AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG PRODUKSI RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013 AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG PRODUKSI RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013.
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Presentasi berjudul: "AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG PRODUKSI RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013 AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG PRODUKSI RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013."— Transcript presentasi:
AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG PRODUKSI RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013 AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG PRODUKSI RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013
PRODUKSI KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Produksi Pertanian Berkelanjutan Produksi pertanian berkelanjutan adalah kemampuan sistem pertanian untuk mempertahankan tingkat produksi yang stabil dan kualitas yg baik dalam jangka panjang tanpa persyaratan meningkatkan input agro-kimia untuk mengelola sistem. Sumber:
PRODUKSI KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Tanah. Tanah yang sehat santa penting bagi sistem produksi yang berkelanjutan dan diperlukan dukungan IPTEK tentang fisika tanah, kimia tanah serta biologi tanah dan interaksi antara akar tanaman dan tanah. Pestisida dan Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu Pengurangan penggunaan pestisida dapat dilakukan melalui pemuliaan varietas yang tahan terhadap gangguan hama dan penyakit; mengembangkan strategi manajemen hama terpadu berdasarkan pengetahuan tentang epidemiologi hama. Sumber:
PRODUKSI KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Keanekaragaman Hayati. Praktek agronomi berdampak terhadap sistem pertanian secara keseluruhan, termasuk keanekaragaman hayati, kesehatan tanah dan nutrisi, karbon dan nitrogen fluks, polusi, hama dan penyakit dinamika populasi, hasil dan kualitas tanaman. Indikator keanekaragaman hayati di atas dan di bawah tanah dapat digunakan untuk menilai dampak praktek manajemen dan kultivar terhadap berbagai pola rotasi tanaman. Keamanan Pangan dan Kualitas. Kemampuan analitis yang diperlukan untuk menilai berbagai ukuran kualitas umbi kentang, termasuk komponen gizi dan residu pestisida. Spesialis diperlukan untuk mempelajari keberadaan patogen di lahan pertanian Sumber: //www.mrsltd.com/sustainability.asp
PRODUKSI KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Air dan Efisiensi Penggunaan Air. Akibat dari dampak perubahan iklim, maka prediksi curah hujan kurang dapat diandalkan di masa depan, sehingga diperlukan pengembangan tanaman yang sangat efisien dalam penggunaan airnya. Metode, waktu dan lokasi air irigasi harus ditingkatkan untuk dapat meningkatkan efisiensinya. Pupuk dan Efisiensi Penggunaan Gizi. Pemupukan optimal bertujuan untuk mengoptimalkan perolehan dan akumulasi hara, dengan demikian meningkatkan kualitas gizi dan mengurangi masukan pupuk. Aktivitas mikroba dan sekresi tanaman di sekitar akar tanaman perlu dikaji untuk memahami dan meningkatkan penyerapan nutrisi. Hal ini dilengkapi dengan uji lapangan dan rumah kaca tentang pupuk alternatif seperti kompos dan bahan limbah. Sumber : //www.mrsltd.com/sustainability.asp
PRODUKSI KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Tanah dan persiapan lahan. Kentang dapat tumbuh pada berbagai jenis tanah, kecuali tanah salin dan basa. Tentu tanah yang gembur, yang menawarkan setidaknya resistensi terhadap pembesaran umbi; tanah-tanah berlempung dan lempung berpasir yang kaya bahan organik, dengan drainase dan aerasi baik, adalah yang paling cocok. Tanah dengan kisaran pH 5,2-6,4 dianggap ideal. Budidaya kentang melibatkan persiapan lahan. Tanah harus diolah sampai benar-benar bebas dari akar gulma. Dalam kebanyakan kasus, tiga kali pembajakan, bersama dengan perataan dan pengguludan, diperlukan sebelum tanah mencapai kondisi yang cocok, gembur, drainase baik dan aerasi baik. Sumber:
PRODUKSI KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Penanaman benih. Tanaman kentang biasanya ditanam bukan dari biji tetapi dari "benih kentang", yaitu umbi kecil atau potongan umbi ditanam hingga kedalaman 5 sampai 10 cm. Kemurnian kultivar dan umbi bibit yang sehat sangat penting untuk keberhasilan tanaman. Benih umbi ini harus bebas penyakit, berkecambah dg baik dan bobotnya 30 sampai 40 g setiap umbi. Penggunaan bibit komersial berkualitas baik dapat meningkatkan hasil sebesar 30 hingga 50 persen, dibandingkan dengan bibit petani sendiri, tetapi keuntungan yang diharapkan harus dapat mengimbangi biaya yang lebih tinggi. Kepadatan penanaman kentang tergantung pada ukuran umbi yang dipilih, sedangkan jarak antar baris harus memungkinkan untuk penyiangan tanaman. Biasanya, sekitar dua ton bibit kentang ditabur per hektar. Untuk produksi lahan tadah hujan di daerah kering, menanam di bidang olah datar memberikan hasil yang lebih tinggi, sedangkan tanaman irigasi terutama ditanam dengan sistem guludan. Sumber:
PRODUKSI KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Stages in crop development 1. Planted seed tuber 2. Vegetative growth 3. Tuber initiation 4. Tuber bulking Sumber:
PRODUKSI KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Perawatan tanaman. Selama peerkembangan kanopi kentang, yang memakan waktu sekitar empat minggu, gulma harus dikendalikan untuk memberikan "keunggulan kompetitif“ tanaman. Jika gulma besar, mereka harus dibuang sebelum operasi pembumbunan (penyiangan) dimulai. Pembumbunan dilakukan untuk penumpukan tanah pada pangkal batang utama tanaman kentang. Pembumbunan untuk menjaga tanaman tegak dan menggemburkan tanah, mencegah gangguan hama seperti ngengat umbi, dan membantu mencegah pertumbuhan gulma. Setelah pembumbunan, gulma antara tanaman yang tumbuh dan pada bagian atas guludan diambil secara mekanis atau menggunakan herbisida. Pembumbunan harus dilakukan dua atau tiga kali pada interval 15 sampai 20 hari. Pembumbunan pertama harus dilakukan saat tanaman tinggi sekitar cm, yang pembumbunan ke dua sering dilakukan untuk menutupi umbi yang tersingkap. Sumber:
PRODUKSI KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Tanaman kentang tumbuh terbaik di iklim yang sejuk, di tanah yang berdrainase baik dan kaya nitrogen. Bibit kentang berupa umbi atau potongan umbi, masing-masing berisi satu atau dua mata tunas. Potongan-potongan yang ditanam 30 sampai 45 cm jarak dalam barisan, dan 60 sampai 90 cm jarak di antara barisan. Umbi ketang terbentuk pada umur 40 sampai 50 hari setelah tanam dan matang setelah 90 sampai 120 hari. Kentang dipanen pada akhir musim tanamnya. Umbi kentang dapat disimpan selama beberapa bulan sebelum pemasaran. Sumber:
PRODUKSI KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Pola pertumbuhan tanaman kentang Sumber:
PRODUKSI KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Sumber: l Pola pertumbuhan tanaman kentang
PRODUKSI KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Teknik irigasi ini dikenal sebagai pengeringan zona akar secara parsial (PRD), yang merupakan proses irigasi yang terbukti meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan air tanpa pengurangan hasil umbi yang signifikan. Teknik ini pada dasarnya terdiri dari mengairi sekitar setengah dari sistem akar tanaman sementara separuh lainnya dibiarkan kering. Setelah periode waktu tertentu, setengah zone kering dari sistem akar di airi dan setengah zone basah dibiarkan mengering. Teori ini menyatakan bahwa pada tahap awal stres air, hormon (Asam Abscisic = ABA) disintesis dalam akar di zone kering. ABA diangkut ke daun untuk mengurangi kehilangan air dengan menginduksi penutupan stomata dan mengurangi kehilangan air melalui transpirasi. Hal ini diterjemahkan bahwa sistem akar tanaman pada awalnya “dilaparkan” dalam rangka untuk melatih tanaman menjadi lebih efisien air yang terbatas, sehingga memperpanjang aktivitas fotosintetik. Sumber:
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Bacterial Soft Rot, Erwinia spp. Time for concern: At planting, and between harvesting and marketing. Wet, anaerobic soils favor the disease. This bacterial pathogen can cause soft rot of infected tubers, resulting in seed piece decay and reduced yield and quality at harvest. Erwinia infection can also produce symptoms known as „black leg ‟ : stunted, yellow stems that become black and rotted at ground level. Tubers are infected through wounds or lenticels, and develop tan or water-soaked areas on the tuber surface. Advanced infections will be seen as soft rot of the tuber flesh. The amount of damage depends on the population of the bacteria on and in the seed, seed storage and handling practices, and variety susceptibility. Relative risk: Reduce risk to this wound pathogen by avoiding injuries and providing conditions favorable to wound healing at planting and harvest. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Fusarium Dry Rot primarily Fusarium sambucinum, but also F. coeruleum and F. graminearum Time for concern: During planting, harvest, and postharvest, if soil is cold and pathogen is present. Fusarium spp. fungi cause dry rot in stored tubers and seed piece decay. Symptoms include sunken and shriveled areas on the surface of the tubers. The rot may extend to the center of the tuber and contain a fungal growth that is pink, white, or yellow. Soft rot bacteria can colonize dry rot lesions, making diagnosis difficult. The fungus originates in contaminated seed or infested soil. Relative risk: Dry rot occurs annually and is perhaps the most important cause of post harvest potato losses. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
Sclerotinia stem rot (White Mold of Potato)White Mold of Potato White mold, also called Sclerotinia stem rot, is fast becoming an important disease in Michigan potato fields. The disease favors very moist conditions and is especially common in fields with overhead- irrigation such as by means of a center pivot. Agricultural practices that promote extensive canopy growth, keep relative humidity, free moisture in the crop canopy for extended periods of time and reduce wind movement to favor disease development. White mold is caused by the soil-borne fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The pathogen causes disease in more than 400 different plant species. Host plants in Michigan include alfalfa, dry beans, soybeans, peppers and tomatoes, as well as some common weeds associated with potato production like lambsquarters, pigweed and nightshade. Sclerotiniasclerotiorum overwinters from one growing season to the next as sclerotia, but sclerotia can also survive in the soil for several years. Sclerotia require a conditioning period of cool temperatures before they can germinate, but these chilling requirements are easily met during winters. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 White mold or Sclerotinia stem rot in potatoes Willie Kirk and Jay Hao, Published June 22, 2011 Michigan State University Extension, Department of Plant Pathology
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) White Mold, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Time for concern: Mid-season to harvest. Favored by wet or humid plant canopy and poor air circulation. The fungus is soil borne and generally infects stems at the soil line, but the infection may occur on any part of the plant. Symptoms include dense, cottony, white growth and the production of hard, black, irregularly shaped sclerotia on infected tissue. This disease is not common on potatoes. Relative risk: White mold is a risk if soil is infested with sclerotia, in wet seasons and with excessive irrigation. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
Rhizoctonia diseases of potato are caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris (A. B. Frank) Donk) and can be found on all underground parts of the plant at different times during the growing season. The symptoms of the disease are found on both above and below ground portions of the plant. Black scurf, is the most conspicuous sign of Rhizoctonia disease. Rhizoctonia diseases are initiated by seedborne or soilborne inoculum. The pathogen overwinters as sclerotia and mycelium on infected tubers, in plant residue, or in infested soils. When infected seed tubers are planted in the spring, the fungus grows from the seed surface to the developing sprout and infection of root primordia, stolon primordia and leaf primordia can occur. Seed inoculum is particularly effective in causing disease because of its close proximity to developing sprouts and stolons. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//32012 Rhizoctonia stem canker and black scurf of potato Phillip Wharton 1, William Kirk 1, Devan Berry 1 and Sieglinde Snapp 2 1 Department of Plant Pathology, 2 Department of Crop & Soil Sciences, Michigan State University
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Canker and Black Scurf, Rhizoctonia solani Time for concern: Growing season. Cool wet soils favor disease development. This fungus causes a variety of symptoms on tubers including cracking, malformation, and russeting. The „black scurf symptom found on infected tubers appears as numerous dark, hard reproductive structures, called sclerotia. The sclerotia may be flat and superficial or large, irregular, and lumpy. Sclerotia on stored tubers do not cause damage or spread the disease in storage. However, sclerotia in soil or on seed pieces can germinate and infect young, susceptible sprouts and stolons, causing lesions, or cankers. In cool wet soils, when plants are growing slowly, disease can progress rapidly, causing reduced stands and stunted plants. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Silver Scurf, Helminthosporium solani Time for concern: At planting, through growing season, post harvest and storage. Warm, wet soil favors sporulation and disease spread in the field. Post harvest handling and first weeks of storage are the primary times of infection and spread of silver scurf. Warm pulp temperatures and high relative humidity greatly favor spread of silver scurf in storage This seed and soil borne fungus infects only the skin of the potato. Symptoms appear at the stolon end as small, pale, brown spots. Severe browning of the surface layers of tubers may occur, followed by sloughing-off of the outer layers of the periderm. Lesions are circular. The silvery appearance of older lesions is most obvious when the tubers are wet. Relative risk: This disease occurs annually and is especially noticeable on red, blue and purple-skinned varieties. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Early Blight, primarily Alternaria solani Time for concern: Early to mid-July through harvest in warm and humid weather. This fungus causes leaf lesions that are dark brown and appear leathery with faint, concentric rings giving a “target-spot” effect. Spots grow to 1/2 inch. Under prolonged warm and humid conditions, spots may enlarge or coalesce, causing leaf yellowing and early senescence. Severe defoliation will reduce yields. Tuber infections appear as small, irregular, brownish black spots that are usually sunken. The rotted tuber tissue is firm, hard, and somewhat corky. Tuber infection is much less common than foliar infection. Early blight overwinters in infected plant debris and potato tubers. Relative Risk: Prevalent in most growing seasons, but in comparison with late blight, this disease is less serious. There is a high risk for significant defoliation and yield reduction when susceptible varieties are grown in a warm, wet year. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Viruses of Potatoes Time for Concern: Throughout the growing season and into storage Key Characteristics: Virus infections can cause distorted growth, stunting, distortions in leaf coloration, yield reductions, external and internal tuber necrosis and small misshapen tubers. Relative risk: The PVY group is now considered one of the most prevalent and important viruses in potatoes. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Virus Diseases of Potatoes. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) NEMATODE MANAGEMENT Northern Root-Knot (Meloidogyne hapla) and Root-Lesion (Pratylenchus spp.) Time for concern: Before and during planting. Long-term planning is required for sustainable management. The populations and damage of lesion nematodes has steadily increased in recent years, probably due to the increased use of grains as cover and rotational crops to improve soil quality and health. Potato serves as a good host for both nematodes and will tend to increase populations when planted in infested fields. Plants heavily infested with either nematode do not exhibit diagnostic above ground symptoms, but only general stunting and uneven growth. However, diagnostic symptoms are found on roots as galls and brown - black, narrow lesions caused by the root-knot and lesion nematodes, respectively. The presence of nematodes in roots or in soil around roots is the only definitive evidence of their involvement. Risk assessment: Both the root-knot nematode and the lesion nematode are widespread in New York soils and at high populations can cause significant yield losses for potatoes. Lesion nematode even at low soil population levels interacts with Verticillium dahliae to cause early dying disease. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) NEMATODE MANAGEMENT Northern Root-Knot (Meloidogyne hapla) and Root-Lesion (Pratylenchus spp.) Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Golden nematode, Globodera rostochiensis Time for concern: Throughout the growing season Key characteristics: This is a regulated pest, which means the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) recognize it as having the potential to cause serious economic and environmental damage and movement of any material that might harbor this pest is tightly monitored. New York is the only state to have golden nematode. Nematode damage will result in reduced yield, but more importantly presence of golden nematode results in farm quarantine, severely limiting marketing options. Symptoms are similar to early dying disease showing necrosis of foliage and dieback under severe infestations. Populations build up slowly over years. Risk assessment: If detected, farm will be under quarantine restrictions. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) NONPATHOGENIC DISORDERS Environmental factors can cause symptoms that appear to be diseases but are actually not caused by a pathogen or insect. Nonpathogenic disorders: Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
KAPAN MEMANEN UMBI KENTANG Harvesting Potatoes 1.Your first early potatoes will be ready to harvest between 8 and 12 weeks from planting. These are your 'new potatoes' to be just cleaned and boiled for a special treat at the start of summer. 2.It's worth sacrificing a plant or two before they are really developed and harvesting the small tubers early for the delicious meal, leaving the other plants to grow on until you are ready for the next treat. 3.Approach from the side with a fork and lift trying to avoid spearing you crop. You always manage to fork a few, nature of the beast, I'm afraid. You can get special potato forks with flat tines but an ordinary fork will do the job. 4.With the early varieties you will probably want to get them out of the ground to free the space for other crops. If you leave them in too long the amount of slug damage increases and the risk of blight striking increase. 5.The maincrop, being the slowest to develop and in the ground for longest are most vulnerable to the blight. When the haulm, as we call potato foliage, starts to go down it is good idea to cut it down a few days or a week before you harvest. Any blight spores on the haulm that get onto the tubers (the actual potato we eat) can cause them to rot in store. 6.Try and pick a dry sunny day to harvest your potatoes and leave them on the surface for a few hours to harden the skin. This will help them store better. If they are coming up dirty rinse them in a bucket before hardening. You don't want them fully washed, just get the thick off. 7.Do try to get even tiny potatoes out or next year they'll be growing and acting as a reservoir for pests and disease. 8.You might want to sow a quick green manure after your potatoes - see green manures. Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012
Evaluation of Potato Production Best Management Practices Bryan G. Hopkins1*, Donald A. Horneck2, Mark J. Pavek3, Brad D. Geary4, Nora L. Olsen5, Jason W. Ellsworth5, George D. Newberry6, Jeff S. Miller1, Robert E. Thornton3, and Gale W. Harding Amer J of Potato Res (2007) 84:19-27 A 2001 survey indicated that many growers are reluctant to adopt research-based recommendations because of a perception that it is not practical or applicable to their specific farming operation. Other growers, however, appear to adopt these practices successfully. Highlighting “model” growers is a method that can be used to field-test research findings and facilitate grower adoption. The objectives of this project were to: 1) establish field demonstrations with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) growers who generally follow researchbased best management practices (BMPs); 2) establish plots within each field to compare BMPs with a high input, maximum yield management (MYM) approach; and 3) enhance grower confidence regarding researchbased BMPs. Fourteen field trials were conducted in the Pacific Northwest during Five replicates of BMP and MYM plots were established in each field. The BMPs consisted of sampling, scouting, and use of prediction models to aid in determining rate and timing of inputs to maximize returns. In contrast, the MYM approach was based on tradition and calendar timing, with a near zero tolerance for pest and nutrient limitations. The MYM plots had 1.7 to 13.2% more fertilizer and pesticide costs than the BMP plots. The MYM treatments resulted in significant marketable yield increases in three fields and decreases in two fields, with the remaining nine fields and the combined average of all 14 fields being statistically equivalent. When factoring in estimated costs, only two fields resulted in a monetary advantage with MYM treatment. In contrast, the BMP treatment resulted in significant increases in net crop value in five fields, as well as the combined average of all 14 fields ($200 ha-1 or 3.2%). These field demonstrations, along with associated field days and grower meetings, have resulted in many documented changes in grower practices towards BMPs, with many more undocumented changes probable. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 ABSTRACT
Best Management Practices for Fertilizer Dr. Robert L. Mikkelsen, West Region Director. February 2006 A regional newsletter published by the Potash & Phosphate Institute (PPI) and the Potash & Phosphate Institute of Canada (PPIC) Best Management Practices for Profitable Fertilization of Potatoes Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 Potatoes managed for maximum productivity have a high demand on soil nutrients. Significant quantities of nutrients are accumulated in the tops and are removed from the field in the harvested tubers. Since potatoes are commonly grown on sandy-textured soils, additional challenges for nutrient management are present. Typical nutrient accumulation and removal in Russet potatoes in a 500 cwt/A crop (lb/A): Suggested ranges in nutrient concentrations for the fourth petiole of Russet Burbank potatoes during tuber bulking. (sumber:
FASE PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN KENTANG Potatoes grown for processing are valued for yield, size, and also for dry matter content (measured by specific gravity). As the specific gravity increases, the water content of the potato decreases, improving the frying properties and flavor. Management factors, including fertility decisions, will influence potato yield, quality, and storage properties. Potato growth is classified into four distinct growth phases. The exact timing of these growth phases depends on many environmental and management factors that vary between locations and cultivars. However, these distinct stages of growth need to be considered when managing the crop. Major stages of growth and development of potatoes. The nutrient requirement of the developing potato changes during the growing season: Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012
Plant Factors Influencing Nutrient Needs The maturity class and growing season length are two primary factors determining potato nutrient requirements. Short-season, early maturing (determinate) potatoes generally have a high and intense nutrient demand during the vegetative and tuber initiation stages. Long-season potatoes (indeterminate) have a longer period of nutrient uptake. The specific fertilization strategy must be adjusted for the different varieties and maturity classes or poor results will occur. Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012 Diagrams of Vegetative shoot with petioles (a) and full potato plant with a floral spike (b). The fourth petiole is used in tissue analysis for determining plant nutrient status. (sumber:
PENGELOLAAN HARA TANAMAN Growing healthy potatoes for maximum yield and quality requires that all the essential nutrients be supplied at the right rate, the right time, and the right place. For potatoes, either deficient or excessive plant nutrition can reduce tuber bulking and quality. Nutrient deficiencies may limit the leaf canopy growth and its duration, resulting in reduced carbohydrate production and tuber growth. Maintaining healthy leaves is a key to producing high yields. However, excessive nutrient applications may cause nutrient imbalances or over-stimulate vegetative growth at the expense of tuber production. Some nutrients, such as S, may also have indirect yield benefits by reducing tuber disease. Summary of nutrient management practices for potato fertilization: Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012
PENGELOLAAN HARA NITROGEN TANAMAN KENTANG Proper N management is one of the most important factors required to obtain high yields of excellent quality potatoes. An adequate early season N supply is important to support vegetative growth, but excessive soil N later in the season will suppress tuber initiation, reduce yields, and decrease the specific gravity in some cultivars. Excess soil N late in the season can delay maturity of the tubers and result in poor skin set, which harms the tuber quality and storage properties. Potatoes are a shallow-rooted crop, generally growing on sandy, well-drained soils. These soil conditions frequently make water and N management difficult since nitrate is susceptible to leaching losses. On these sandy soils, it is recommended that potatoes receive split applications of N during the growing season. This involves applying some of the total N requirement prior to planting and applying the remainder during the season with side-dress applications or through the irrigation system. The period of highest N demand varies by potato variety and is related to cultivar characteristics such as root density and time to maturity. Use of petiole analysis during the growing season allows producers to determine the N status of the crop and respond in a timely manner with appropriate nutrients. There are several N fertilizers suitable for application through an irrigation system. Care should be taken to get uniform coverage through the field and to minimize runoff. Application of N fertilizer through furrow irrigation should only be done where a tailwater collection and reuse system is in place (although this method may not result in uniform application of N). The use of controlled-release N fertilizers has been successfully tested for potato production, with the goal of reducing nitrate leaching losses of N between the time of application and plant uptake. The relatively high price of these N sources has been the main obstacle so far, but with the continuing development of more affordable coating materials, this barrier may be overcome in the near future. Planting cover crops to recover residual N during the winter is attractive, but has proven difficult in many potato- production areas. The problems associated with latefall establishment of the cover crop, timing the crop-kill in the spring, and synchronizing the release of nutrients from decomposing residues to the needs of the potato crop are all challenges that require further work. Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012
PENGELOLAAN HARA FOSFOR TANAMAN KENTANG KETERSEDIAAN P-TANAH DAN SERAPAN P Phosphorus occurs in many forms, depending on factors including pH and chemical composition of the soil. While only a portion of the total soil P is available to the crop during a given growing season, the supply of available P is constantly replenished from reserves of less available P in the soil. Some of the available P may come from this year’s fertilizer application, residual fertilizer, or from the mineralization of organic residues. Roots absorb phosphate ions only when they are dissolved in the soil water. Phosphorus deficiencies can occur even in soils with abundant available P if drought, low temperatures, or disease interfere with P diffusion to the root through the soil solution or otherwise stunt normal root development and function. Proper irrigation management and scheduling is critical for potato development and utilization of applied nutrients. Potato plants require an adequate supply of P throughout the growing season to achieve optimum quality and yield. During the early growth stages, P stimulates the development of a vigorous root system and healthy tops. Plant demand for P peaks at tuber set and early bulking, and then slows during later bulking—when much of the nutrient demand of the developing tubers is met by translocating P from the tops of the plants down to the roots. Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012 Distinct P deficiency symptoms are not usually visible in potatoes, even when deficiency slows growth and greatly reduces yields. Only after P deficiencies have become severe will the crop begin to develop visible signs of P stress—manifested first by stunted dark green leaves. Later, the edges of the youngest leaves may begin to fold downwards. Since P deficiency is difficult to visually diagnose and significant yield losses will have occurred when they become evident, the P status is best monitored by petiole analysis to avoid yield-robbing deficiencies.
PENGELOLAAN HARA FOSFOR TANAMAN KENTANG PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT Phosphorus plays an essential role in plant health and root development, which directly impacts yield and quality. The P requirement of potatoes is frequently higher than the P required for many field crops due to the high nutrient demand of potatoes and their relatively shallow root system. Therefore, some fertilizer P is commonly recommended for potatoes grown in a crop rotation. The need for P fertilization should be established by a soil sample taken prior to planting. Since P generally moves very little in soil, it is important to place the P within the root zone to stimulate the early-season growth required for high yields. Preplant P applications (broadcast or banded) are generally preferred, but mid-season applications may be useful when needed. When petiole analysis indicates a risk of P deficiency, a soluble P fertilizer (typically ) may be applied through an irrigation system to provide a mid- or late-season boost. This P fertigation technique is beneficial only if adequate roots are present near the soil surface, as frequently occurs after the canopy shades the hill during mid-season. Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012 Commonly available P fertilizer sources are equally useful for potato nutrition. The selection of a particular P fertilizer is generally based on grower preference, price, and compatibility with application equipment. Recent research suggests that modifications to P fertilizer, such as polymer additives, humic substances and coatings may be beneficial in improving P uptake and potato production.
PENGELOLAAN HARA KALIUM TANAMAN KENTANG Soil Availability and Plant Uptake Potassium is primarily supplied to potato roots through diffusion over short distances, so K is generally considered a relatively immobile nutrient in most soils. However, in sandy-textured soils with a low cation exchange capacity, K can move as much as several inches per year. Much of the K available to the plant is held on exchange sites on clay or on the surface of organic matter, which is released to replenish the soil solution as uptake of K occurs. Consequently, soil K levels do not change rapidly during the growing season, but will steadily decline over time if harvested nutrients are not replaced. Potatoes require large amounts of soil K, since this nutrient is crucial to metabolic functions such as the movement of sugars from the leaves to the tubers and the transformation of sugar into potato starch. Potassium deficiencies reduce the yield, size, and quality of the potato crop. A lack of adequate soil K is also associated with low specific gravity in potatoes. Potassium deficiencies impair the crop’s resistance to diseases and its ability to tolerate stresses such as drought and frost. Tubers adequately supplied with K are more resistant to blackspot bruising or after-cooking discoloration, while also experiencing less moisture loss and disease during storage. Deficiency of K typically occurs first in the areas of the field with coarse-textured soil. As K is mobile within the plant, the lower leaves are first to display symptoms of K deficiency—yellowing of the leaves with scorching around the leaf margins. Severely deficient plants may take on a coppery appearance. Small dead spots (resembling the lesions produced by fungal disease) may form on the leaves. Obvious signs of K deficiency become visible only after potatoes are severely stressed, so the K status should be monitored by tissue testing if deficiencies are suspected. Applying K fertilizer with a broadcast application prior to planting is most commonly recommended. If the K is bandapplied, the rates should be kept below 50 lb K2O/A to avoid any salt injury to the developing sprouts. If low soil K levels require large amounts of K fertilizer, it is best to split this into two or more applications to avoid yield loss. At typical application rates, there are no significant differences in K fertilizer sources. Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012
APLIKASI PUPUK SECARA TEPAT PADA TANAMAN KENTANG PEMUPUKAN TANAMAN KENTANG Fertilization of potatoes is a highly refined practice, capable of correcting potential problems before planting and reacting to changes occurring during the season. This flexibility provides many options for preparing the soil prior to planting and for addressing potential nutrition problems during the growing season. The plant nutrient status can be closely monitored and corrective action taken if conditions indicate a loss of yield or quality due to nutrient stress. Fertilizer application methods for potatoes frequently include a combination of some or all of the following, depending on equipment and management options: 1.Pre-plant broadcast application and incorporation. Broadcast applications made in the fall or the spring are generally incorporated into the surface soil where it will become available for crop growth. Fall applications of fertilizer should be protected from loss during the winter. Generally, no more than half of the N should be applied prior to planting, with the remainder added during the growing season. 2.Banded fertilizer application at row mark-out or planting Fertilizer can be placed near the seed piece to provide nutrition during early growth. However, direct contact with the plant can cause injury. Fertilizer applied during markout is typically placed a few inches to the side and below the seed piece. Applications made at planting are typically placed 1 to 2 in. above the seed piece for early-season availability. 3.Sidedress banded application after planting Additional N is frequently applied later in the growing season as the plants develop. This may be particularly beneficial in sandy soils that are prone to nitrate leaching. Late-season applications need to consider potential damage to the crop with field equipment. Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012
APLIKASI PUPUK SECARA TEPAT PADA TANAMAN KENTANG PEMUPUKAN TANAMAN KENTANG Fertilization of potatoes is a highly refined practice, capable of correcting potential problems before planting and reacting to changes occurring during the season. This flexibility provides many options for preparing the soil prior to planting and for addressing potential nutrition problems during the growing season. The plant nutrient status can be closely monitored and corrective action taken if conditions indicate a loss of yield or quality due to nutrient stress. Fertilizer application methods for potatoes frequently include a combination of some or all of the following, depending on equipment and management options: 4.Foliar nutrient spray Mid-season correction of nutritional deficiencies can be accomplished with a variety of foliar sprays. Micronutrients are commonly applied with foliar sprays, but other nutrients and chemicals may be applied at the same time. Plant foliage can only tolerate relatively small amounts of nutrients applied in this manner, so this technique is not usually the primary way of providing most crop nutrients. 5.Fertigation through the irrigation system Various water-soluble fertilizers are commonly applied through irrigation systems, including N, P, K, and S. These nutrients are generally applied according to the results of tissue testing that indicate potential problems. This practice must be done in a way to minimize losses through leaching or runoff in the irrigation water. The compatibility of any chemical added to irrigation water should be evaluated before introducing it through an irrigation system. Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012
ANALISIS CONTOH TANAH DAN TANAMAN Soils Pre-season soil sampling and analysis can provide essential information on the starting point and residual fertility related to the growing conditions for the potato crop. In- season soil analysis can also provide information useful for monitoring nutrient availability along with plant tissue testing. Factors to consider for getting the best information from soil analysis: Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012
TANGKAI DAUN KENTANG: Untuk Analisis Hara Tanaman Plants Potato petioles are frequently sampled during the growing season to monitor the plant nutrient status. In potatoes, the fourth leaf from the top of the plant is the most commonly analyzed plant part. It is important to consistently sample the same plant part during the season because nutrient concentrations are not uniform throughout the plant and will naturally change as the plant matures. Plant analysis is most beneficial for establishing trends over the season, and not for making management decisions based on a single sampling date. Results from a single petiole analysis can be influenced by the time of day the sample is taken, the climatic conditions, and various stresses not directly related to plant nutrition. Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/ Petiole analysis can be done for all of the essential nutrients, but nitrate determination is the most common test. 2.A petiole is conductive tissue responsible for moving water and nutrients from the roots to the leaf blade. 3.A petiole nutrient analysis measures the concentration of elements moving through the plant at the time of sampling. 4.The petiole nitrate concentrations will be highest during the early stages of growth and decrease through the season. 5.Optimal nitrate concentrations vary depending on varietal and regional (e.g. soil, climate, season) differences. A local crop consultant should be used for interpretation of the results of the petiole analysis.
ANALISIS HARA FOSFOR PADA TANGKAI DAUN KENTANG Petiole P concentrations are also used to measure the P status during the growing season. Petiole sampling for P should begin at tuber initiation and continue regularly during most of the tuber bulking phase. By tracking P concentrations, producers can predict if it may become a limiting factor during the season and corrective action can be taken before yield-robbing deficiencies occur. Factors to consider for getting the best information from plant analysis: Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012
HELAI DAUN UNTUK ANALISIS KANDUNGAN HARA TANAMAN The entire fourth leaf back from the growing point should be analyzed for total nutrient analysis. The petiole (with the leaflets removed) taken from the fourth leaf is analyzed for petiole nitrate and P monitoring. Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012 Recommended petiole and soil (0-18 inches) NO3-N concentrations for Russet Burbank potatoes during different growth stages. (http://ucanr.org/sites/nm/files/76642.pdf)
BMPs for Potato Fertilizer Management in the West Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012
Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. BMP PEMUPUKAN KENTANG The general fertilizer best management practices (BMPs) to help assure that the Right Source of nutrient is applied at the Right Rate, at the Right Time, and in the Right Place. The term “right” is defined as contributing to the productivity, profitability, and sustainability of the potato production system – all while minimizing any undesirable impact on the environment. An understanding of the nutrient demand of highyielding potatoes through the growing season is crucial to correct management. Knowing the total seasonal demand and the daily nutrient requirement provides a guide for fertilization and for mid-season adjustments. Nutrient uptake is generally most rapid during the time of tuber initiation (GS3) and tuber bulking (GS4), then tapering off during tuber maturation later in the growing season (GS5). Examples of nutrient accumulation from the Columbia River Basin in Oregon (Figure 1A) and the Snake River Valley of Idaho (Figure 1B) show this pattern. Differences in the two locations are due to weather conditions. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 Potassium fertilizer recommendations for Russet Burbank potatoes (http://ucanr.org/sites/nm/files/76642.pdf.
Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. Total (left axis) and daily rate (right axis) of N, P, and K accumulation by Russet Burbank potatoes grown with non-limiting nutrition and water near Hermiston, Oregon (Horneck and Rosen, 2008). Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012
Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. Total (left axis) and daily rate (right axis) of N, P, and K accumulation by Russet Burbank potatoes grown with non-limiting nutrition and water in the Snake River Valley of Idaho (Stark and Westermann, 2008). Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012
Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. JENIS PUPUK N YANG SESUAI BAGI KENTANG Getting sufficient N to the growing plant is critical in achieving high yields. Proper N management influences almost all of the important properties related to tuber yield and quality – including size, grade, and storage quality. Both an inadequate and an excessive supply of N can have deleterious effects. Potatoes acquire N from a variety of sources – all of which should be accounted for in a comprehensive nutrient management plan. Across the region, between 200 and 320 lb N/A are required for successful potato production areas. The N available to the growing potato crop may come from added N fertilizer, organic matter (including animal manure and cover crops), N in irrigation water, and inorganic N present in the soil prior to planting. All of these potential N sources should be accounted for when making decisions related to the total fertilizer N requirement. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 JOURNAL OF PLANT NUTRITION, 19(I0&11), (I 996) Potato Nitrogen Management by Monitoring Petiole Nitrate level Hailin Zhang, Dan Smeal, R. N. Arnold, and E. J. Gregory. Petiole nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations have been successfully used in Northwestern New Mexico to make timely nitrogen (N) recommendations for irrigated potatoes. However, a quick test and consistent sampling time is needed to precisely determine fertigation and to prevent over fertilization, especially in sandy soils. This study examined the petiole NO3-N dynamics during the growing season for both chipping and table stock varieties. Readings from a quick in-field sap N03-N meter were highly correlated with NO3-N indications using the conventional laboratory method. The sap NO3-N meter can significantly reduce testing turnaround time and has great potential for potato N management. Results showed that most consistent NO3-N readings could be obtained by collecting tissue samples between 1100 and 1400 hours of the day.
Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 JOURNAL OF PLANT NUTRITION, 19(I0&11), (I 996) Potato Nitrogen Management by Monitoring Petiole Nitrate level Hailin Zhang, Dan Smeal, R. N. Arnold, and E. J. Gregory. Correlation between petiole sap nitrate-N measured with the Cardy Nitrate Meter and dry-weight based nitrate-N obtained with the conventional laboratory procedures (A: linear fit, B: quadratic fit)..
Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 JOURNAL OF PLANT NUTRITION, 19(I0&11), (I 996) Potato Nitrogen Management by Monitoring Petiole Nitrate level Hailin Zhang, Dan Smeal, R. N. Arnold, and E. J. Gregory.