learning Objectives

4 5-4 Statement of Financial Position Additional Information UsefulnessLimitationsClassificationNotes Techniques of disclosure Other guidelines Statement of Financial Position and Statement of Cash Flows Statement of Cash Flows Purpose Content and format PreparationUsefulness

5 5-5 Statement of Financial Position Statement of Financial Position, also referred to as the balance sheet: 1.Reports assets, liabilities, and equity at a specific date. 2.Provides information about resources, obligations to creditors, and equity in net resources. 3.Helps in predicting amounts (jumlah), timing (waktu), and uncertainty (ketidakpastian) of future cash flows.

6 5-6 Analyze company’s:  Liquidity jumlah waktu yang diperkirakan akan dibutuhkan sampai suatu aktiva terealisasi atau sebaliknya dikonversi menjadi kas  Rasio ini mengindikasikan apakah perusahaan memiliki sumber daya untuk melunasi kewajiban lancarnya dan yang akan jatuh tempo.  Solvency kemampuan perusahaan untuk membayar hutang-hutangnya pada saat jatuh tempo  Perusahaan dengan hutang jangka panjang yang tinggi terhadap aktiva, maka solvensi  Financial flexibility kemampuan perusahaan untuk mengubah komposisi arus kas sehingga dapat bereaksi terhadap kebutuhan dan peluang tak terduga  Perusahaan yang memiliki banyak hutang tidak akan fleksibel secara keuangan.  Semakin tinggi fleksibilitas keuangan, semakin kecil risiko kegagalan perusahaan Usefulness Statement of Financial Position

7 5-7 Most assets and liabilities are reported at historical cost. Use of judgments and estimates.  estimasi jumlah piutang yang akan ditagih  masa manfaat gudang Many items of financial value are omitted : nilai keuangan bagi perusahaan tetapi tidak bisa dicatat secara objektif : reputasi, nilai karyawan Limitations Statement of Financial Position

8 5-8 Classification LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. Statement of Financial Position

9 5-9 Subclassifications LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. Statement of Financial Position Illustration 5-1 In some countries, such as Germany, companies often list current assets first. IAS No. 1 requires companies to distinguish current assets and liabilities from non-current ones, except in limited situations.

10 5-10 Generally consists of: Long-term Investments (Investasi jangka panjang) Property, Plant, and Equipment (properti atau kekayaan fisik seperti tanah, bangunan, mesin, perabotan, dan perkakas). Intangibles Assets (Aktiva tidak berwujud) : tidak memiliki substansi fisik dan bukan merupakan instrumen keuangan : paten, hak cipta, goodwill, merek dagang, daftar pelanggan. Other Assets : beban di bayar dimuka jangka panjang ClassificationClassification Non-Current Assets (Aktiva Tidak Lancar)

11 5-11 Long-term Investments 1.Securities (bonds, ordinary shares, or long-term notes). 2.Tangible assets not currently used in operations (tanah yang ditahan untuk spekulasi). 3.Special funds (sinking fund, pension fund, or plant expansion fund. 4.Non-consolidated subsidiaries or associated companies. Non-Current Assets ClassificationClassification

12 5-12 Tangible long-lived assets used in the regular operations of the business. Physical property such as land, buildings, machinery, furniture, tools, and wasting resources (minerals). With the exception of land, a company either depreciates (e.g., buildings) or depletes (e.g., oil reserves) these assets. Property, Plant, and Equipment ClassificationClassification

13 5-13 LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification Illustration 5-3 Statement of Financial Position Presentation of Property, Plant, and Equipment

14 5-14 Tidak memiliki substansi fisik dan bukan merupakan instrumen keuangan Patents, copyrights (hak cipta), franchises, goodwill, trademarks (merk), trade names (nama dagang), and customer lists. Diamortisasi selama masa manfaatnya Perusahaan secara periodik menilai umur aktiva tak berwujud (seperti goodwill) berdasarkan penurunan nilai (impairment) yang terjadi. Intangible Assets ClassificationClassification

15 5-15 Intangible Assets LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification Illustration 5-4 Statement of Financial Position Presentation of Intangible Assets

16 5-16 Kas dan aktiva lainnya yang diharapkan akan dapat dikonversi menjadi kas, dijual, atau dikonsumsi dalam satu tahun atau dalam satu siklus operasi, tergantung mana yang paling lama. Current Assets ClassificationClassification Illustration 5-5 LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position.

17 5-17 Inventories Disclose: Basis of valuation (e.g., lower-of-cost-or-market). Cost flow assumption (e.g., FIFO or average cost). LO 2 ClassificationClassification Illustration 5-6

18 5-18 Inventories LO 2 ClassificationClassification Manufacturing Company Illustration 5-8 Statement of Financial Position Presentation of Inventories

19 5-19 Claims held against customers and others for money, goods, or services. Major categories of receivables should be shown in the statement of financial position or the related notes. Receivables LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification

20 5-20 Receivables LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification Illustration 5-8 Statement of Financial Position Presentation of Receivables

21 5-21 Payment of cash, that is recorded as an asset because service or benefit will be received in the future. insurancesuppliesadvertising Cash Payment Expense Recorded BEFORE rent maintenance on equipment Prepayments often occur in regard to: Prepaid Expenses LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification

22 5-22 Prepaid Expenses LO 2 ClassificationClassification Illustration 5-9 Statement of Financial Position Presentation of Prepaid Expenses

23 5-23 Short-Term Investments LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification Illustration 5-10 Statement of Financial Position Presentation of Short-Term Investments

24 5-24 Generally any monies available “on demand.” Cash equivalents – investasi jangka pendek yang sangat likuid dan akan jatuh tempo dalam jangka waktu tiga bulan atau kurang. Restrictions or commitments must be disclosed. Cash Illustration 5-11 LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification

25 5-25 Cash LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification Illustration 5-12 Statement of Financial Position—Restricted Cash

26 5-26 Equity LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification

27 5-27 Equity LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification  Ordinary shares and preference shares - must disclose the par value and the authorized, issued, and outstanding amounts.  Share premium - company usually presents one amount for ordinary and preference shares.  Retained earnings - amount may be divided between the unappropriated and restricted amounts.  Treasury shares - shown as a reduction of equity.

28 5-28 Equity LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification Illustration 5-13 Statement of Financial Position—Equity

29 5-29 Non-Current Liabilities LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification Kewajiban yang diperkirakan tidak dapat dilunasi (dilikuidasi) dalam siklus operasi yang normal. 1.Kewajiban dari situasi pembiayaan khusus : penerbitan obligasi, kewajiban lease jangka panjang. 2.Kewajiban yang berasal dari operasi normal perusahaan : kewajiban pensiun 3.Kewajiban yang tergantung pada terjadi atau tidak terjadinya satu kejadian atau lebih di masa depan untuk mengkonfirmasi jumlah yang harus di bayar

30 5-30 Non-Current Liabilities LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification Illustration 5-15 Statement of Financial Position Presentation of Non-Current Liabilities

31 5-31 Current Liabilities LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification Obligations that a company generally expects to settle in its normal operating cycle or one year, whichever is longer. This concept includes: 1.Payables resulting from the acquisition of goods and services: accounts payable, wages payable, and so on. 2.Collections received in advance for the delivery of goods or performance of services, such as unearned rent revenue. 3.Other liabilities whose liquidation will take place within the operating cycle or one year.

32 5-32 Current Liabilities LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification Illustration 5-16 Statement of Financial Position Presentation of Current Liabilities

33 5-33 Statement of Financial Position Format IFRS does not specify the order or format in which a company presents items in the statement of financial position. Account form or report form. LO 3 Prepare a classified statement of financial position using the report and account formats. ClassificationClassification

34 5-34 ClassificationClassification Account Form Illustration 5-17 LO 3 Prepare a classified statement of financial position using the report and account formats.

35 5-35 ClassificationClassification LO 3 Report Form Illustration 5-17

36 5-36 The Statement of Cash Flows One of the three basic objectives of financial reporting is “assessing the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows.” IASB requires the statement of cash flows (also called the cash flow statement).

37 5-37 Primary Purpose : menyediakan informasi yang relevan mengenai penerimaan dan pembayaran kas sebuah perusahaan selama suatu periode. The statement provides answers to the following questions: 1.Where did the cash come from? 2.What was the cash used for? 3.What was the change in the cash balance (perubahan saldo kas) ? Purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows LO 4 Indicate the purpose of the statement of cash flows.

38 5-38 OperatingOperating Cash inflows and outflows from operations. InvestingInvesting Cash inflows and outflows from non-current assets. FinancingFinancing Cash inflows and outflows from non-current liabilities and equity. Content and Format Pengaruh kas dari transaksi yang digunakan untuk menentukan net income Perolehan dan pelepasan investasi a. Perolehan sumber daya dari pemilik b. Pengembalian investasi c. Peminjaman uang dari kreditor dan pelunasan

39 5-39 Illustration 5-19 Content and Format

40 5-40 Informasi untuk membuat laporan arus kas biasanya berasal dari : (1) Neraca komparatif, (2) Laporan laba rugi (income statement), and (3) data-data transaksi terpilih. Pembuatan Laporan Arus Kas Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows LO 6 Prepare a basic statement of cash flows.

41 5-41 Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows Statement of Cash Flows: Telemarketing Inc. dalam tahun pertama operasinya pada tanggal 1 Januari 2011 menerbitkan 50,000 lembar saham biasa dengan nilai pari $1 seharga $50,000 tunai. Perusahaan menyewakan ruang kantor, perabotan, dan peralatan telekomunikasi serta melaksanakan survey dan jasa pemasaran sepanjang tahun pertama. Pada bulan Juni 2011, perusahaan membeli tanah seharga $15,000. Neraca komparatif pada awal dan akhir tahun 2011 ditunjukkan dalam ilustrasi Laporan laba rugi Telemarketing, Inc. dan informasi tambahannya disajikan pada ilustrasi 5.21

42 5-42 Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows LO 6 Illustration 5-21 Illustration 5-20

43 5-43 Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows Preparing the Statement of Cash Flows Tentukan: 1.Kas yang disediakan oleh aktivitas atau digunakan dalam operasi. 2.Kas yang disediakan oleh atau digunakan dalam aktivitas investasi dan pembiayaan 3.Penentuan perubahan (kenaikan atau penurunan) kas selama periode berjalan. 4.Rekonsiliasi perubahan kas dengan saldo kas awal dan saldo kas akhir. LO 6 Prepare a basic statement of cash flows.

44 5-44 Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows Cash provided by operating activities Illustration 5-22 Illustration 5-20Illustration 5-21 LO 6 Prepare a basic statement of cash flows.

45 5-45 The Statement of Cash Flows Illustration 5-29 Next, the company determines its investing and financing activities. Illustration 5-20Illustration 5-21

46 5-46 Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows Statement of Cash Flows (BE 5-12): Keyser Beverage Company reported the following items in the most recent year. Activity Operating Financing Operating Investing Operating Financing Required: Prepare a Statement of Cash Flows Net income $40,000 Dividends paid 5,000 Increase in accounts receivable 10,000 Increase in accounts payable 7,000 Purchase of equipment 8,000 Depreciation expense 4,000 Issue of notes payable 20,000 LO 6 Prepare a basic statement of cash flows.

47 5-47 Review In preparing a statement of cash flows, which of the following transactions would be considered an investing activity? a. Sale of equipment at book value a. Sale of equipment at book value b. Sale of merchandise on credit b. Sale of merchandise on credit c. Declaration of a cash dividend c. Declaration of a cash dividend d. Issuance of bonds payable. d. Issuance of bonds payable. Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows LO 6 Prepare a basic statement of cash flows.

48 5-48 Issuance of ordinary shares to purchase assets. Conversion of bonds into ordinary shares. Penerbitan surat utang untuk membeli aktiva. Pertukaran aktiva jangka panjang. Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows Aktivitas pembiayaan dan investasi yang signifikan yang tidak mempengaruhi kas tidak dilaporkan pada laporan arus kas dalam skedul terpisah di bagian bawah laporan arus kas. Contoh : Significant Non-Cash Activities

49 5-49 Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows Illustration 5-24 Comprehensive Statement of Cash Flows

50 5-50 High amount – kas bersih yang disediakan oleh aktivitas operasi tinggi  perusahaan mampu membayar kewajiban tanpa harus meminjam dari luar. Low amount – kas bersih yang disediakan oleh aktivitas operasi rendah  perusahaan harus meminjam atau menerbitkan sekuritas ekuitas untuk mendapatkan kas tambahan untuk membayar kewajibannya Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows Without cash, a company will not survive. Cash flow from Operations:

51 5-51 Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows Rasio ini mengindikasikan apakah perusahaan dapat melunasi kewajiban lancarnya dari operasinya LO 7 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows. Financial Liquidity Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities Average Current Liabilities Current Cash Debt Coverage Ratio = Illustration 5-26

52 5-52 Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows Rasio ini mengindikasikan kemampuan perusahaan untuk membayar kembali kewajibannya dengan kas bersih dari aktivitas operasi, tanpa harus menjual / melikuidasi aktiva yang digunakan dalam operasi. LO 7 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows. Financial Flexibility Average Total Liabilities Cash Debt Coverage Ratio = Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities Illustration 5-27

53 5-53 Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows The amount of discretionary cash flow a company has for purchasing additional investments, retiring its debt (melunasi hutang), purchasing treasury stock, or simply adding to its liquidity. Membeli investasi tambahan, melunasi hutang, membeli saham treasury, atau hanya untuk menambah likuiditas perusahaan. Free Cash Flow Illustration 5-29

54 5-54 Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. CopyrightCopyright


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