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Bab 9 Metoda Ilmiah. Metoda Ilmiah Unsur Metoda Ilmiah Metoda Ilmiah Dalam bentuk paling dasar, metoda ilmiah terdiri atas dua komponen: Ada temuan ilmiah.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Bab 9 Metoda Ilmiah. Metoda Ilmiah Unsur Metoda Ilmiah Metoda Ilmiah Dalam bentuk paling dasar, metoda ilmiah terdiri atas dua komponen: Ada temuan ilmiah."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Bab 9 Metoda Ilmiah

2 Metoda Ilmiah Unsur Metoda Ilmiah Metoda Ilmiah Dalam bentuk paling dasar, metoda ilmiah terdiri atas dua komponen: Ada temuan ilmiah (context of discovery) Ada justifikasi (context of justification) Temuan ilmiah Supaya dilengkapi dengan argumentasi/penelaran ilmiah Ada kalanya diawali dengan pertanyaan ilmiah dalam bentuk rumusan masalah Justifikasi ilmiah Supaya dilengkapi dengan rancangan serta peralatan yang memadai

3 Metoda Ilmiah Unsur Metoda Ilmiah Format Metoda Ilmiah Lembaga memiliki gaya sendiri untuk format metoda ilmiah Dalam banyak hal, lembaga mengeluarkan pedoman tentang format metoda ilmiah yang mereka gunakan Ada komponen penting yang pada umumnya sama untuk setiap format metoda ilmiah Format Penulisan Ada sejumlah format untuk menulis/melapor temuan ilmiah Biasanya ditentukan oleh lembaga yang menerima laporan temuan ilmiah (perguruan tinggi, jurnal ilmiah)

4 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD The scientific method is usually described in five steps. However, some identify only three or four steps, while others say there are six or seven steps. The number of steps is not important. What is important is the process that the researcher follows (a hypothetico-deductive paradigm). The scientific method should be regarded as a series of steps but, rather, as a set of overlapping and interdependent procedures for systematically studying phenomena and revealing knowledge. In other words, it is a way of thinking when doing research. In fact, the philosopher John Dewey referred to the scientific method as a “habit in mind”. The steps of the scientific method described here need not be followed in order, although researchers usually write up their reports as if they were. They do this more to meet the conventions of researched writing established over the years and to show that each of the steps was attended to in their research than to show that they began with the first step of the process. To illustrate the steps in the scientific method of research, we will refer to the previous example of the student whose car would not start. Step 1 The first step in the scientific method is usually characterized as the sensing or realizing that some problem exists through familiarity with a topic. For example, something might happen that cannot be easily explained, or the way to accomplish some goal may not be

5 evident.The realization that the car did not start even though it had worked previously served to establish the existence of the problem for the student. Step 2 The problem is clarified; that is, the nature, and specifics of the problem are identified. In our example, the student recognized the problem to be, simply, “How do I get the car started?” The problem is a question that determines, to a large extent, the direction the investigation will take. For example, had the student recognized his problem as “How will I get to school today?” or “Whom shall I ask to fix the car?” his subsequent behavior would have been very different. Step 3 the third step is devising the plan for the research. To do this, a statement describing a possible solution to the problem is made, and procedures are identified to test the plausibility of this tentative solution. Going back to our example, the student first thought that the problem might be with the battery, and so he developed a strategy to test that possibility. Finding that solution to be implausible or unsupported by his observations, he reasoned that the problem might be due to damp terminals on the starter motor, and he proceeded to test this. He continued to make plausible guesses about the cause of his inability to get the car started until he found one that was supported by what he saw in his investigati-

6 gations. Each guess he made led to a strategy. A plan for investigating the plausibility of the solution. Step 4 This step is decision making. Based upon the data collected in the previous step, the researcher evaluated the adequacy of the proposed solution. If the data support the solution, it is accepted as reasonable. The student in our example rejected the reasonableness of two possible solutions before he found one that was adequately supported by his observation. Step 5 The final step involves interpretation and generalization of the findings into the larger body of knowledge about the phenomenon. This might involve consideration of previous knowledge in terms of the new knowledge or further experimentation. Both consideration of what is already known and further experimentation in light of the new knowledge might be appropriate. We saw this in our example when the student replaced the worn- out fuse. In a sense, he was investigating whether or not the car would start with a new fuse in place of the old one. Furthermore, as he was driving to school, the student considered his knowledge about the fuse in his car in terms of what he knew about blown fuses in general and, therefore, determined to search for a short circuit.

7 HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE METHOD Procedure for the construction of a scientific theory that will account for results obtained through direct observation and experimentation and that will, through inference, predict further effects that can then be verified or disproved by empirical evidence derived from other experiments. Developed by Sir Isaac Newton during the late 17 th century (but named at a later date by philosophers of science), the hypothetico-deductive method assumes that properly formed theories arise as generalizations from observable data that they are intended to explain. These hypotheses, however, cannot be conclusively established until the consequences that logically follow from them are verified through additional observations and experiments. In conformity with Descarte’s rationalism, the hypothetico-deductive method treats theory as deductive system in which particular empirical phenomena are explained by relating them back to general principles and definitions. The method, however, abandons the Cartesian claim that those principles and definitions are self-evident and valid; it assumes that their validity is determined only by the exact light their consequences throw on previously unexplained phenomena or on actual scientific problems.

8 Metoda Ilmiah Pokok Pikiran Bertrand Russell Pengetahuan teoretik untuk memahami dunia. Pengetahuan praktis untuk mengubah dunia Ilmuwan yang membangun ilmu memiliki dua kebaikan: (1) kesabaran luar biasa di dalam observasi, dan (2) keberanian besar di dalam merumuskan hipotesis Sebagai aturan, perumusan hipotesis adalah bagian tersulit di dalam karya ilmu, serta merupakan bagian yang, tidak boleh tidak, harus ada kemampuan tinggi John Locke Pengetahuan di dunia dimulai dari persepsi indriah (sense perception) dan refleksi Mereka memberikan kepada pikiran bahan pengetahuan untuk membangun ide Pemahaman akan pemikiran dan proses mengetahui, perlu memahami bahasa sebagai media untuk berpikir dan berkomunikasi Diperlukan kata umum sebagai konsep abstrak

9 THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE (dari John Locke) Locke was thoroughly suspicious of the view that a thinker could work out by reason alone the truth about the universe. Much as he admired Descartes, he feared that this speculative spirit in him, and he despised it in the Scholastic philosophers. In this sense he rejected metaphysics. Knowledge of the world could only be gained by experience and reflection on experience, and this knowledge was being gained by Boyle, Sydenham, Christiaan Huygens, and Newton. They were the true philosophers who were advancing knowledge. Locke set himself the humbler task, as he conceived it, of understanding how this knowledge was gained. What was “the original, certainty, and extent of human knowledge, together with the grounds and degrees of belief, opinion, and assent?” Empiricism. As for “the original,” the answer was plain. Knowledge of the world began in sense perception, and self-knowledge in introspection, or “reflection” in Locke’s language. It did not begin in innate knowledge of maxims or general principles, and it did not proceed by syllogistic reasoning from such principles. In the 17 th century there had been much vague talk about innate knowledge, and in Book I of his Essay Concerning Human Understanding Locke examines this talk and

10 shows its worthlessness. In Book II of his Essay he begins by claiming that the sources of all knowledge are sense experience and reflection; these are not themselves, however, instances of knowledge in the strict sense, but they provide the mind with the material of knowledge. Locke calls the material so provided “ideas.” Ideas are objects “before the mind,” not in the sense that they are physical objects, but that they represent them. Locke distinguishes ideas that represent actual qualities of objects (such as size, shape, or weight) from ideas that represent perceive qualities, which do not exist in objects except as they affect observers (such as colour, taste, or smell). Locke designates the former primary qualities and the latter secondary qualities. Locke proceeds to group and classify the ideas, with a view to showing that the origin of all of them lies in sensation and reflection. Although ideas are immediately “before the mind,” not all of them are simple. Many of them are compounded, and their simple parts can be revealed on analysis. It is these simple ideas alone that are given in sensation and reflection. Out of them the mind forms complex ideas, though Locke is ambiguous on this point. For while he uses the language of “forming” or “compounding” and speaks of the “workmanship” of the mind, the compounding is frequently in accordance with what is perceived “to go together” and is not arbitrary. Locke’s reflection upon cause and effect, had they been

11 elaborated, would undoubtedly have led him into acute difficulties. He does admit one failure. As an empiricist he can give no account of the idea of substance; it is, he thinks, essential and not to be denied, and yet it is not a simple idea given in sensation or reflection nor is it derived from simple ideas so given. In fact he can say little of it; it is “a-something-I-know-not-what.” Thus, the case for empiricism cannot be said to be entirely established by Book II, but Locke thinks it strong enough for him to persist the view that knowledge of the physical world is wholly derived from sense perception. Language. According to Locke, Book III, on language, “cost [him] more pains” than any other book of his Essays; yet it is the book that has been most neglected. To understand thinking and knowing one must understand language as the means of thought and communication. Words are conventional signs, but signs, according to Locke, not immediately of things but of ideas of thing, so that he carries his theory of ideas into his account of knowledge. Frequently, the idea signified by the word is not clear, and sometimes words are used even when there are no ideas corresponding to them. This is particularly so in the case of general words, without which language would be so impoverished as to lose most of its worth. The use of general words, in Locke’s mind, is bound up with the theory of universals. Does the general word stand for a particular idea that is used in representative capacity? Or is the universal nothing more than a creation of the mind,

12 through abstraction, to which is attached a name? In considering natural substances Locke is inclined strongly toward a conceptualism according to which the use of general words is possible only because they signify “nominal essences.” In this view what is meant is not the real essence but an abstract concept, something brought about through “the workmanship of the understanding.” Locke also discusses the names of simple ideas and of relations, and it is interesting to find the crude beginnings of a discussion of what were later to be called logical or operative words. Book III contains also a valuable account of definition, which denies the theory that all definition must be per genus et differentiam (by comparison and contrast). The final chapters deal with the inevitable imperfections of language and with avoidable abuses.

13 Metoda Ilmiah Pokok Pikiran Immanuel Kant Ada tiga langkah di dalam penemuan pengetahuan: Pertama: “sensation” tak terstruktur, menurut ruang dan waktu Kedua: “perception” melalui hubungan konsep kosalitas, kontingensi, … Ketiga: “penilaian” disusun ke dalam sistem David Hume Pikiran memperoleh ide dari kesan. Kesan hanya berarti kalau dapat membawa obyek suber kesan ke dalam pikiran Dua arti pada ide Analitik -> hubungan ide Empirk -> fakta Kosalitas memastikan adanya hubungan perlu di antara fakta

14 HUMAN KNOWLEDGE (dari David Hume) An Enquiry Concerning Human Knowledge is an attempt to define the principles of human knowledge. It poses in logical form significant questions about nature of reasoning in regard to matters of fact and experience, and it answers them by recourse to the principle of association. The basis of this exposition is a twofold classification of objects of awareness. In the first place, al such objects are either “impressions,” data of sensation or of internal consciousness, or “ideas,” derived from such data by compounding, transposing, augmenting, or diminishing. That is to say, the mind does not create any ideas but derives them from impressions. From this Hume develops a theory of meaning. A word that does not stand directly for an impression has meaning only if it brings before the mind an object that can be gathered from an impression by one of the mental processes mentioned. In the second place, there are two approaches to construing meaning, an analytical one, which concentrates on the “relations of ideas,” and an empirical one, which focuses on “matters of fact.” Ideas can be held before the mind simply as meanings, and their logical relations to one another can then be detected by rational inspection. The idea of a plane triangle, for example, entails the equality of its internal angles to two right angles, and the idea of motion entails

15 the ideas of space and time, irrespective of whether there really are such things as triangles and motion. Only on this level of mere meanings, Hume asserts, is there room for demonstrative knowledge. Matters of fact, on the other hand, come before the mind merely as they are, revealing no logical relations; their properties and connections must be accepted as they are given. That primroses are yellow, that lead is heavy, and that fire burns things are facts, each shut up in itself, logically barren. Each, so far as reason is concerned, could be different: the contradictory of every matter of fact is conceivable. Therefore, any demonstra- tive science of fact is impossible. From this basis Hume develops his doctrine about causality. The idea of causality is alleged to assert a necessary connection among matters of fact. From what impression, then, is it derived? Hume states that no causal relation among the data of the senses can be observed, for, when a person regards any events as causally connected, all that he does and can observe is that they frequently and uniformly go together. In this sort of togetherness it is a fact that the impression or idea of the one event brings with it the idea of the other. A habitual association is set up in the mind; and, as in other forms of habit, so in this one, the working of the association is felt as compulsion. This feeling, Hume concludes, is the only discoverable impressional source of the idea of causality. Hume then considers the process of causal inference,

16 And in so doing the introduces the concept of belief. When a person sees a glass fall, he not only thinks of its breaking but expects and believes that it will break; or, starting from an effect, when he sees the ground to be generally wet, he not only thinks of rain but believes that there has been rain. Thus belief is a significant component in the process of causal inference. Hume then proceeds to investigate the nature of belief, claiming that he was the first to do so. He uses this term in the narrow sense of belief regarding matters of fact. He defines belief as a sort of liveliness or vividness that accompanies the perception of an idea. A belief is more than an idea; it is a vivid and lively idea. This vividness is originally possessed by some of the objects of awareness, by impressions and simple memory images of them. By association it comes to belong to certain ideas as well. In the process of causal inference, then, an observer passes from an impression to an idea regularly associated with it. In the process the aspect of liveliness proper to the impression infects the idea, Hume asserts. And it is this aspect of liveliness that Hume defines as the essence of belief. Hume does not claim to prove that the propositions, (1) that events themselves are causally related, and (2) that they will be related in the future in the same ways they were in the past, are false. He firmly believed both of these propositions are insisted that everybody else believed them, will continue to believe them, and must continue to believe them in order to survive. They are na-

17 tural beliefs, inextinguishable propensities of human nature, madness apart. What Hume claims to prove is that natural beliefs are not obtained and cannot be demonstrated either by empirical observation or by reason, whether intuitive or inferential. Reflection shows that there is no evidence for them and shoes also both that we are bound to believe them and that it is sensible or sane to do so. This is Hume’s skepticism : it is an affirmation of that tension, a denial not of belief but of certainty. As a philosopher. Hume conceived of philosophy as the inductive science of human nature, and he concluded that man is more a creature of sensitive and practical sentiment than of reason. Of the confident he is seen as one of the few British classical philosophers. For some Germans his importance lies in the fact that Immanuel Kant conceived his critical philosophy in direct reaction to Hume. Hume was one of the influences that led Auguste Comte, the 19th-century French mathematician and sociologist, to positivism. In Britain, his positive influence is seen in Jeremy Bentham, the early 19 th -century jurist philosopher, who was moved to utilitarianism (the moral theory that fight conduct should be determined by the usefulness of its consequences). …

18 Metoda Ilmiah Pokok Pikiran Leibniz Di dalam alam semesta, ditemukan wujud “sederhana” dan “sempurna.” Ada beberapa prinsip: Prinsip ekstrim (minimum dan maksimum) Prinsip kekekalan Prinsip kesinambungan Hubungan terkuat ditemukan melalui deduksi dan empiri John Stuart Mill Penalaran berasal dari pengalaman Pernyataan ilmiah berupa Eksistensi fakta Hubungan fakta (koeksitensi, urutan, kemiripan, kosalitias)

19 A SYSTEM OF LOGIC (dari John Stuart Mill) The distinctive features of Mill’s A System of Logic … (1843) was the idea that the rules of reasoning are obtained from experience, as opposed to the traditional view that they a part of the mind’s construction, or of the universe. A statement, he said, asserts either the existence of a fact or the relation between facts, which may be those of coexistence, sequence, resemblance, or causality. Its truth is tested by its correspondence with the reality we perceive by our senses or by reasoning inductively from the perception, that is, from the particular to the general. In stating that logic is the method of testing the factual validity of statements, Mill was the forerunner of the scientific method.

20 Metoda Ilmiah Pokok Pikiran Rene Descartes Ada empat pikiran meliputi: Meragukan hal yang belum diketahui dengan pasti Memecah masalh ke dalam bagian-bagian Mulai memecahkan bagian yang mudah dan beranjak ke yang susah Caranya harus cermat dan lengkap Aristoteles Metoda induksi Metoda deduksi Roger Bacon/Grosseteste/Galileo Metoda resolusi Metoda komposisi Newton Metoda analisis Metoda sintesis

21 Metoda Ilmiah Pokok Pikiran Model Logico-hipothetico verification Rumuskan hipotesis secara logis dan didukung oleh ilmu Menguji hipotesis secara empiris (sampai ke kasus ekstrim atau kasus destruktif) Model Herschel Memecah fenomena kompleks ke aspek yang relevan untuk metoda Ada metoda hipotesis Ada metoda skema induktif Model Whewell Fakta dipecah menjadi fakta elementer Ide diperjelas ke dalam konsep Perpaduan fakta dan konsep menghasilkan hukum dan teori

22 Metoda Ilmiah Pokok Pikiran Model Aristoteles Istilah yang digunakan Aristotels A = Metoda Induksi B = Metoda deduksi Roger Bacon/Grosseteste/Galileo A = metoda resolusi B = metoda komposisi Newton A = metoda analisis B = metoda sintesis

23 Metoda Ilmiah Pokok Pikiran

24 Metoda Ilmiah Format Format Metoda Ilmiah Format paling mendasar Temuan (context of discovery) Pembenaran (context of justification) Format dikembangkan Pertanyaan ilmiah (rumusan masalah) Jawaban ilmiah (rumusan hipotesis) Rancangan pengujian Pengujian (pembenaran) Format rinci Dikembangkan di masing-masing lembaga Beberapa di antaranya ditampilkan di sini

25 Metoda Ilmiah Format





30 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah Masalah 1. Hakikat Merupakan pertanyaan ilmiah Biasanya disajikan dalam kalimat tanya Memerlukan jawaban ilmiah Menentukan arah dan cakupan penelitian 2. Klasifikasi Ada banyak cara untuk mengklasifikasikan masalah Di sini direkomendasikan klasifikasi Dillon Orde 1 : tentang substansi dan ciri Orde 2 : tentang perbandingan Orde 3 : tentang ketergantungan

31 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah Klasifikasi Dillon Zero Order None O. Rhetorical No knowledge or no answer First Order: Properties Individual attributes of P or of Q 1. Existence/affirmation Whether P is negation 2. Instance/identification Whether this is a/the P 3. Substance/Definition What is P a. Nature What makes P be P b. Label Whether “P” names P c. Meaning What P or “P” means 4. Character/Description What P has 5. Function/Application What P does a. Modes How P acts b. Uses What P can do c. Means How P does or is done 6. Rationale/Explication Why or how P has a certain attribute

32 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah Second Order: Comparative attributes of Comparison P and Q 7. Concomitance Whether P goes with Q a. Conjunction Whether P and Q are associates b. Disjunction Whether P and Q are alternatives 8. Equivalence Whether P is like Q, and wherein 9. Difference Whether P and Q differ a. Disproportion Whether P is more/less than Q b. Subordination Whether P is part/whole of Q

33 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah Third Order: Contigent attributes of P Contigencies and Q 10. Relation Whether P relates to Q 11. Correlation Whether P and Q covary 12. Conditionality Whether or how if P then Q or if Q then P a. Consequence Whether if P then Q, or what X if P b. An tecedence Whether if Q then P, or what X then P 13. Biconditionality Whether or how if P then (causality) Q and if Q then P Extra Order: Other attributes of ways Other of knowing P 14. Deliberation Whether to do and think P 15 Unspecified to know P in other ways –16. Unclear No known

34 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah 3. Model Struktural Orde dua: Perbandingan Orde tiga: Ketergantungan X1X1 X2X2 Y x2 Y x1 = ? XYXY XY X2X2 X1X1 Y Z

35 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah Contoh model struktural SES = Social Economic Status Intel = Intelligence nAch = need for achievement Ach = achievement

36 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah Klasifikasi lainnya dari Aristoteles (Posterior Analytics) Lundsted (1968) Bunge (1967) Steiner (1978) Shulman (1981) Smith (1981) Johnston and Pennypacker (1980) Laudan (1977) Fischer (1970) Aritoteles (Topics) Rescher (1982) Tidak dirinci di sini

37 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah Albert Einstein dan L. Infeld The formulation of a problem is far more often essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle requires creative imagination and mark real advance in science.

38 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah 4. Isi Masalah Ciri, perbandingan, ketergantungan pada klasifikasi Dillon pada masalah adalah variabel Variabel berisikan aribut dari subyek (makhluk, benda, peristiwa) Atribut Subyek Hasil ujian mahasiswa Upah bulanan pegawai Panjang belalai gajah Kecepatan lari kijang Kekuatan besi beton Intensitas cahaya Temperatur kebakaran Kecepatan olah data

39 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah 5. Pengertian Variabel Arti variabel perlu jelas sehingga perlu dijelaskan, mencakup Arti (untuk dipahami) Ciri (untuk argumentasi ilmiah) Indikator (untuk pembuatan alat ukur) Konkrit (fakta) Abstrak (konstruk) spesifikgeneral tesis

40 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah Fakta : kenyataan yang dapat langsung diukur seperti umur, tempat lahir, jumlah anggota keluarga Konsep : pengertian dari sesuatu yang nyata arti pegawai, arti mahasiswa Konstruk: besaran yang dikonstruksi oleh para ilmuwan (abstrak) seperti sikap, gelisah, minat, frustrasi Spesifik: hanya berlaku pada suatu wilayah yang sangat terbatas, seperti di perusahaan XYZ General: berlaku umum seperti di semua perusahaan, di seluruh dunia, di seluruh jagat raya

41 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah Pengertian konsep dan konstruk dapat saja berbeda-beda karena Digunakan oleh bidang ilmu berbeda, seperti oleh psikologi oleh sosiologi oleh antropologi Di bidang ilmu sama, ada aliran berbeda Pada aliran sama, ada pakar berbeda Digunakan di dalam konteks yang berbeda memerlukan pengertian yang berbeda (lihat format UNJ)

42 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah 6. Operasionalisasi Variabel Variabel dapat diukur, sehingga memerlukan Skala ukur Alat ukur Cara mengukur Data hasil ukur Pengolahan data Validitas –Data hasil ukur harus secara benar mengukur apa yang harus diukur Reliabilitas –Data hasil ukur harus dapat dipercaya yakni memberikan data yang sesungguhnya

43 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah Variabel Manifes dan Variabel Laten Variabel Manifes Dapat langsung terukur Misal: tinggi badan, hasil ujian, … Variabel Laten Tidak dapat langsung terukur Misal: sikap, hasil belajar, … (konstruk) Pengukuran Variabel Laten Melalui padanan variabel manifes yang sesuai Misal: hasil belajar melalui hasil ujian, sikap melalui hasil iuesioner Masalah: kecocokan (validitas) di antara keduanya

44 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah 7. Struktur Rumusan Masalah Rumusan masalah harus jelas sehingga mungkin terjawab Rumusan masalah mengaitkan variabel yang secara pengertian variabel (konsep, konstruk) memang tidak terkait Ini berarti bahwa kaitan di antara variabel terjadi karena hakikat ilmu dan bukan karena kosep Perangkat masalah dapat terdiri atas satu atau lebih rumusan masalah Di dalam satu penelitian, apabila terdapat lebih dari satu rumusan masalah, maka mereka harus merupakan satu kesatuan yang ketat

45 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah 8. Contoh Rumusan Masalah Apakah hasil belajar siswa lebih tinggi pada cara mengajar direktif daripada cara mengajar nondirektif? (orde 2) Apakah terdapat perbedaan kecepatan olah data di antara quicksort dan bubblesort? (orde 2) Apakah terdapat perbedaan kekuatan penopangan di antara tiang pancang pantekan dan cor-coran? Apakah ada hubungan di antara harga barang dengan jumlah pembeli di toko? (orde 3) Apakah hubungan emosional ayah dan anak lelaki berbeda dengan hubungan emosional ibu dan anak perempuan? (orde 3 dan 2)

46 Metoda Ilmiah Masalah 9. Pelengkap Masalah Latar belakang Memberikan alasan mengapa sampai ke rumusan masalah Semua varaibel di dalam rumusan masalah tercantum di dalam latar belakang, biasanya dimulai dari Y dan disusul oleh X Jangan sampai ada jawaban pasti terhadap rumusan masalah Identifikasi masalah Menurut Descartes, masalah dipecah ke dalam bagian-bagian Di sini disajikan bagian-bagian masalah apa saja yang dapat ditemukan pada latar belakang masalah Pembatasan masalah Membatasi mana saja pada identifikasi masalah ditetapkan sebagai masalah penelitian

47 Metoda Ilmiah Hipotesis Hipotesis 1. Hakikat Merupakan pernyataan ilmiah spekulatif yang berasal dari hasil pemikiran Jika hasil pemikiran ini mengacu kepada premis (teori, hukum) maka diperoleh hipotesis deduktif Jika hasil pemikiran ini mengacu kepada data yang ada maka diperoleh hipotesis induktif Biasanya hipotesis merupakan jawaban ilmiah terhadap pertanyaan ilmiah (rumusan masalah) Hipotesis disajikan dalam kalimat pernyataan Rumusan hipotesis harus cocok dengan rumusan masalah yang dijawabnya

48 Metoda Ilmiah Hipotesis 2. Rumusan Hipotesis dan Rumusan Masalah Banyaknya hipotesis adalah sama dengan banyaknya rumusan masalah (satu rumusan masalah satu hipotesis) Isi hipotesis harus benar merupakan jawaban yang tepat dari isi rumusan masalah (cocok) 3. Hipotesis Statistika Apabila data berbentuk acak atau probabilitas maka biasanya pengujian hipotesis dilakukan melalui statistika Dalam hal ini, di samping hipotesis penelitian, disusun juga hipotesis statistika Di dalam hipotesis statistika, kita perlu menentukan parameter statistika mana yang kita gunakan

49 Metoda Ilmiah Hipotesis 4. Contoh Hipotesis Hasil belajar siswa lebih tinggi pada cara mengajar direktif daripada cara mengajar nondirektif. Kecepatan olah data lebih tinggi pada quicksort daripada bubblesort. Tiang pancang pantekan dan cor-coran sama kekuatan penopangannya. Terdapat hubungan negatif di antara harga barang dengan jumlah pembeli di toko. Hubungan emosional ibu dan anak perempuan lebih besar dari hubungan emosional ayah dan anak lelaki.

50 Metoda Ilmiah Hipotesis 5. Pelengkap Hipotesis Hipotesis harus didukung oleh pemikiran yang kuat (karena juga biaya dan waktu untuk menguji hipotesis secara empirik cukup besar) Pemikiran yang biasa digunakan untuk sampai ke hipotesis adalah logika Silogisme kategoris Silogisme hipotetik Silogisme disjunktif Silogisme alternatif Inferensi segera Konversi Obbersi Pemikiran harus cukup meyakinkan Tidak ada kontradiksi Tidak melompat ke konklusi (ada syarat perlu dan syarat cukup) Tidak bias atau timpang

51 Metoda Ilmiah Hipotesis Contoh: silogisme kategorik Masalah: Apakah gaji besar lebih disukai karyawan daripada gaji kecil? Premis mayor: Menurut teori Maslow, manusia memiliki keperluan hidup yang bertingkat (teori) Premis minor: Gaji besar lebih dapat memenuhi keperluan hidup tingkat lebih tinggi daripada gaji kecil Konklusi: Karyawan lebih menyukai gaji besar daripada gaji kecil (hipotesis)

52 Metoda Ilmiah Hipotesis Syarat Pemikiran Memenuhi syarat logika Tidak boleh kontradiksi Tidak melompat ke konklusi (penyebab berbeda belum tentu akibat berbeda) Memenuhi syarat perlu dan syarat cukup Tidak boleh timpang atau bias (di dalam perbandingan, keunggulan yang satu dibandingkan dengan keunggulan yang lainnya, bukan dengan kelemahannya)

53 Metoda Ilmiah Rancangan Rancangan Pengujian Hipotesis 1. Cakupan Rancangan pengujian hipotesis secara empiris mencakup sjumlah komponen, meliputi Rancangan prosedur penelitian Rancangan tempat dan waktu Rancangan populasi dan sampel Rancangan alat ukur Rancangan cara ukur Rancangan pengumpulan data Rancangan pengolahan data

54 Metoda Ilmiah Rancangan 2. Rancangan Penelitian Rancangan prosedur, lokasi, dan pelaksana dapat berbentuk kontinum Penelitian Lapangan Penelitian Laboratorium Peneliti sebagai Peserta Peneliti sebagai Pengamat Eksperimen tulen Observai naturalistik

55 Metoda Ilmiah Rancangan Kontinum Prosedur Eksperimen tulen memungkinkan manipulasi sehingga cocok untuk mencari sebab akibat Obsevasi naturalistik memungkinan pengamatan yang tidak terpengaruh oleh penelitian Di antara mereka terdapat berbagai prosedur lainnya (lihat metodologi penelitian) Eksperimen tulen Observasi naturalistik

56 Metoda Ilmiah Rancangan Faktor Penting pada Prosedur Validitas internal Tidak terjadi kekeliruan karena terjadi pencemaran di dalam prosedur Validitas eksternal Hasilnya berlaku juga untuk kelompok lain pada keadaan yang sama Ceteris paribus Jika prosedur memerlukan kelompok berbeda, maka semua lainnya (ceteris) adalah sama (paribus) kecuali hal yang sedang menjadi fokus penelitian

57 Metoda Penelitian Rancangan Kontinum Lokasi Penelitian Laboratorium Keunggulan: dapat melakukan kontrol terhadap pengganggu (validitas internal tinggi) Kelemahan: hasinya belum tentu berlaku di lapangan (validitas eksternal rendah) Penelitian Lapangan Keunggulan: cenderung berlaku di lapangan (validitas eksternal tinggi) Kelemahan: kurang dapat melakukan kontrol terhadap pengganggu (validitas internal rendah) Penelitian Laboratorium Penelitian Lapangan

58 Metoda Ilmiah Rancangan Kontinum Peranan Peneliti Peneliti sebagai peserta Dapat merasakan apa yang terjadi, biasanya, pada penelitian budaya Peneliti sebagai pengamat Dapat melihat secara lebih obyektif apa yang terjadi, biasanya, pada penelitian ilmu alam dan ilmu sosial Peneliti sebagai peserta Peneliti sebagai pengamat

59 Metoda Ilmiah Rancangan 3. Tempat dan Waktu Tempat Kalau hipotesis dapat berlaku umum, pengujian hipotesis secara empiris berlaku di tempat terbatas Pemilihan tempat menentukan keberlakukan hasil pengujian hiopotesis secara empiris Waktu Kalau hipotesis dapat berlaku untuk waktu yang panjang, pengujian hipotesis secara empiris berlaku pada kurun waktu tertentu Panjang waktu pengujian hipotesis secara empiris berkaitan dengan prosedur penelitian; berapa lama perlakuan baru efektif, berapa lama baru perubahan bisa terukur

60 Metoda Ilmiah Rancangan 4. Populasi dan Sampel Atribut dan Subyek Penelitian biasanya menyangkut sasaran berupa atribut dari subyek tertentu (subyek pemilik atribut) Populasi dan Sampel Ada populasi dan sampel atribut (data) dan ada juga populasi dan sampel subyek (responden)

61 Metoda Ilmiah Rancangan Populasi Biasanya tujuan pengujian hipotesis di dalam penelitian mencari populasi data (atribut) Karena atribut dimiliki oleh subyek (responden), maka dicari juga populasi subyek (responden) Sampel Sebagian dari populasi yang tetapi tetap dapat mencerminkan ciri pada populasi (representatif, keterwakilan) Ada sejumlah cara untuk menarik sampel yang representatif (lihat metodologi penelitian) Alasan penggunaan sampel: (a) populasi sukar dicapai semuanya, (b) subyek rusak dalam prosedur penelitian, jangan sampai seluruh populasi rusak

62 Metoda Ilmiah Rancangan 5. Alat Ukur dan Pengukuran Pemerolehan Gunakan alat ukur yang sudah ada Membuat alat ukur sendiri (lihat Konstruksi Alat Ukur pada Metoda Ujian dan Metoda Survei) Validitas Seberapa jauh hasil ukur (juga alat ukurnya) cocok dengan apa yang seharusnya diukur disebut validitas pengukuran Catatan: ada banyak istilah validitas, sehingga perlu jelas validitas mana yang sedang dibicarakan Reliabilitas Seberapa jauh hasil ukur bisa dipercaya (termasuk penilainya)

63 Metoda Ilmiah Rancangan Peningkatan Validitas Ada tiga jenis validitas: isi, kriteria, konstruk Validitas isi dapat diperiksa oleh pakar Validitas kriteria (misalnya ujian penerimaan pengawai sebagai prediktor dan perilaku pegawai kemudian sebagai kriteria) melalui korelasi di antara prediktor dan kriteria Validitas konstruk (maksud dari atribut yang abstrak) melalui kecocokan dan perbedaan dengan referensi yang telah diketahui Selanjutnya lihat teori pengukuran Peningkatan Reliabilitas Melalui uji coba ke responden setara Menghitung koefisien reliabilitasnya atau kecocokan penilai (ada banyak rumus) Melakukan analisis butir untuk memperbaiki alat ukur (ada banyak rumus) Selanjutnya lihat teori pengukuran

64 Metoda Ilmiah Rancangan Cara Ukur Ada banyak cara untuk menerapkan alat ukur ke responden, berbentuk ujian atau survei Ada sejumlah cara ujian Ada sejumlah cara survei Faktor dalam Pengukuran Suasana pengukuran yang baik Keterkumpulan hasil ukur (semua, sebagian?) Waktu untuk pengumpulan hasil ukur (lama, cepat?) Keterlaksanaan tanggapan (dijawab semua butir, sebagian?) Biaya dan tenaga pelaksanan

65 Metoda Ilmiah Pengolahan Data Pengumpulan dan Pengolahan Data Pengumpulan data Melalui pelaksanaan pengukuran Ada kalanya memerlukan koding Penyusunan ke dalam bentuk tabel Pemeriksanaan reliabilitas Deskripsi responden Deskripsi data Pengolahan data Data nonprobabilistik: melalui rumus matematika atau riset operasional Data probabilistik (acak): sering melalui statistika atau riset operasional

66 Metoda Ilmiah Pengolahan Data Pengolahan Data secara Statistika Pemeriksaan syarat data (skala, sekor, …) Pemeriskaan syarat rumus (normalitas, homogenitas, linieritas, ortogonalitas) Penentuan parameter dan statistik yang paling memadai Penggunaan statistika parametrik atau nonparametrik Penentuan risiko untuk inferensi dari sampel ke populasi Selanjutnya lihat Statistika Terapan Pembahasan Hasil Pengujian Pembahasan tentang makna dari hasil pengujian hipotesis Pengukapan kelemahan yang ada.

67 Metoda Ilmiah Publikasi Jenis Publikasi Laporan hasil penelitian Seminar ilmiah Artikel jurnal ilmiah Format Publikasi Ditentukan oleh lembaga melalui guide lines Perlu mempelajari guide lines itu Biasanya adalah bagian awal, abstrak, inti isi, daftar pustaka, lampiran Bahasa Publikasi Bahasa yang benar dan baik Bahasa yang konsisten Berbentuk esei

68 Metoda Ilmiah Publikasi Tata Tulis Mengikuti tata tulis yang ditentukan oleh lembaga Tata tulis di Amerika Serikat Chicago style Professional style bergantung kepada jurnal organisasi profesi seperti APA, MLA, LSA, CBE, AMA, AIP, IEEE, … Lembaga di Indonesia banyak menggunakan tata tulis dari Amerika Serikat ini Selanjutnya lihat Tata Tulis Ilmiah atau Pedoman Penulisan Ilmiah

69 Metoda Ilmiah Etika Etika Penelitian Dampak Penelitian Dapat melanggar hak privacy Dapat mencelakakan manusia Dapat mengganggu tradisi, susila, budaya Dapat mengganggu masyakarat Dapat mengganggu lingkungan hidup Dapat mengganggu lingkungan alam Dewan Etika Di perguruan tinggi ada Dewan Etika Penelitian hanya boleh dilakukan setelah memperoleh persetujuan Dewan Etika

70 Metoda Ilmiah Etika Etika Penulisan (Publikasi) Mencakup sejumlah larangan Larangan plagiat Larangan publikasi ganda Larangan melanggar privacy orang Larangan mengubah nama dan urutan nama peneliti

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