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TRANSFORMASI METODA PEMBELAJARAN DARI “TEACHING” MENUJU “LEARNING” D.A. Suriamihardja.

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Presentasi berjudul: "TRANSFORMASI METODA PEMBELAJARAN DARI “TEACHING” MENUJU “LEARNING” D.A. Suriamihardja."— Transcript presentasi:

1 TRANSFORMASI METODA PEMBELAJARAN DARI “TEACHING” MENUJU “LEARNING” D.A. Suriamihardja

2 Keterikatan R-T Belajar (Learning) dimulai dari pembentukan keterikatan antara rangsangan (R) dengan tanggapan (T) → Ikatan R-T. Proses pembelajaran (Learning process) berlangsung ketika keterikatan membentuk pola tingkah-laku. Belajar (Learning) dimulai dari pembentukan keterikatan antara rangsangan (R) dengan tanggapan (T) → Ikatan R-T. Proses pembelajaran (Learning process) berlangsung ketika keterikatan membentuk pola tingkah-laku.

3 Hukum Thorndike (HT) HT berbasis pada hipotesa keterikatan antara rangsangan (R) dan Tanggapan (T); HT menyatakan bahwa suatu ikatan saraf akan terbentuk jika ikatan RT memiliki nilai positif. HT berbasis pada hipotesa keterikatan antara rangsangan (R) dan Tanggapan (T); HT menyatakan bahwa suatu ikatan saraf akan terbentuk jika ikatan RT memiliki nilai positif.

4 HT-1 tentang Pengaruh Ketika suatu ikatan antara rangsangan (R) dan tanggapan (T): bernilai positif, maka pengaruh akan menjadi kuat, tetapi ketika ikatan bernilai negatif maka pengaruh akan menjadi lemah. Ketika suatu ikatan antara rangsangan (R) dan tanggapan (T): bernilai positif, maka pengaruh akan menjadi kuat, tetapi ketika ikatan bernilai negatif maka pengaruh akan menjadi lemah. Thorndike’s Laws (1874 –1949)

5 HT-2 tentang Latihan Jika latihan keterikatan antara rangsangan (R) dan tanggapan (T) lebih sering dilakukan, maka ikatan RT akan menjadi lebih kuat. Berdasar pada HT-1, HT-2 harus mengalami pengulangan hingga ikatan RT menjadi positif. Jika latihan keterikatan antara rangsangan (R) dan tanggapan (T) lebih sering dilakukan, maka ikatan RT akan menjadi lebih kuat. Berdasar pada HT-1, HT-2 harus mengalami pengulangan hingga ikatan RT menjadi positif. Thorndike’s Laws (1874 –1949)

6 HT-3 tentang Kesiapan Dalam kondisi tertentu, struktur ikatan RT dalam sistem saraf memerlukan kesiapan keterbentukannya terlebih dahulu, seperti: Suasana belajar menulis puisi Waktu belajar berdo’a Tempat belajar berenang, dsb Tergantung pada tujuan pembelajaran. Dalam kondisi tertentu, struktur ikatan RT dalam sistem saraf memerlukan kesiapan keterbentukannya terlebih dahulu, seperti: Suasana belajar menulis puisi Waktu belajar berdo’a Tempat belajar berenang, dsb Tergantung pada tujuan pembelajaran. Thorndike’s Laws (1874 –1949)

7 Kesadaran Kesadaran (consciousness) merupakan hasil interaksi antara T dari dalam diri (jiwa-raga) dengan R dari luar berupa arus denyut sensorik, seperti arus informasi optik, akustik, termik, elektrik, magnetik, dan mekanik (afferent impulses).

8 Kehendak Interaksi antara S dan R dikendalikan oleh tingkat kesadaran yang terbentuk dalam otak besar (cerebrum) dan otak kecil (cerebellum); Kesadaran sebagai kesatuan sistem jiwa- raga bermuara pada kehendak dan tindakan. Interaksi antara S dan R dikendalikan oleh tingkat kesadaran yang terbentuk dalam otak besar (cerebrum) dan otak kecil (cerebellum); Kesadaran sebagai kesatuan sistem jiwa- raga bermuara pada kehendak dan tindakan.

9 Kehendak Belajar Kesadaran kemudian membuahkan kehendak lewat arus denyut motorik (efferent impulses) terhadap berbagai otot dan kelenjar dalam membentuk berbagai tindakan belajar.

10 Arus denyut sistem saraf (neurons). Afferent impulses Efferent impulses

11 Afferent Impulses (AI) AI carries impulses from outlying regions of nervous system, such as the eye, ear, nose, tongue, and organs of touch, to central areas in the brain or spinal cord. This type of impulse is called sensory.

12 Efferent Impulses (EI) EI works in the other direction and convey impulses from the brain or cord to important parts of the body such as muscles, vital organs, and the glands. This type of impulse is called motor.

13 Sistem Saraf Sistem saraf terdiri atas: Sistem kenirsadaran (vegetatif/otonomik) Sistem kesadaran (cerebrospinal sector) Sistem saraf terdiri atas: Sistem kenirsadaran (vegetatif/otonomik) Sistem kesadaran (cerebrospinal sector)

14 Sistem Saraf Kenirsadaran Sistem kenirsadaran (vegetatif/ otonomik) mengatur tindakan vegetatif tanpa memanfaatkan kendali kesadaran, seperti untuk kegiatan: bernafas, berdenyut, berkedip, aliran darah dan gerak otomatis lainnya.

15 Sistem Saraf Kesadaran Sistem saraf kesadaran (cerebrospinal sector), terdiri atas:  sistem otak dan cord sebagai wilayah pusat, dan  sistem saraf penghubung otak dan cord dengan sensor dan otot voluntir sebagai wilayah peripheral. Sistem saraf kesadaran (cerebrospinal sector), terdiri atas:  sistem otak dan cord sebagai wilayah pusat, dan  sistem saraf penghubung otak dan cord dengan sensor dan otot voluntir sebagai wilayah peripheral.

16 Konfigurasi Fungsi Jiwa-raga Raga dengan sistem otonomi mengendalikan: sistem sensoris dan motoris. Jiwa berpadu raga dalam kesatupaduan membentuk kesadaran sensibilita, intelektualita dan moralita. Raga dengan sistem otonomi mengendalikan: sistem sensoris dan motoris. Jiwa berpadu raga dalam kesatupaduan membentuk kesadaran sensibilita, intelektualita dan moralita. PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHICAL PHYSICAL SISTEM MOTORIS SISTEM SENSORIS SISTEM KENDALI JIWA RAGA

17 Tingkatan Kesadaran Kesadaran vegetatif (kedasarsadaran), Kesadaran refleksif (kebawahsadaran), Kesadaran diri (kesadaran), Kesadaran spiritual (keatassadaran), berhubungan dengan prioritas sistem nilai, Kesadaran transenden (kepuncaksadaran) berhubungan dengan wilayah batiniah. Kesadaran vegetatif (kedasarsadaran), Kesadaran refleksif (kebawahsadaran), Kesadaran diri (kesadaran), Kesadaran spiritual (keatassadaran), berhubungan dengan prioritas sistem nilai, Kesadaran transenden (kepuncaksadaran) berhubungan dengan wilayah batiniah.

18 Pembelajaran Dasar COGNITIVISM BEHAVIOURISM CONSTRUCTIVISM

19 Strategi Pembelajaran Menangkap pesan Mengolah pesan menjadi kesan Menata konfigurasi kesan Mengolah kesan menjadi informasi Menyimpan informasi menjadi memori Memelihara kapasitas memori Mengolah memori menjadi skema Memanggil skema Membandingkan skema dengan pesan baru Meniti piramida pengetahuan Menangkap pesan Mengolah pesan menjadi kesan Menata konfigurasi kesan Mengolah kesan menjadi informasi Menyimpan informasi menjadi memori Memelihara kapasitas memori Mengolah memori menjadi skema Memanggil skema Membandingkan skema dengan pesan baru Meniti piramida pengetahuan

20 Pembiasaan (Behaviourism) Kebiasaan dapat dipantau dari perubahan dalam upaya pembiasaan. Upaya pembiasaan harus terpusat pada pola kebiasaan baru yang berulang sampai menjadi suatu kebiasaan secara otomatis. Kebiasaan dapat dipantau dari perubahan dalam upaya pembiasaan. Upaya pembiasaan harus terpusat pada pola kebiasaan baru yang berulang sampai menjadi suatu kebiasaan secara otomatis. Schuman, 1996

21 Pemahaman (Cognitivism) Pemahaman sebagai suatu proses berpikir bergantung kepada pola pembiasaan. Ketika pola pembiasaan baru terbentuk, maka beberapa indikator lanjutannya berujung pada proses pemahaman yang terjadi pada pikiran diri pembelajar. Pemahaman sebagai suatu proses berpikir bergantung kepada pola pembiasaan. Ketika pola pembiasaan baru terbentuk, maka beberapa indikator lanjutannya berujung pada proses pemahaman yang terjadi pada pikiran diri pembelajar. Schuman, 1996

22 Pengembangan (Constructivism) Setiap diri pembelajar adalah pengembang dunia ini menurut pandangan, pengalaman dan pemikirannya sendiri. Pengembangan diri pembelajar terpusat pada penyiapan dirinya ketika menghadapi masalah dalam kenyataan hidupnya. Penyelesaian masalah dapat mulai dari bagaimana adaptasi terhadap kenyataan saat ini dan kemudian kreatif menciptakan kenyataan baru. Setiap diri pembelajar adalah pengembang dunia ini menurut pandangan, pengalaman dan pemikirannya sendiri. Pengembangan diri pembelajar terpusat pada penyiapan dirinya ketika menghadapi masalah dalam kenyataan hidupnya. Penyelesaian masalah dapat mulai dari bagaimana adaptasi terhadap kenyataan saat ini dan kemudian kreatif menciptakan kenyataan baru. Schuman, 1996

23 Pembelajaran menurut Constructivists (1) Pembelajaran adalah menafsirkan dunia ini menurut pikiran dirinya, Pembelajaran adalah suatu proses yang menerus sehingga pemaknaan tentang dunia ini terus berkembang berbasis pada pengalaman, Sehingga evaluasi pembelajaran sangat terkait dengan situasi dan suasana pembelajaran, bukan merupakan bagian yang terpisah. Merril, 1991 & Smorgansbord, 1997 Pembelajaran adalah menafsirkan dunia ini menurut pikiran dirinya, Pembelajaran adalah suatu proses yang menerus sehingga pemaknaan tentang dunia ini terus berkembang berbasis pada pengalaman, Sehingga evaluasi pembelajaran sangat terkait dengan situasi dan suasana pembelajaran, bukan merupakan bagian yang terpisah. Merril, 1991 & Smorgansbord, 1997

24 Pertumbuhan mutu suatu ‘buah pikiran’ (konsep) merupakan hasil: perjumpaan dan perujukan makna, pertukaran pandangan, dan perubahan dasar berpikir diri pembelajar melalui pembelajaran berkolaborasi. Dari pengalaman pembelajaran berkolaborasi inilah suatu pengetahuan dapat tersusun. Pertumbuhan mutu suatu ‘buah pikiran’ (konsep) merupakan hasil: perjumpaan dan perujukan makna, pertukaran pandangan, dan perubahan dasar berpikir diri pembelajar melalui pembelajaran berkolaborasi. Dari pengalaman pembelajaran berkolaborasi inilah suatu pengetahuan dapat tersusun. Pembelajaran menurut Constructivists (2)

25 The Basics of Cognitivism (1) Cognitive theorists view learning as involving the acquisition or reorganization of the cognitive structures through which humans process and store information.

26 The Basics of Cognitivism (2) Schema: An internal knowledge structure. New information is compared to existing cognitive structures called 'schema'. Schema may be combined, extended or altered to accommodate new information.

27 The Basics of Cognitivism (3) There are three stages Information Processing Model: input first enters a sensory register, then is processed in short- term memory, and then is transferred to long-term memory for storage and retrieval.

28 Information Processing Model-1 Sensory Register (SR): receives input from senses which lasts from less than a second to four seconds and then disappears through decay or replacement. Much of the information never reaches short-term memory but all information is monitored at some level and acted upon if necessary. Sensory Register (SR): receives input from senses which lasts from less than a second to four seconds and then disappears through decay or replacement. Much of the information never reaches short-term memory but all information is monitored at some level and acted upon if necessary.

29 Short-Term Memory (STM): sensory input that is important or interesting is transferred from the SR to the STM. Memory can be retained here for up to 20 seconds or more if rehearsed repeatedly. STM can hold up to 7 plus or minus 2 items. STM capacity can be increased if material is chunked into meaningful parts. Short-Term Memory (STM): sensory input that is important or interesting is transferred from the SR to the STM. Memory can be retained here for up to 20 seconds or more if rehearsed repeatedly. STM can hold up to 7 plus or minus 2 items. STM capacity can be increased if material is chunked into meaningful parts. Information Processing Model-2

30 Information Processing Model-3 Long-Term Memory and Storage (LTM): stores information from STM for long term use. LTM has unlimited capacity. Some materials are ‘forced’ into LTM by rote memorization and over learning. Deeper levels of processing such as generating linkages between old and new information are much better for successful retention of material. Long-Term Memory and Storage (LTM): stores information from STM for long term use. LTM has unlimited capacity. Some materials are ‘forced’ into LTM by rote memorization and over learning. Deeper levels of processing such as generating linkages between old and new information are much better for successful retention of material.

31 Constructivism (1) Constructivists believe that ‘learners construct their own reality or at least interpret it based upon their perceptions of experiences, so individual’s knowledge is a function of one’s prior experiences, mental structures, and beliefs that are used to interpret objects and events’, Jonasson, 1991.

32 Constructivism (2) Realistic constructivism: cognition is the process by which learners eventually construct mental structures that correspond to or match external structures located in the environment, Cobb (1996).

33 Constructivism (3) Radical constructivism: cognition serves to organize the learners experiential world rather than to discover ontological reality, Cobb (1996).

34 Taxonomy of Learning Behaviors Bloom (1956) Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Bloom (1956) Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Gagne (1972) Verbal information Intellectual skill Cognitive strategies Attitude Motor skill

35 Comparison Because the learner is able to interpret multiple realities, the learner is better able to deal with real life situations. In a situation where conformity is essential divergent thinking and action may cause problems Constructivism The goal is to train learners to do a task the same way to enable consistency. The learner learns a way to accomplish a task, but it may not be the best way, or suited to the learner or the situation. Cognitivism The learner is focused on a clear goal and can respond automatically to the cues of that goal. The learner may find themselves in a situation where the stimulus for the correct response does not occur. Behaviorism StrengthWeakness

36 Jonassen Approaches to Learning (1) Introductory learning: learners have very little directly transferable prior knowledge about a skill or content area. They are at the initial stages of schema assembly and integration. At this stage, classical instructional design is most suitable because it is predetermined, constrained, sequential and criterion-referenced. The learner can develop some anchors for further exploration.

37 Jonassen Approaches to Learning (2) Advance knowledge acquisition – follows introductory knowledge and precedes expert knowledge. At this point constructivist approaches may be introduced.

38 Jonassen Approaches to Learning (3) Expertise is the final stage of knowledge acquisition. In this stage the learner is able to make intelligent decisions within the learning environment. A constructivist approach would work well in this case.

39 Designing Learning Environments (1) A constructivist design process should be concerned with designing environments which support the construction of knowledge, which: is based on internal negotiation: a process of articulating mental models, using those models to explain, predict, and infer, and reflecting on their utility. is based on social negotiation: a process of sharing a reality with others using the same or similar processes to those used in internal negotiation. A constructivist design process should be concerned with designing environments which support the construction of knowledge, which: is based on internal negotiation: a process of articulating mental models, using those models to explain, predict, and infer, and reflecting on their utility. is based on social negotiation: a process of sharing a reality with others using the same or similar processes to those used in internal negotiation.

40 Designing Learning Environments (2) is facilitated by exploration of real world environments and intervention of new environments: processes that are regulated by each individual’s intention, needs, and/or expectations. results in mental models and provides meaningful, authentic contexts for learning and using the constructed knowledge: should be supported by case-based problems which have been derived from and situated in the real world with all of its uncertainty and complexity and based on authentic real life practice. is facilitated by exploration of real world environments and intervention of new environments: processes that are regulated by each individual’s intention, needs, and/or expectations. results in mental models and provides meaningful, authentic contexts for learning and using the constructed knowledge: should be supported by case-based problems which have been derived from and situated in the real world with all of its uncertainty and complexity and based on authentic real life practice.

41 Designing Learning Environments (3) requires an understanding of its own thinking process and problem solving methods: problems in one context are different from problems in other contexts. modeled for learners by skilled performers but not necessarily expert performers. requires collaboration among learners and with the teachers: the teacher is more of a coach or mentor than a purveyor of knowledge. provides an intellectual toolkit to facilitate an internal negotiation necessary for building mental models. requires an understanding of its own thinking process and problem solving methods: problems in one context are different from problems in other contexts. modeled for learners by skilled performers but not necessarily expert performers. requires collaboration among learners and with the teachers: the teacher is more of a coach or mentor than a purveyor of knowledge. provides an intellectual toolkit to facilitate an internal negotiation necessary for building mental models.

42 Instructional Strategies (1) Representations of the learning process: Behaviorism: stimulus-response; reinforced behavior; antecedent behavior consequence; sequenced knowledge and skills presented in logical limited steps, Cognitivism: cognitivist learning perspective; information processing; schema; mental models, Constructivism: inquiry-based; discovery learning. Representations of the learning process: Behaviorism: stimulus-response; reinforced behavior; antecedent behavior consequence; sequenced knowledge and skills presented in logical limited steps, Cognitivism: cognitivist learning perspective; information processing; schema; mental models, Constructivism: inquiry-based; discovery learning.

43 Instructional Strategies (2) Relevant framework: Behaviorism: programmed instruction (logical presentation of content, overt responses, immediate knowledge of correctness) Cognitivism: events of instruction (conditions of learning) Constructivism: cognitive apprenticeship; cognitive flexibility; situated learning; zone of proximal development Relevant framework: Behaviorism: programmed instruction (logical presentation of content, overt responses, immediate knowledge of correctness) Cognitivism: events of instruction (conditions of learning) Constructivism: cognitive apprenticeship; cognitive flexibility; situated learning; zone of proximal development

44 Instructional Strategies for Behaviourism Key principles of behaviourism: Learning happens when a correct response is demonstrated following the presentation of a specific environmental stimulus; Emphasis is on observable and measurable behaviors. Key principles of behaviourism: Learning happens when a correct response is demonstrated following the presentation of a specific environmental stimulus; Emphasis is on observable and measurable behaviors.

45 Instructional Strategies for Cognitivism Key principles of cognitivism: Learning is a change of knowledge state, Knowledge acquisition is described as a mental activity that entails internal coding and structuring by the learner, Learner is viewed as an active participant in the learning process, Emphasis is on the building blocks of knowledge (e.g. identifying prerequisite relationships of content), Emphasis on structuring, organizing and sequencing information to facilitate optimal processing. Key principles of cognitivism: Learning is a change of knowledge state, Knowledge acquisition is described as a mental activity that entails internal coding and structuring by the learner, Learner is viewed as an active participant in the learning process, Emphasis is on the building blocks of knowledge (e.g. identifying prerequisite relationships of content), Emphasis on structuring, organizing and sequencing information to facilitate optimal processing.

46 Instructional Strategies Constructivism Key principles of constructivism: Learners build personal interpretation of the world based on experiences and interactions, Knowledge is embedded in the context in which it is used (authentic tasks in meaningful realistic settings), Create novel and situation-specific understandings by ‘assembling’ knowledge from diverse sources appropriate to the problem at hand (flexible use of knowledge) Key principles of constructivism: Learners build personal interpretation of the world based on experiences and interactions, Knowledge is embedded in the context in which it is used (authentic tasks in meaningful realistic settings), Create novel and situation-specific understandings by ‘assembling’ knowledge from diverse sources appropriate to the problem at hand (flexible use of knowledge)

47 Goal of Instruction in Behaviourism Communicate or transfer behaviors representing knowledge and skills to the learner (does not consider mental processing), Instruction is to elicit the desired response from the learner who is presented with a target stimulus, Learner must know how to execute the proper response as well as the conditions under which the response is made, Instruction utilizes consequences and reinforcement of learned behaviors. Communicate or transfer behaviors representing knowledge and skills to the learner (does not consider mental processing), Instruction is to elicit the desired response from the learner who is presented with a target stimulus, Learner must know how to execute the proper response as well as the conditions under which the response is made, Instruction utilizes consequences and reinforcement of learned behaviors.

48 Goal of Instruction in Cognitivism Communicate or transfer knowledge in the most efficient and effective manner (mind- independent, can be mapped onto learners), Focus of instruction is to create learning or change by encouraging the learner to use appropriate learning strategies, Learning results when information is stored in memory in an organized and meaningful way, Teachers/designers are responsible for assissting learners in organizing information in an optimal way so that it can be readily assimilated. Communicate or transfer knowledge in the most efficient and effective manner (mind- independent, can be mapped onto learners), Focus of instruction is to create learning or change by encouraging the learner to use appropriate learning strategies, Learning results when information is stored in memory in an organized and meaningful way, Teachers/designers are responsible for assissting learners in organizing information in an optimal way so that it can be readily assimilated.

49 Goal of Instruction in Costructivism Build personal interpretations of the world based on individual experiences and interactions (constantly open to change, cannot achieve a predetermined, ‘correct’ meaning, knowledge emerges in relevant contexts), Learning is an active process of constructing rather than acquiring knowledge, Instruction is a process of supporting knowledge construction rather than communicating knowledge, Do not structure learning for the task, but engage learner in the actual use of the tolls in real world situations. Build personal interpretations of the world based on individual experiences and interactions (constantly open to change, cannot achieve a predetermined, ‘correct’ meaning, knowledge emerges in relevant contexts), Learning is an active process of constructing rather than acquiring knowledge, Instruction is a process of supporting knowledge construction rather than communicating knowledge, Do not structure learning for the task, but engage learner in the actual use of the tolls in real world situations.

50 Learning Strategies for Behaviorism Behaviorism, Instructional cues to elicit correct response, Practice paired with target stimuli, Reinforcement for correct responses, Building fluency (get response closer and closer to correct response), Behaviorism, Instructional cues to elicit correct response, Practice paired with target stimuli, Reinforcement for correct responses, Building fluency (get response closer and closer to correct response), Multiple opportunities/ trials (drill and practice), Discrimination (recalling facts), Generalization (defining and illustrating concept), Associations (applying explanations), Chaining (automatically performing a specified procedure).

51 Learning Strategies for Cognitivism Information processing model, Explanations, Demonstration, Illustrative example, Gestalt theory, Matched non-examples, Corrective feedback, Outlining, Mneumonics, Dual-coding theory, Information processing model, Explanations, Demonstration, Illustrative example, Gestalt theory, Matched non-examples, Corrective feedback, Outlining, Mneumonics, Dual-coding theory, Chunking information, Repetition, Concept mapping, Advanced organizer, Interactivity, Synthesis, Schema theory, Metaphor, Generative learning, Organizational strategies, Links to prior knowledge.

52 Learning Strategies for Constructivism Modeling, Collaborative learning Coaching Scaffolding Fading Problem-based learning Modeling, Collaborative learning Coaching Scaffolding Fading Problem-based learning Authentic learning, Anchored instruction, Cognitive flexibility hypertexts, REAL, Object-based learning.

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