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AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG: PEMUPUKAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013 AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG: PEMUPUKAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013.

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Presentasi berjudul: "AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG: PEMUPUKAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013 AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG: PEMUPUKAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013."— Transcript presentasi:

1 AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG: PEMUPUKAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013 AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG: PEMUPUKAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013

2 PEMUPUKAN KENTANG Menanam kentang (Solanum tuberosum) memerlukan persiapan yang serius, termasuk pengolahan tanah pada saat tanam. Menyediakan bibit kentang dengan media tumbuh yang “dalam dan gembur”, reaksi tanah dengan pH 4,8-6,5, dan menambahkan secukupnya pupuk kalium dan nitrogen; ini semua dilakukan untuk mendukung pertumbuhan awal tanaman kentang. Selama musim pertumbuhannya, tanaman kentang memerlukan tambahan pupuk yang cukup untuk dapat membentuk umbi. Jumlah pupuk yang digunakan tergantung pada hasil uji tanah. Kentang tumbuh baik ketika suhu 50 – 70oF.

3 PEMUPUKAN KENTANG Jika tanaman kentang berubah menjadi hijau-pucat atau kuning, sedangkan tulang-daun tetap hijau, atau jika daunnya menunjukkan gejala seperti “hangus-terbakar”, tanah mungkin kekurangan hara. Kekurangan hara yang paling lazim ketika tanaman kentang tumbuh adalah magnesium dan sulfur. Unsur hara Besi dan mangan juga sangat penting bagi kentang. Langkah pertama dalam menyembuhkan kekurangan hara ini adalah melakukan uji-tanah untuk menentukan hara apa yang menyebabkan gejala defisiensi pada tanaman. Setelah kekurangan hara dapat diidentifikasi, maka dapat dilakukan aplikasi pupuk yang tepat untuk menyembuhkannya.

4 PEMUPUKAN KENTANG Manajemen nitrogen yang tepat adalah salah satu praktek yang paling penting untuk mendapatkan hasil umbi kentang yang berkualitas tinggi. Aplikasi pupuk nitrogen dengan dosis berdasarkan hasil panen yang diharapkan dikurangi kredit untuk nitrat sisa tanah, nitrogen hasil mineralisasi bahan organik tanah, sisa tanaman legum sebelumnya dan pupuk, dan N-nitrat dari air irigasi. Aplikasi pupuk fosfat pada dosis berdasarkan hasil uji tanah. Aplikasi pupuk kalium pada tanah-tanah yang kurang kalium berdasarkan hasil uji tanah. Kesuburan tanah yang memadai merupakan salah satu persyaratan untuk produksi kentang yang menguntungkan. Kentang dapat tumbuh di tanah berpasir, dan nitrogen ( N ) adalah nutrisi yang paling membatasi hasil umbi. Fosfor ( P ) adalah nutrisi yang paling membatasi berikutnya setelah N, sementara seng ( Zn ) dan kadang-kadang besi ( Fe ) juga mungkin kekurangan pada beberapa kondisi tanah. Gunakan teknologi budidaya tanaman sesuai dnegan kultivar kentang, kultivar kentang sangat bervariasi kondisi kepadatan akarnya, kematangan, dan tanggapannya terhadap waktu aplikasi N dan kondisi lingkungan tumbuhnya.

5 PEMUPUKAN KENTANG Beriktu ini contoh tingkat N untuk kentang yang ditanam di Colorado timur dengan hasil yang diharapkan 400 q/acre. Dosis pupuk menurun dengan meningkatnya kandungan N-NO3 tanah lapisan olah. Dosis N berikut ini tidak memperhitungkan N dari sumber lain. Oleh karena itu, dosis rekomendasi berikut ini harus dikurangi dengan jumlah N dari sumber lain itu. Sumber : ppm N-NO3 dalam tanahDosis pupuk N lb N/acre >36140

6 PEMUPUKAN KENTANG Manajemen pemupukan N tepat adalah praktek yang paling penting dan dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan hasil umbi kentang yang banyak dan berkualitas tinggi. Pasokan N di awal musim harus cukup untuk pertumbuhan vegetatif tanaman kentang. Namun demikian, ketersediaan N-tanah yang berlebihan sebelum atau pada periode tuberization dapat menunda inisiasi umbi, mengurangi hasil dan mengurangi berat jenis umbi pada beberapa cultivars. Cultivar Rio Grande Russet, sangat sensitif terhadap aplikasi N yang berlebihan pada awal musim tumbuhnya. Petani harus mengetahui karakteristik kultivar tertentu sebelum aplikasi pupuk N di awal musim. Selain itu, N yang berlebihan pada akhir musim juga dapat menunda kematangan umbi dan hasil umbinya mempunyai kualitas kulit yang buruk, ini akan mempengaruhi kualitas umbi dan karakteristik penyimpanan.

7 PEMUPUKAN KENTANG Beberapa tanah kaya K-tersedia, namun tanaman kentang sangat respon terhadap pupuk kalium. Dosis pupuk K yang disarankan berkaitan dengan nilai uji tanah (AB-DTPA atau NH4OAc). Pupuk K yang lazim digunakan adalah KCl. Pupuk dapat disebarkan sebelum tanam atau ditugalkan di antara barisan tanaman. Sumber

8 PEMUPUKAN KENTANG Dosis pupuk K yang disarankan untuk kentang (hasil yang diharapkan, 400 q/acre). Sumber: ppm K dalam tanah, ekstraksi AB-DTPA atau NH 4 OAc Tingkat relatifDosis pupuk, lb K2O/acre 0-6Rendah Medium Tinggi40 > 180Sangat Tinggi0

9 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. Potatoes have distinct growth stages, each with specific nutritional requirements. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

10 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH Cover crops can be advantageous for a variety of reasons – including benefiting the physical properties of the soil, reducing erosion losses, preventing NO3- leaching by crop uptake, and providing a source of N to the potato crop after decomposition. Nitrogen scavenged by the fall- planted cover crop is stored in the plant until it is killed in the fall or spring, when it begins to decompose. There are a wide variety of cover crops that have been successfully used before planting potatoes – including various grasses, small grains, legumes, and other species (such as rape, mustard and radish). The cost and returns of using cover crops in a potato production system should be carefully considered before planting, but their use may be helpful in many cropping situations. The length of the fall growing season also needs to be determined in selecting a cover crop that will have sufficient time to develop before preparing the field for potato planting in the spring. There can also be considerations with pests and mineralization of excessive N late in the growing season to account for. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

11 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. PUPUK NITROGEN TANAMAN KENTANG There are several common forms of commercial N fertilizer used for potato production – materials containing NO3-, ammonium, and urea alone or in combination. When N fertilizer is applied to soil, microbiological processes rapidly convert urea to ammonium (urea hydrolysis) and convert ammonium to NO3- (nitrification). During the growing season, urea hydrolysis is typically complete in less than a week and nitrification is largely complete in less than 10 days. Since potatoes can use either NO3- or ammonium forms of N, the choice of soil-applied fertilizer is typically based on cost. During urea hydrolysis, free ammonia can be emitted – which is harmful if placed too close to seed pieces. Therefore, avoid applying high rates of banded urea in close proximity (less than 2 in.) to the seed pieces. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 Nitrogen fertilizer ratesz for total season application based on residual soil concentrations (0 to 12 inch depth) and potential yield of Russet Burbank produced in the Columbia Basin (sumber:

12 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. PUPUK N LARUT AIR Water-soluble N fertilizers are frequently added to the irrigation system to provide a mid- or late-season boost in nutrition to the rapidly growing tubers. Several N fertilizers are compatible with fertigation, including urea-ammonium-nitrate (UAN), but always check the chemical compatibility of any fertilizer with the specific water before adding it into an irrigation system. Aqua ammonia or anhydrous ammonia is sometimes added to water used for furrow irrigation. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 Nitrogen mineralization from 107 individual dairy manure samples after 8 weeks of incubation. On average, 13% of the organic N was mineralized, but 19 samples had net immobilization (negative values). Net N mineralization from the remaining 88 samples ranged from zero to 55% (from Van Kessel and Reeves, 2002).

13 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. KOMPOS DAN PUPUK KANDANG The growth of the animal industry provides easier access to organic N sources such as manures and composts. Much of the N present in manure is found in organic compounds that require decomposition before becoming available for plant uptake. It is important to know the nutrient content of any organic material used for crop production and not just rely on tables and book values for an average nutrient composition. Composted manure generally has a slower nutrient release rate than fresh manure and needs to be managed differently. If the N-release period from manures is excessively long, potatoes may have extended vegetative growth and delayed tuber bulking. Some manures may actually immobilize N for a period of weeks and make nutrients initially less available for potato growth. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

14 Managing Manure in Potato and Vegetable Systems Extension Bulletin E2893, New, June 2003 S.S. Snapp1, J. Nyiraneza1, M. Otto2, W.W. Kirk3 1Dept. of Horticulture, MSU; 2Agri-Business Consultants, Inc.; 3Department of Plant Pathology, Michigan State University Management strategies of Manure To optimize benefits from manure, growers need to consider both timing and placement. Improved management options include the following: 1.Broadcast manure on a forage crop or a cover crop before production of vegetables or potatoes in a rotation sequence. 2.Apply manure in the fall through injection or spreading followed by an incorporation operation, then plant a winter cover crop such as rye or wheat that can take up any nutrients released over the winter. 3.Apply manure to a field with no-till wheat stubble or significant amounts of other crop residue remaining on the surface. 4.Because manure is a heterogeneous substance and does not apply smoothly, double spreading (30- foot instead of 60-foot centers, for example) or applying the manure first in one direction and then in the other will improve uniformity of application. 5.Calibrating the manure spreader is the foundation of good manure management and accurate estimation of nutrient supply. 6.Apply poultry manure or slurries for short-term benefits, but do not expect long-term soil building unless manure with significant amounts of organic matter (e.g., straw-filled or solid dairy manure) is applied.

15 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. PUPUK N LAMBAT TERSEDIA Excellent results have been obtained from the use of controlled-release N fertilizers (CRF). There are many types of these materials, with widely varying periods of nutrient release. A general recommendation would be to apply approximately two-thirds of the total N requirement as a CRF at emergence. Any remaining N could be applied through the irrigation system as determined by frequent monitoring of the plant. This technique may reduce NO3- leaching since not as much soluble N is present in the soil at any one time. For best results, select a CRF that has a N release rate that matches the crop nutrient demand (Hopkins et al., 2008). Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 Potatoes require optimal levels of essential nutrients (link) throughout the growing season. Nutrient uptake rates are often slow early in the season, increase rapidly during the tuber bulking phase (link), and then slow as the plant matures (sumber:

16 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. PUPUK P BAGI TANAMAN KENTANG Many potato production fields have need for P applications since this nutrient is especially important for early plant development and rapid tuber growth. The requirement for additional P should be determined with pre-season soil tests and in-season plant tissue monitoring. 1.Both solid and liquid sources of P fertilizer are equally suitable for potato nutrition. The decision to use a particular fertilizer material is generally based on price, equipment availability, and other field operations that are occurring. 2.Mid-season applications of P are common when the uptake of nutrients from the soil may be inadequate to fully meet the demand of the rapidly growing crop. Soluble sources of P are commonly applied through the irrigation system to meet peak demand periods. A number of soluble phosphate and polyphosphate fertilizers may be suitable. Check their chemical compatibility with the irrigation water since added P tends to precipitate with calcium and magnesium in water to form insoluble deposits. 3.The research has documented positive responses to P fertilizer additives that may enhance P solubility and plant uptake, such as liquid polymer stabilizers and humic materials. Consider evaluating these materials on a portion of the field receiving fertilizer P. 4.Many animal manures and composted materials contain considerable P. When properly managed, they can be a useful source of nutrients. Regular chemical analysis of the manure and soil testing are needed to keep nutients properly balanced. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

17 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. KALIUM BAGI TANAMAN KENTANG Potatoes remove very large amounts of K in the harvested tubers (200 to 400 lb/A), but K is taken up by the plant in the cationic K+ form, regardless of the fertilizer material applied to the soil 1.Inadequate supplies of K can result in decreased yields and quality of the tuber. There are rare reports that heavy applications KCl can result in lower dry matter percentage (specific gravity) in tubers compared with K2SO4 or KMgSO4. This problem is not common and can be overcome with proper K management. 2.There are soluble K sources that are compatible with irrigation systems. Considering that potatoes may accumulate up to 14 lb K/A/day during tuber bulking, it is essential that adequate nutrient supplies be maintained in the root zone. Although not commonly done, K can be solubilized by a fertilizer company from common K sources and delivered to the field for fertigation. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 Potassium fertilizer rates for total season application based on pre-plant soil test concentrations (0 to 12 inch depth) for Russet Burbank potato produced in the Columbia Basin (sumber:

18 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. DOSIS PUPUK N YANG TEPAT BAGI TANAMAN KENTANG Proper N management is one of the most important factors required to obtain high yields of excellent quality potatoes. An adequate early season N supply is important to support vegetative growth, but excessive soil N later in the season will suppress tuber initiation, reduce yields, and decrease the specific gravity in many instances. Having a large supply of NO3- in the soil at any time leaves it susceptible to denitrification and leaching during irrigation. Applying the correct amount of N requires skill and knowledge of the entire production system. 1.It is advisable to sample the soil prior to fertilizing and planting to determine the supply of pre- existing NO3- (to a 12-in. depth). This residual NO3- may be carried over from the previous crop or may have accumulated during the decomposition of crop residues and soil organic matter. Soil testing labs will assist you in adjusting your fertilizer recommendations if there is significant NO3- carry-over in the soil. 2.Less than half of the total N requirement is generally applied prior to or by the time of planting. Additional N should be applied during the growing season after the root system has sufficiently developed to utilize the supplemental N. During peak growth periods, potato plants can require as much as 7 lb N/A/day. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

19 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. DOSIS PUPUK N YANG TEPAT BAGI TANAMAN KENTANG 3.Nitrate leaching losses are minimized by keeping the amount of leachable N in the rootzone to a minimum, while still meeting the plant nutritional requirement. Nitrate leaching can result from excessive irrigation that flushes this essential nutrient from the rooting area. Over-irrigation can also result in undesirable effects on plant growth and development. The keys to minimizing nitrate leaching involve management of both fertilizer and irrigation water. Avoid over-irrigation during times when consumptive water use is low- such as early and late in the growing season. 4.Plant tissue analysis can provide valuable insight into the need for supplemental N. Seasonal trends in the petiole nitrate concentration are useful for predicting the need for additional N fertilizer to avoid nutrientlimited growth. In potatoes, the nutrient concentration in the petiole taken from the fourth fully emerged leaf (counting from the plant top) has been well calibrated with plant growth and yield. It is important that the same position on the plant (fourth petiole) be consistently sampled to get reproducible results that can be used for diagnostic purposes in the laboratory. 5.Nitrogen deficiencies are visible only after the plant has been limited in growth and productivity. Therefore visual symptoms should not be used as a primary guide to predict the need for additional N fertilizer. Nitrogen- deficient plants typically have a pale green appearance, with the older vegetation turning light yellow. Plants will be stunted compared with plants receiving adequate nutrition. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

20 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. PEMUPUKAN P TANAMAN KENTANG Phosphorus plays an essential role in plant health and root development, which directly impacts yield and quality. The P requirement of potatoes is frequently higher than the P requirement of many field crops due to the high nutrient demand of potatoes and their relatively shallow root system. Some P fertilizer is typically recommended for potatoes grown in a crop rotation. The need for additional P should be established by analysis of soil samples prior to planting. 1.Preplant P fertilization is generally recommended, with the application rate based on the results of soil testing. Additional mid-season applications may be useful when plant tissue testing indicates that P may limit plant growth and yield. 2.The P fertilization rate should be adjusted to account for the soil properties. Since free lime (calcium carbonate) in the soil tends to react with fertilizer P to make a portion of it less available to plants, P fertilization rates are generally adjusted upwards by 10 lb/A for every 1% lime in the soil. A history of manure application may build P concentrations to a point where little, if any, additional P fertilizer is needed. 3.Applications of P through the irrigation system are only useful if adequate roots are present near the soil surface. This frequently occurs after the canopy shades the hill by mid-season and if the soil near the surface does not become too dry for nutrient uptake. 4.Potato plants that have insufficient P are generally smaller and may have a darker green appearance than properly fertilized plants. When deficiencies become severe, some varieties may develop a purple color in the leaf and exhibit leaf cupping. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

21 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. PUPUK KALIUM TANAMAN KENTANG Potatoes require large amounts of K, since this nutrient is crucial to metabolic functions such as movement of sugars from the leaves to the tubers, and transformation of sugar into potato starch. Potassium deficiencies reduce the yield, size, and quality of the potato crop. A lack of adequate K can be associated with low specific gravity in potatoes. During peak periods, potatoes can take up 14 lb K/A each day. Excessively high K can result in its accumulation in tubers, where it may increase the water content and decrease the specific gravity. 1.Potassium fertilizer is commonly broadcast across the field prior to planting. Band placement of a small fraction of K fertilizer in the beds or during row markout will also efficiently supply K to the plants. When soils are quite deficient in K, it is recommended that no more than 300 lb K2O/A be applied in a band to prevent salt damage to the young plants. In these circumstances, the K can be applied as a combination of broadcast and banded K. Account for K that may be present in irrigation water when making K fertilizer decisions. 2.Potassium-deficient plants show symptoms of yellowing and scorching on the older leaves as K is moved from older vegetation to the younger growth. The surface of younger leaves may also develop symptoms of a glossy sheen with crinkling. Pre-season soil testing and proper fertilization will prevent these symptoms from occurring. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 Potatoes require high levels of potassium in concentrations which are comparable to or greater than nitrogen. Potassium is taken up from the soil solution as the potassium ion (K+) which is replenished predominately from the exchange sites on soil colloids. Therefore, soil extracted K+ (reported in ppm) provides an index of soil potassium supplying ability. Caution should be used because an assumption that soil analysis values represent pounds of potassium available for uptake will lead to errors in determining the needed application rate. (sumber:

22 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. PEMUPUKAN N TEPAT WAKTU BAGI KENTANG Although potatoes require a constant supply of N throughout out the growing season, the peak demand period generally coincides with rapid vegetative growth in the first 60 to 80 days after planting (with daily accumulation rates reaching as high as 7 lb N/A). After this intensive growth period, N accumulation rates gradually diminish until harvest. The objective with N management is to maintain an adequate nutrient supply for the plant to achieve the optimal balance between vegetative and tuber growth. Over-fertilization can stimulate vigorous vegetative growth at the expense of tuber development. Excessive N can also depress tuber quality. However, a shortage of N will curtail the growth of vegetation and photosynthetic capacity necessary to support healthy roots and rapid tuber growth. 1.Irrigated potatoes have the advantage of being able to rapidly supply additional N during the growing season with fertigation. However, this method should be considered as a supplement to soil-based fertilization. It is common to apply between one fourth and one half of the total N requirement before or at planting, largely depending on the susceptibility to nitrate leaching losses. 2.After tuber initiation begins (GS3), it is important to maintain a constant and adequate N supply. During this stage, the plants are accumulating between 2 to 7 lb N/A/day. Assuming a 4 lb/A/day accumulation and a 60% N efficiency for sprinkler-applied N, then 65 lb of N would provide adequate N for approximately 10 days. 3.The frequency and quantity of N that can be applied by fertigation will depend on the irrigation system and the water requirement of the developing crop. It is common to apply 20 to 40 lb N/A every one to two weeks during Growth Stages 3 and 4. Regular monitoring of petiole NO3- concentrations will assist in increasing or decreasing the rate of N application. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

23 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. PEMUPUKAN P TEPAT WAKTU BAGI KENTANG The demand for P continues to increase until the middle of the growing season, with a daily demand peaking between 0.5 and 0.9 lb P/A/day – depending on the variety and yield potential. An adequate and constant supply of P during the entire growing season is required to support vine and tuber growth. An insufficient P supply results in reduced tuber size and yield. 1.The anticipated P fertilizer requirement is best applied prior to planting, based on the results of soil testing. Since P fertilizer is not susceptible to leaching loss, it can be placed in the rootzone prior to planting where it will remain during the growing season. 2.Monitoring the concentration of P in potato petioles during the growing season provides useful feedback on the current plant status. Petiole sampling for P typically begins at tuber initiation (GS3) and occurs every 7 to 10 days thereafter. The total P concentration of the petiole (the fourth petiole from the growing point) relates well with the total plant P and yield. The results from the laboratory analysis should be used with local expertise and data to determine emerging nutrient shortages. 3.The concentration of soluble P in the soil is generally quite low due to its chemical reactivity. Adequate fertilization increases the soluble P concentration, but it may still be insufficient to meet the plant demand during peak periods of nutrient uptake. Sprinkler application of P may be used to increase the soil P concentration when it is no longer possible to enter the field with fertilizer equipment. Since irrigation will be occurring to meet crop water demands, it is efficient to simultaneously use fertigation as a means to optimize plant nutrition. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

24 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. PEMUPUKAN P TEPAT WAKTU BAGI KENTANG The demand for P continues to increase until the middle of the growing season, with a daily demand peaking between 0.5 and 0.9 lb P/A/day – depending on the variety and yield potential. An adequate and constant supply of P during the entire growing season is required to support vine and tuber growth. An insufficient P supply results in reduced tuber size and yield. 4.Sprinkler application of P should be considered as a source of plant nutrition that supplements, not replaces, the primary soil nutrition program. Fertigation of P provides the flexibility to closely evaluate and respond to the plant’s progress and perhaps eliminate some of the soil-applied P. However, this approach should be viewed as corrective monitoring, not a way to eliminate major soil nutrient deficiencies. 5.Fertigation of P is most successful if there are active roots close to the soil surface and the canopy shades the hill. It often takes 10 to 14 days after P application before the petiole P concentrations increase. Therefore, do not wait until deficiencies are observed or petiole P concentrations are too low before responding with fertigation. Charting the seasonal trends of tissue P concentration at least every 10 to 14 days will help predict when concentrations may slip below established thresholds. Allowing the petiole P concentrations to drop below these critical concentrations may result in an unacceptable loss of yield and quality. However, applying supplemental P to plants that already have sufficient supplies of soil P may not be a good investment. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

25 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. PEMUPUKAN K TEPAT WAKTU BAGI KENTANG Since potatoes have a very high K requirement, it is important that an adequate supply be maintained in the rootzone at all times. Many important yield and quality parameters of the tuber are negatively affected if the K supply runs short, especially during tuber bulking (GS4). The harvested tubers may contain over 90% of the total K taken up by the plant. 1.Preplant applications are the most effective way to supply K. If large amounts of K are required to supply adequate nutrition, it is advisable to split the application into two or more applications before emergence. 2.Monitoring petiole K concentrations can be useful for predicting the need for mid-season supplementation. After tuber initiation, petiole K concentrations tend to continually decline for the remainder of the season. However, monitoring this rate of decline can serve as a useful guide for potential deficiencies. 3.Petiole K concentrations may not increase for 2 to 3 weeks after K fertilizer application through the irrigation system. Therefore, do not wait until the petiole K concentrations are below the critical level before applying supplemental K. Monitoring the rate of K decline in the petioles will help anticipate the date when additional K may be needed. It is not useful to apply additional K within 30 days of the end of the growing season- since the likelihood for economical response is low. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

26 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. PENEMPATAN POSISI PUPUK N YANG TEPAT BAGI KENTANG The goal is to supply the required N as close to the roots as practical and at the time the plants need it. This approach eliminates any potential economic losses and undesirable environmental impacts, while sustaining desired levels of production. Although this concept is simple to understand, it is not easy to effectively achieve every year as conditions continually change. 1.A portion of the seasonal N requirement can be broadcast prior to planting, but this N is susceptible to leaching losses during the period when seed pieces are getting established and just beginning to take up nutrients. Large applications of N at this time are not generally recommended. Banding a portion of the N fertilizer during row mark-out or at planting is effective to meet the early season N requirement. Only one-fourth to one-half of the anticipated N requirement is applied at this time. When applied during markout, the band should be placed 2 to 4 in. to the side and below the seed piece. When applied at planting, the N is commonly placed to the side, but 1 to 2 in. above the seed piece. 2.Additional N can be placed as a side-dress application when the plants are still in the vegetative growth stage (GS2). Added NO3- fertilizer will immediately move into the soil with the irrigation water. Ammonium-based fertilizer will have limited movement into the rootzone until nitrification is complete. If urea is left on the soil surface following application, there can be significant loss of ammonia gas if it is not rapidly irrigated into the soil. Consider injecting urea beneath the soil surface or using a urease inhibitor if the urea will be left on the soil surface for several days prior to irrigating the urea into the soil. In-season applications of side-dress N injected into the soil are very effective, but may cause root damage as the plants get larger. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

27 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. PENEMPATAN POSISI PUPUK N YANG TEPAT BAGI KENTANG 3. Applying supplemental N through the sprinkler system is a common and effective method to meet the rapidly increasing mid- and late-season nutrient requirement. The uniformity of water distribution will largely determine the uniformity of nutrient application. The irrigation system should be designed and maintained to allow uniform application of both water and nutrients. Both over-application and under-application of water and nutrients can have harmful effects on yield, quality, and profitability. 4. Improper placement of N can result in poor utilization of the nutrients. For example, if N applied through the sprinkler lands past the ends of the rows or on roads, this N is wasted and susceptible to loss. When the supply of N is in excess of plant demand, there is a greater risk for N leaching from the rootzone. 5. Since potatoes are commonly grown on well-drained soils, have a more limited root system than some other crops, and have a high N requirement, careful attention must be given to all practices that minimize the leaching of nitrate into groundwater. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

28 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. APLIKASI PUPUK P: PENEMPATAN POSISI PUPUK. Since P has limited mobility in soil, it is important to place it near actively growing roots, especially during early season growth when uptake may be limited. Leaching losses of P are not significant at typical fertilization rates, but P can be lost from the surface of fields subject to erosion. Consider using a runoff water collection basin or a tailwater return system if sediment or P runoff is significant. 1.Band application of P during row mark-out or at planting is generally the most effective placement of P fertilizer. The majority of the P can be applied at this time, however direct contact of the fertilizer with the seed pieces should be avoided to minimize salt damage. Placement of the fertilizer several inches to the side and below the seed piece is recommended. 2.When P is broadcast, it should be applied prior to hill formation so the nutrients are concentrated where the roots will grow. 3.Additional P can be added during the growing season through the irrigation system if petiole P concentrations indicate a need for supplementation. A sufficient amount of irrigation water is needed to move the nutrients into the soil and facilitate uptake by the roots. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

29 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. APLIKASI PUPUK KALIUM: PENEMPATAN POSISI PUPUK Penempatan pupuk kalium pada zone yang memungkinkan akar tanaman menyerap kalium selama periode puncak kebutuhan kalium. 1.The mobility of K in soil is fairly low since it is held on cation exchange sites. However, in sandy-textured soils with a low exchange capacity, the movement of K can be greater. If applications of K are required during the growing season, roots must be present near the soil surface in order to acquire the applied nutrients. Adequate soil moisture must be maintained near the soil surface to provide conditions for nutrient uptake by the surface roots. 2.Broadcast application and soil incorporation of K when preparing the seed-bed is effective. Band placement of K prior to planting may also be sufficient to meet the K requirement when applied at typical application rates. Avoid high rates of banded K in close proximity to the seed piece. A combination of broadcast and band placement may be more appropriate if K application rates are high. Broadcast application of K shortly after plant emergence is also common. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012

30 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. Potatoes are grown in almost every state and province in North America. Some potatoes are grown for fresh consumption, while others are used for processing into fries, chips, or frozen products. Whatever the end use, the objective of every potato grower is to provide high quality potatoes that meet the market objectives at a price that is economically profitable and environmentally sustainable. Kentang (Solanum tuberosum L) merupakan sumber utama karbohidrat, sehingga menjadi komoditi penting. PT. NATURAL NUSANTARA berupaya meningkatkan produksi kentang nasional secara kuantitas, kualitas dan tetap berdasarkan kelestarian lingkungan (Aspek 3K). SYARAT PERTUMBUHAN Kondisi Iklim: Curah hujan rata-rata 1500 mm/tahun, lama penyinaran 9-10 jam/hari, suhu optimal °C, kelembaban % dan ketinggian antara m dpl. Media Tanam: Struktur remah, gembur, banyak mengandung bahan organik, berdrainase baik dan memiliki lapisan olah yang dalam dan pH antara 5,8-7,0. (http://blogs.unpad.ac.id/thon043/2010/06/07/budidaya-kentang/ diunduh 19/3/2012)http://blogs.unpad.ac.id/thon043/2010/06/07/budidaya-kentang/ Sumber: Diunduh 20// kentang/

31 PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Critical management strategies While this guide contains many management strategies for organic potato production, based on recommendations from a successful organic potato grower, summarizes those that are critically important. The Critical management considerations Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

32 PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) SOIL HEALTH Healthy soil is the basis of organic farming. Regular additions of organic matter in the form of cover crops, compost, or manure create a soil that is biologically active, with good structure and capacity to hold nutrients and water (note that any raw manure applications must occur at least 120 days before harvest). Decomposing plant materials will activate a diverse pool of microbes, including those that break down organic matter into plant-available nutrients as well as others that compete with plant pathogens in the soil and on the root surface. Rotating between crop families can help prevent the buildup of diseases and nematodes that overwinter in the soil. Rotation with a grain crop, or preferably a sod that will be in place for one or more seasons, deprives many, but not all, disease-causing organisms of a host, and also contributes to a healthy soil structure that promotes vigorous plant growth. The same practices are effective for preventing the buildup of root damaging nematodes in the soil, but keep in mind that certain grain crops are also hosts for some nematode species. Rotating between crops with late and early season planting dates can reduce the buildup of weed populations. Organic growers must attend to the connection between soil, nutrients, pests, and weeds to succeed. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

33 PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH Unlike cash crops, which are grown for immediate economic benefit, cover crops are grown for their valuable effect on soil properties and on subsequent cash crops. Cover crops help maintain soil organic matter, improve soil tilth, prevent erosion and assist in nutrient management. They can also contribute to weed management, increase water infiltration, maintain or increase populations of beneficial fungi, and may help control insects, diseases and nematodes. Beneficial fungi create a competitive environment in the soil, as they fight with plant pathogenic fungi for limited resources. To be effective, cover crops should be treated as any other valuable crop on the farm, carefully considering their cultural requirements, life span, mowing recommendations, incorporation methods, and susceptibility, tolerance, or antagonism to root pathogens and other pests. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012 A certified organic farmer is required to plant certified organic cover crop seed. If, after contacting at least three suppliers, organic seed is not available, then the certifier may allow untreated conventional seed to be used. Suppliers should provide a purity test for cover crop seed. Always inspect the seed for contamination with weed seeds and return if it is not clean. Cover crop seed is a common route for introduction of new weed species onto farms.

34 PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Goals and Timing for Cover Crops Adding cover crops regularly to the crop rotation plan can result in increased yields of the subsequent cash crop. Goals should be established for choosing a cover crop; for example, the cover crop can add nitrogen, smother weeds, or break a pest cycle. See the Cornell HUonline decision toolUH to match goals, season, and cover crop. The cover crop might best achieve some of these goals if it is in place for the entire growing season. If this is impractical, a compromise might be to grow the cover crop between summer cash crops. Allow two or more weeks between cover crop incorporation and cash crop seeding to permit decomposition of the cover crop, which will improve the seedbed and help avoid any unwanted allelopathic effects on the next cash crop. Another option is to overlap the cover crop and the cash crop life cycles by overseeding, interseeding or intercropping the cover crop between cash crop rows at final cultivation. Leaving cover crop residue on the soil surface might make it easier to fit into a crop rotation and will help to conserve soil moisture but some of the nitrogen contained in the residue will be lost to the atmosphere, and total organic matter added to the soil will be reduced. Turning under the cover crop will speed up the decomposition and nitrogen release from the residue. In wet years, the presence of cover crop residues may increase slug damage and infections by fungal pathogens such as Pythium and Rhizoctonia, often affecting stand establishment. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

35 PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Legume Cover Crops Legumes are the best choice for increasing available soil nitrogen for crops with a high nitrogen requirement like potatoes. Plant in advance of the potato crop to build the soil nitrogen, or after to replace the nitrogen used by the potato crop. Legumes have symbiotic bacteria in their roots called rhizobia, which convert atmospheric nitrogen gas in the soil pores to ammonium, a form of nitrogen that plant roots can use. When the cover crop is mowed, winter killed or incorporated into the soil, the nitrogen is released and available for the next crop. Because most of this nitrogen was taken from the air, there is a net nitrogen gain to the soil. Assume approximately 50 percent of the nitrogen fixed by the cover crop will be available for the cash crop in the first season, but this may vary depending on the maturity of the legume, environmental conditions during decomposition, the type of legume grown, and soil type. It is common to inoculate legume seed with rhizobia prior to planting, but the inoculant must be approved for use in organic systems. Request written verification of organic approval from the supplier and confirm this with your organic farm certifier prior to inoculating seed. Special Considerations for Potato Monitor the incidence and severity of root diseases caused by fungal pathogens (Rhizoctonia, Pythium) and nematodes (lesion, rootknot), as legumes are good hosts and will increase these pathogens if present. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

36 PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Crop Rotation Plan A careful crop rotation plan is the cornerstone of organic crop production because it allows the grower to improve soil quality and proactively manage pests. Although growing a wide range of crops complicates the crop rotation planning process, it ensures diversity in crop residues in the soil, and greater variety of beneficial soil organisms. Individual organic farms vary widely in the crops grown and their ultimate goals, but some general rules apply to all organic farms regarding crop rotation. Rotating individual fields away from crops within the same family is critical and can help minimize cropspecific disease and non-mobile insect pests that persist in the soil or overwinter in the field or field borders. Pests that are persistent in the soil, have a wide host range, or are wind-borne will be difficult to control through crop rotation. Conversely, the more host specific, non-mobile, and short-lived a pest is, the greater the ability to control it through crop rotation. The amount of time required for a crop rotation is based on the particular pest and its severity. Some particularly difficult pests may require a period of fallow. See specific recommendations in the disease and insect sections of this guide. Partitioning the farm into management units will help to organize crop rotations and ensure that all parts of the farm have sufficient breaks from each type of crop. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

37 PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Potential Interactions of Crops Grown in Rotation with Potatoes. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

38 PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) PENGELOLAAN GULMA WEED MANAGEMENT Weed management can be one of the biggest challenges on organic farms, especially during the transition and the first several years of organic production. To be successful, use an integrated approach to weed management that includes crop rotation, cover cropping, cultivation, and planting design based on an understanding of the biology and ecology of dominant weed species. A multi-year approach that includes strategies for controlling problem species in a sequence of crops will generally be more successful than attempting to manage each year's weeds as they appear. Relying on cultivation alone to manage weeds in an organic system is a recipe for disaster. Management plans should focus on the most challenging and potentially yield-limiting weed species in each field. Be sure, however, to emphasize options that do not increase other species that are present. Alternating between early and late-planted crops, and short and long season crops in the rotation can help minimize buildup of a particular weed or group of weeds with similar life cycles or growth habits, and will also provide windows for a variety of cover crops. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

39 PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) PENGELOLAAN HARA TANAH DAN TANAMAN CROP & SOIL NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT To produce a healthy crop, soluble nutrients must be available from the soil in amounts that meet the minimum requirements for the whole plant. The total nutrient needs of a crop are much higher than just the nutrients that are removed from the field when that crop is harvested. All of the roots, stems, leaves, and other plant parts require nutrients at specific times during plant growth and development. The challenge in organic systems is balancing soil fertility to supply these required plant nutrients at a time, and at sufficient levels, to support healthy plant growth. Restrictions in any one of the needed nutrients will slow growth and can reduce crop quality and yields. Organic growers often speak of feeding the soil rather than feeding the plant. A more accurate statement is that organic growers focus their fertility program on feeding soil microorganisms rather than the plant. Soil microbes decompose organic matter to release nutrients and convert organic matter to more stable forms such as humus. This breakdown of soil organic matter occurs throughout the growing season, depending on soil temperatures, water availability and soil quality. The released nutrients are then held on soil particles or humus and are available to crops or cover crops for plant growth. Amending soils with compost, cover crops, or crop residues also provides a food source for soil microorganisms and when turned into the soil, starts the nutrient cycle again. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

40 PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) PENGELOLAAN AIR BAGI TANAMAN KENTANG Water management and rainfall are among the most important factors determining yield and quality of potatoes. Growth cracks, hollow heart, blackspot, internal necrosis, knobby tubers, seed piece decay, Rhizoctonia and tuber late blight can be related to excessive amounts of water. Before growing potatoes, consider soil type, rainfall distribution and the ability to irrigate. Soil types can vary threefold in their respective water holding capacity. Also, note that potatoes have a relatively shallow root system, with an effective rooting depth of approximately 2 feet. Rainfall can provide adequate water for a crop, but it must be distributed evenly over the growing season to avoid drought stress. During mid-season crop evapotranspiration can easily exceed one inch per week. To prevent drought stress, soils should not be allowed to dry below 65 percent of field capacity. On some soil types rainfall or irrigation would have to occur on a weekly basis to provide the required water for productive crop growth. Rainfall use efficiency can be enhanced by not planting on steep slopes, properly preparing (tillage) soil to improve infiltration, and by placing small soil dams in furrows to reduce surface movement. If irrigation is used, water should be applied to the soil frequently in light amounts to maintain a uniform and adequate water supply. There are several irrigation methods, including center pivot irrigation, solid set sprinklers, wheel line sprinklers, gun and reel units, furrow irrigation and sub-irrigation. Sprinkler irrigation systems frequently provide the most flexibility and the best opportunity for efficient water application. Furrow and subirrigation require more uniform soil types and a relatively level field, and are more prone to uneven water application. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

41 PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) USING ORGANIC PESTICIDES Given the high cost of many pesticides, and the limited amount of efficacy data from replicated trials with organic products, the importance of developing an effective system of cultural practices for insect and disease management cannot be emphasized strongly enough. Pesticides should not be relied on as a primary method of pest control. Scouting and forecasting are important for detecting symptoms of diseases at an early stage. When conditions do warrant an application, proper choice of materials, proper timing, and excellent spray coverage are essential. Calibrating sprayers is especially critical when using organic pesticides since their effectiveness is sometimes limited. For this reason, they tend to require the best spraying conditions to be effective. Read the label carefully to be familiar with the unique requirements of some products, especially those with live biological organisms as their active ingredient (e.g. Contans). The active ingredients of some biological pesticides (e.g. Serenade and Sonata) are actually metabolic byproducts of the organism. Calculating nozzle discharge and travel speed are two key components required for applying an accurate pesticide dose per acre. Applying too much pesticide is illegal, can be unsafe and is costly whereas applying too little can fail to control pests or lead to pesticide resistance. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

42 PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) DISEASE MANAGEMENT In organic systems, cultural practices form the basis of a disease management program. Promote plant health by maintaining a biologically active, well-structured, adequately drained and aerated soil that supplies the requisite amount and balance of nutrients. Choose varieties resistant to one or more important diseases whenever possible. Plant only clean, disease-free seed and maintain the best growing conditions possible. Rotation is an important management practice for pathogens that overwinter in soil or in crop debris. Rotating between crop families is useful for many diseases, but may not be effective for pathogens with a wide host range, such as Sclerotinia white mold, Rhizoctonia black scurf, Colletotrichum black dot, Verticillium wilt, common scab, or nematodes. Rotation with a grain crop, preferably a sod that will be in place for one or more seasons, deprives many diseasecausing organisms of a host, and also contributes to a healthy soil structure that promotes vigorous plant growth. The same practices are effective for preventing the buildup of root damaging nematodes in the soil, but keep in mind that certain grain crops are also hosts for some nematode species. Other important cultural practices can be found under each individual disease listed below. Maximizing air movement and leaf drying is a common theme. Many plant diseases are favored by long periods of leaf wetness. Any practice that promotes faster leaf drying, such as orienting rows with the prevailing wind, or using a wider row or plant spacing, can slow disease development. Fields surrounded by trees or brush, that tend to hold moisture after rain or dew, should be avoided if possible, especially for a crop like potatoes, with a long list of potential disease problems. Insect damage can create susceptibility to disease. Feeding by the European corn borer (ECB) can create an avenue for disease infection by Erwinia spp., the pathogen that causes black leg and bacterial soft rot. Survival and establishment of ECB larvae vary depending on potato cultivar and field conditions. Larval survival on three popular cultivars, from highest to lowest, follows: Monona > Superior > Katahdin. Under field conditions, Monona is more susceptible to attack by ECB's and to infection by aerial blackleg than other cultivars. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

43 KAJIAN PASAR KENTANG IIIah Sailah, Maret 1999 Kerjasama Antara Canadian Cooperative Association dengan: Jurusan Teknologi Industri Pertanian (TIN), FTP IPB 1998/1999 Petani kentang biasanya menjual hasil produksi kentangnya kepada pedagang pengumpul (“juragan”). Pedagang pengumpul datang ke petani, petani biasanya berhubungan dengan pedagang tertentu didasarkan atas saling percaya. Sistem pemasaran kentang segar di Jawa Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

44 KAJIAN PASAR KENTANG Kerjasama Antara Canadian Cooperative Association dengan: Jurusan Teknologi Industri Pertanian (TIN), FTP IPB 1998/1999 PASAR KENTANG 1.Pengembangan pasar kentang di Jawa mempunyai peluang yang besar. Pasar kentang dapat dibagi berdasarkan kelompok pengecer seperti pedagang pengumpul, pedagang besar, pasar induk, pasar tradisional, maupun pasar swalayan. Pasar kentang juga dapat dibagi berdasarakan penggunaanya seperti kentang konsumsi/sayur, kentang goreng, kentang keripik, kentang rebus, dan sebagainya perilaku memasak kentang juga dapat dipertimbangkan untuk membagi pasar berdasarkan masakan yang biasa dimasak seperti kentang soup, perkedel, sambal goreng, keripik kentang, dan lain-lain. 2.Pasar induk adalah tipe pasar terbesar dalam mendistribusikan kentang. Pedagang besar dalam pasar ini menerima kentang melalui pedagang pengumpul dari lokasi produksi. Pembeli pasar induk umumnya adalah pedagang pasar tradisional, restoran, dan catering dan rumah tangga. Atribut utama yang disukai adalah ukuran besar warna kuning. 3. Pasar lokal adalah pasar tradisional dengan volume penjualan yang lebih kecil. Mereka umumnya membeli dari pasar induk. Pembeli mereka umumnya adalah konsumen rumah tangga dan pengolah makanan skala kecil. Atribut yang disukai adalah kuning, matang, bersih, dan rendah kadar airnya. 4. Supermarket adalah adalah pasar eceran modern. Konsumen mereka adalah rumah tangga yang menggunakan kentang untuk konsumsi. Atribut yang penting adalah ukuran besar, kuning, bersih, dan bulat. 5. Pengolah adalah konsumen yang membeli kentang sebagai bahan baku untuk membuat produk akhir seperti french fries, kue, soup, “perkedel”, ataupun keripik kentang. Atribut yang penting adalah kuning, bersih, matang, dan ukuran yang besar.. 6.Petani umumnya menanam varietas Granola, dengan frekuensi tanam 1 sampai 3 kali per tahun dengan produktivitas 10 sampai 25 ton per ha. Masalah pokok yang mereka hadapi saat ini adalah tingginya harga pestisida dan pupuk Masalah di bidang pemasaran menurut mereka sangat kecil atau hampir tidak ada. Umumnya mereka menerima keuntungan yang cukup tinggi dari usaha taninya. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

45 KAJIAN PASAR KENTANG Kerjasama Antara Canadian Cooperative Association dengan: Jurusan Teknologi Industri Pertanian (TIN), FTP IPB 1998/1999 PASAR KENTANG 7. Aktivitas pemasaran kentang di tingkat pedagang pengecer biasanya dilakukan secara tradisional, sehingga masih terbuka peluang untuk masuk pasar dengan menggunakan manajemen pemasaran modern. 8. Pedagang dan konsumen mempersepsi perbedaan kualitas di antara pusat-pusat produksi. Pengembangan pusat produksi baru dapat membangun diferensiasi melalui konsistensi yang tepat atas atribut-atribut yang dipilih. Peluang diferensiasi lain juga dapat dilakukan melalui pemberian merk dan kualitas yang lebih baik.. 9. Atribut yang paling disukai adalah ukuran yang besar, warna kuning, dan bentuk bulat. Pemenuhan atas atribut ini berarti akan mendapatkan penerimaan pasar yang besar. Akan tetapi peluang untuk memasok kentang ukuran medium dan kecil juga ada. Beberapa pengolah dan konsumen memerlukan kentang ukuran medium dan kecil, termasuk konsumen yang mencari harga murah. Bentuk yang tidak bulat alias lonjong juga memiliki pasar tersendiri yaitu industri pengolah. Bagi sebagian konsumen bentuk ini tidak menjadi masalah karena sangat sedikit yang mempersepsikan bentuk ini memiliki kualitas yang lebih tinggi. 10. Kentang bukanlah bahan makanan utama bagi keluaraga di Indonesia. Tingkat konsumsi mereka masih kecil dan tidak menentu. Namun pergeseran pola konsumsi ini sedang terjadi. Pendidikan konsumen yang tepat dapat meningkatkan konsumsi kentang misalnya melalui informasi nutrisi dan promosi. Namun upaya ini memerlukan waktu yang panjang. 11.Rendahnya permintaan umbi segar kentang oleh masyarakat tampaknya berhubungan erat dnegan tingkat daya beli masyarakat. Rendahnya tingkat pendapatan dan daya beli masyarakat berimplikasi kepada rendahnya tingkat konsumsi kentang. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

46 Mulsa adalah bahan untuk menutup permukaan tanah dalam sistem budidaya tanaman yang dimaksudkan untuk menjaga kelembaban tanah serta menekan pertumbuhan gulma dan penyakit, sehingga tanaman dapat tumbuh dengan lebih baik. Mulsa dapat dibedakan menjadi dua macam dilihat dari bahan asalnya, yaitu mulsa organik dan anorganik. Mulsa organik berasal dari bahan-bahan alami yang mudah terurai seperti sisa-sisa tanaman seperti jerami dan alang-alang. Mulsa organik diberikan setelah tanaman /bibit ditanam. Keuntungan mulsa organik adalah dan lebih ekonomis (murah), mudah didapatkan, dan dapat terurai sehingga menambah kandungan bahan organik dalam tanah. Contoh mulsa organik adalah alang-alang/ jerami, ataupun cacahan batang dan daun dari tanaman jenis rumput-rumputan lainnya.alang-alang Mulsa anorganik terbuat dari bahan-bahan sintetis yang sukar/tidak dapat terurai. Contoh mulsa anorganik adalah mulsa plastik, mulsa plastik hitam perak atau karung. Mulsa anorganik dipasang sebelum tanaman/bibit ditanam, lalu dilubangi sesuai dengan jarak tanam. Mulsa anorganik ini harganya mahal, terutama mulsa plastik hitam perak yang banyak digunakan dalam budidaya cabai atau melon. TEKNOLOGI MULSA TANAMAN KENTANG Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012 Mulsa sangat berguna untuk membantu pertumbuhan tanaman Anda. Mulsa berguna untuk menjaga kelembaban tanah serta menekan pertumbuhan gulma dan penyakit. Dari bahan asalnya mulsa dibedakan menjadi mulsa organik dan anorganik. Mulsa organik berasal dari bahan-bahan alami yang mudah terurai seperti sisa-sisa tanaman seperti jerami dan alang-alang. Mulsa ini mudah dan murah didapatkan. Keuntungan lainnya adalah mulsa ini dapat terurai sehingga menambah kandungan bahan organik dalam tanah. Sebaiknya cacah terlebih dahulu jerami/alang-alang sebelum ditebarkan di atas tanah sebagai mulsa. Hanya saja pada beberapa waktu kemudian perlu ditambahkan cacahan jerami/alang-alang untuk mengganti yang mulsa yang telah terurai. Selain jerami dan alang-alang dapat digunakan cacahan batang dan daun jagung atau rumput-rumputan lainnya. Daripada sekeliling tanaman penuh dengan rumput atau hanya dibiarkan mengering terkena sinar matahari, mengapa tidak Anda coba gunakan mulsa dari jerami/alang-alang ? Mulsa anorganik terbuat dari bahan-bahan sintetis yang sukar/tidak dapat terurai. Contoh mulsa anorganik adalah mulsa plastik, mulsa plastik hitam perak atau karung. Kalau mulsa organik diberikan setelah tanaman /bibit ditanam, maka mulsa anorganik dipasang sebelum tanaman/bibit ditanam. Kemudian mulsa dilubangi sesuai dengan jarak tanam. Hanya saja mulsa ini sekarang harganya mahal, terutama mulsa plastik hitam perak yang banyak digunakan dalam budidaya cabai atau melon. (http://www.situshijau.co.id/tulisan.php?act=detail&id=2&id_kolom=3)

47 Mulsa adalah sisa tanaman, lembaran plastik, atau susunan batu yang disebar di permukaan tanah. Mulsa berguna untuk melindungi permukaan tanah dari terpaan hujan, erosi, dan menjaga kelembaban, struktur, kesuburan tanah, serta menghambat pertumbuhan gulma (rumput liar). TEKNOLOGI MULSA TANAMAN KENTANG Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012 Manfaat Mulsa Terhadap Kualitas Tanah a.Stabilitas agregat tanah Dengan adanya bahan mulsa di atas permukaan tanah, energy air hujan akan ditanggung oleh bahan mulsa tersebut sehingga agregat tanah tetap stabil dan terhindar dari proses penghancuran. Semua jenis mulsa dapat digunakan untuk tujuan mengendalikan erosi. b.Kimia tanah Fungsi langsung mulsa terhadap sifat kimia tanah terjadi melalui pelapukan bahan – bahan mulsa. Fungsi ini hanya terjadi pada jenis mulsa yang mudah lapuk seperti jerami padi, alang-alang, rumput-rumputan, dan sisa-sisa tanaman lainnya. Hal ini merupakan salah satu keuntungan penggunaan mulsa sisa-sisa tanaman disbanding mulsa plastic yang sukar lapuk. Manfaat Mulsa Terhadap Ketersediaan Lengas Tanah Teknologi pemulsaan dapat mencegah evaporasi. Dalam hal ini air yang menguap dari permukaan tanah akan ditahan oleh bahan mulsa dan jatuh kembali ke tanah. Akibatnya lahan yang ditanam tidak kekurangan air karena penguapan air ke udara hanya terjadi melalui proses transpirasi. Melalui proses transpirasi inilah tanaman dapat menarik air dari dalam tanah yang didalamnya telah terlarut berbagai hara yang dibutuhkan tanaman. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh air tanah setebal 1,5 cm ditanah-tanah terbuka (bare soil) tanpa mulsa akan menguap selama 3-5 hari, sedangkan ditanah-tanah yang diberi mulsa akan menguap 6 minggu dengan ketebalan yang sama.

48 Manfaat Mulsa Terhadap Temperatur Tanah Sifat fisik tanah yang dipengaruhi oleh aplikasi mulsa ialah suhu tanah. Suhu tanah ini sangat bergantung pada proses pertukaran panas antara tanah dengan lingkungannya. Proses ini terjadi akibat adanya radiasi matahari dan pengaliran panas kedalam tanah melalui proses konduksi. Pemulsaan dapat mengubah warna tanah yang dengan sendirinya dapat mengubah albedo tanah. Perubahan suhu tanah terjadi karena perubahan radian energy yang mencapai tanah. Adanya mulsa akan menyebabkan panas yang mengalir kedalam tanah lebih sedikit disbanding tanpa mulsa. Selain itu, permukaan tanah yang diberi mulsa memiliki suhu maksimum harian lebih rendah disbanding tanpa mulsa. Mulsa plastic putih dapat menurunkan suhu tanah. Hal ini disebabakan radiasi yang direfleksikan kembali akan cukup besar sehingga berkurang suhu maksimum harian dari tanah yang diberi mulsa. Sedangkan mulsa plastic hitam cenderung meningkatkan suhu tanah karena radiasi yang direfleksikan kembali sangat kecil. TEKNOLOGI MULSA TANAMAN KENTANG Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012 Dengan adanya bahan mulsa di atas permukaan tanah, benih gulma akan sangat terhalang. Akibatnya tanaman yang ditanam akan bebas tumbuh tanpa kompetisi dengan gulma dalam penyerapan hara mineral tanah. Tidak adanya kompetisi dengan gulma tersebut merupakan salah satu penyebab keuntungan yaitu meningkatnya produksi tanaman budidaya. Manfaat Mulsa Terhadap Gulma

49 KESESUAIAN BAHAN MULSA DAN TANAMAN 1.Mulsa Jerami Mulsa jerami sesuai digunakan untuk-untuk tanaman semusim atau non-semusim yang tidak terlalu tinggi dan memiliki struktur tajuk berdaun lebat dengan system perakaran dangkal. Tanaman-tanaman yang selama ini sukses diberi mulsa jerami antara lain kentang, kedelai, bawang putih dataran rendah, semangka, dan melon. Dengan adanya mulsa jerami yang memilki efek menurunkan suhu tanah, kentang pada dataran medium sampai rendah dapat menghasilkan umbi. 2.Mulsa Plastik Mulsa plastik sesuai digunakan untuk pembudidayaan tanaman yang struktur perakannya dangkal tajuk tanaman berdaun tidak terlalu lebat dan tinggi tanaman di atas 0,5 meter. Berdasarkan efeknya terhadap suhu tanah maka mulsa plastik dapat disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan tanaman akan suhu tanah tanah. a. Mulsa Plastik Putih (MPP) Berdasarkan penelitian, mulsa plastik putih (MPP) memantulkan cahaya sekitar 45% sehingga 55% cahaya matahari yang dipantulakan dan di serap secara langsung atau tidak langsung akan berinteraksi dengan tanah. Selain dapat menurunkan suhu tanah, MPP juga dapat menambah jumlah cahaya matahari yang di terima oleh tajuk tanaman karena cukup besarnya cahaya matahari yang dipantulkan. Hal ini kan sangat membantu tanaman dalam melakukan fotosintesis. Oleh karena itu, MPP sangat cocok untuk budidaya semangka, melon, serta berbagai jenis cabai hibrida dan terung-terungan. b. Mulsa Plastik Transparan (MPT) Dari hasil penelitian pada tanah yang diberi mulsa plastik transparan (MPT), cahaya yang matahari yang dipantulkn dan di serap oleh bahan mulsa sangat sedikit. Sebaliknya cahaya yang diteruskan banyak. Hal ini menyebabkan MPT memiliki efek menaikkan suhu tanah. MPT sangat cocok diterapkan pada tanaman-tanaman dataran rendah yang ingin dibudidayakan. Di dataran tinggi. Namun, tanaman-tanaman tersebut harus memiliki struktur tajuk yang tidak terlalu tinggi, seperti pada bawang merah dataran tinggi. c. Mulsa Plastik Hitam (MPH) Dengan adanya MPH, cahaya matahari yang dipantulkan dan diteruskan sangat kecil. Banyaknya cahaya matahari yang diserap dapat mencapai 90,5 %, dari jumlah cahaya matahari yang datang. Cahaya yang diserap tersebut akan dipantukan dalam bentuk panas ke segala arah termasuk tanah. Penerapan mulasa ini dapat dilakukan pada bawang merah dan asparagus di dataran tinggi. d. Mulsa Plastik Perak Hitam (MPPH) MPPh menyebabkan radiasi matahari yang dipantulkan cukup besar, bahkan lebih tinggi dari MPP. Akibatnya cahaya matahari yang dipantulkan cukup besar. Di lain pihak, permukaan hitam dari MPPH akan menyebabkan radiasi matahari yang diteruskan menjadi sangat kecil, bahkan mungkin nol. Keadaan ini akan menyebabkan suhu tanah akan tetap rendah. Dewasa ini, MPPH mulai diterapkan secara luas dan sangat cocok untuk pembudidayaan semangka hibrida, melon, serta berbagai jenis cabai hibrida dan terung-terungan. TEKNOLOGI MULSA TANAMAN KENTANG Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012

50 Why mulch? Organic mulches serve several important functions in gardens and landscape plantings. Mulches help to: 1.control annual weeds; 2.conserve soil moisture; 3.reduce soil erosion by reducing the impact of raindrops and water runoff; 4.reduce the severity of some diseases, such as blights on tomatoes; 5.keep fruits, vegetables, and fl owers free of rain-spattered soil; 6.reduce fruit and vegetable spoilage; 7.moderate soil temperatures; and 8.provide an attractive background for plantings. When choosing which organic mulch to use, consider availability, cost, appearance, function, and durability. TEKNOLOGI MULSA TANAMAN KENTANG Sumber: Diunduh 21//3/2012 Organic mulch provides many benefits to the soil and garden. 1.Conserves moisture by slowing evaporation. 2.Slowly creates topsoil through the decomposition of the organic matter. This is a slow process of soil building. 3.Controls weeds by preventing and inhibiting germination. 4.Protects and increases the root zone of the plant. With the mulch's protection and temperature moderation, roots of plants come up to the surface to the mulch line, where the soil is most fertile. The first few inches of un-mulched soil become too hot and crusted for roots to survive. 5.Maintains even soil temperature, cooler in the summer, warmer in the winter and a more even temperature from dawn to dusk. For a quicker warm-up for spring planted vegetable beds, pull back the mulch to let the soil warm by the sun. On the other hand, keeping a thick mulch cover on fruit trees and tender perennials will delay their break from winter dormancy from our climate's erratic temperature swings. 6.Prevents soil crusting and increases water in-soak and aeration. 7.Helps stops soil erosion by holding it in place. 8.Prevents heavy rain from splashing soil on the lower leaves of plants, keeping the pores open. 9.Helps prevent compaction on walkways throughout the garden and beds. 10.Minimizes cultivation. The less disturbance of beneficial microorganisms the better. Microorganisms secrete a sticky substance that glues the soil into little crumbs, promoting better soil structure. (sumber:

51 . EFFECTS OF MULCHES ON EMERGENCE AND YIELD OF POTATOES W. B. COLLINS ResearchStation, Agriculture Canada, P.O. Box 20280, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 427. Received23 Apr. 1976, accepted 17 June Colr-INs, W. B Effects of mulches on emergence and yield of potatoes. Can. J. Plant Sci. 56: Transparent and black polyethylene and polyethylene- coated black paper mulches ' substantially advanced plant emergence compared with emergence of potato sets in bare soil. Earlier emergence was attributed to higher soil temperatures under the mulches during the period from planting to emergence. Yields of Netted Gem and Kennebec potatoes were not increased by the use ofmulches, despite the advantage of earlier emergence. Continuation of mulching after emergence was shown to be d isadvantageous. Effects of rhe duration of the mulching period on yield of Netted Gem poraroes in 1975: Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012 An example of organic mulch for potatoes is straw. In the spring dig a furrow about 4 in. (10 cm) deep and 12 in. (30 cm) wide. Place the seed tubers in the center of the trench and cover the trench with 6 in. (15 cm) of clean straw. Sumber: book-of-potatoes-excerpt/

52 Effects of Mulch and Potato Hilling on Development of Foliar Blight (Phytophthora infestans) and the Control of Tuber Blight Infection R. O. NyankangaR. O. Nyankanga, H. C. Wien and O. M. OlanyaH. C. WienO. M. Olanya Potato ResearchPotato Research Volume 51, Number 2, Volume 51, Number 2 Foliar and tuber blight caused by Phytophthora infestans accounts for significant losses in potatoes in field and storage. Nevertheless, limited research has been published on the effects of cultural practices on late blight control. Field experiments were conducted in two years on Howard gravely loam soil in New York State to evaluate the effectiveness of mulching using oat straw and hilling in preventing tuber blight infection for cvs Allegany and Katahdin. Potato hilling and mulching had little effect on foliar blight development. The cultivar affected the disease development in the foliage, with cv. Allegany showing lower foliar late blight than cv. Katahdin. Tuber blight incidence averaged 25% for cv. Allegany and 3% for cv. Katahdin in hilled plots, while in the mulched plots the incidence of tuber blight averaged 33% for cv. Allegany and 10% for cv. Katahdin. The straw hay mulch was ineffective in tuber blight control. Tubers set at a soil depth of more than 7 cm had lower tuber blight incidence than shallow tubers set at a depth of less than 7 cm. In both years, hilling provided partial protection of tubers but its effectiveness was limited in the presence of favourable conditions for late blight development. Even though large hills had proportionally a lower tuber blight incidence than medium-sized hills, the difference between the different hill sizes was not significant. These studies suggest that the use of cultivars with foliage resistance to late blight in combination with cultural practices may partially reduce the incidence of tuber blight. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012

53 The influence of organic mulches on soil properties and crop yield A.Sinkevičienė, D. Jodaugienė, R. Pupalienė and M. Urbonienė Agronomy Research 7(Special issue I), 485–491, 2009 The application of organic mulches as a soil cover is effective in improving the quality of soil and increasing crop yield, especially in organic farming. The field experiment was carried out in the Pomological Garden of Lithuanian University of Agriculture in 2005–2008. The soil type – Calc(ar)i- Endohypogleyic Luvisol. Treatments: 1) without mulching; 2) chopped wheat straw; 3) peat; 4) sawdust; 5) grass. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of different mulches on soil properties and crop yield. All examined organic mulches significantly decreased soil temperature. Mulched plots also had higher soil moisture content throughout the experimental period. The highest soil moisture content was in plots mulched with peat or sawdust. The tendency of a higher amount of available phosphorus in the soil in mulched plots in 2005–2006 was established. The positive effect of grass mulch on available potassium in the soil was estimated. Mulching decreased weed density. During all years of the experiment significantly higher crop yields were obtained in grass-mulched plots. Peat mulch significantly decreased weed number although it has a significant negative effect on crop yield. Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012 CONCLUSIONS 1. All examined organic mulches significantly decreased soil temperature. 2. Mulched plots also had higher soil moisture content during the entire experimental period. The highest soil moisture content was in plots mulched with peat and in plots mulched with sawdust. 3. The tendency of a higher amount of available phosphorus in the soil in mulched plots in 2005–2006 was established. The positive effect of grass mulch on available potassium in the soil was estimated. 4. Mulching decreased weed density. 5. During all years of the experiment significantly higher crop yields were obtained in grass-mulched plots. Sawdust mulch significantly decreased weed number though it has a significant negative effect on crop yield.

54 Effect of Mulching Material on the Yield and Quality of Potato Varieties Under No Tillage Condition of Ganges Tidal Flood Plain Soil M. A. Razzaque*a and M. A. Alib. Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res. 44(1), 51-56, 2009 The field experiment was carried out during rabi season of to with five recommended potato varieties viz. Heera, Dhera, Diamant, Chamak and Cardinal along with two types of mulching materials viz rice straw and water hyacinth to find out suitable variety (ies) and mulching material(s) for obtaining higher yield under no tillage condition. Heera produced highest yield under both rice straw (19.45 t/ha) and water hyacinth (23.15 t/ha) mulch. Rest of the variety performed more or less similar in both cases. Both Heera and Dhera seemed to be suitable for cultivation in no tillage condition. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012 From the above invetigation it can be concluded that tubers of Heera can be planted under water hyacinth or rice straw mulch but better production under water hyacinth mulch under no tillage condition. So, water hyacinth can be used as mulching material while planting potato under no tillage condition. To avoid greening, thick water hyacinth mulch of cm can be used. Kesimpulan

55 J. Agron. Indonesia 37 (1) : 14 – 20 (2009) Pengaruh Jenis Mulsa terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tiga Kultivar Kentang (Solanum tuberosum L.) yang Ditanam di Dataran Medium Jajang Sauman Hamdani The objectives of the experiment were to study growth and yield of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars planted at medium altitude with different types of mulch. The experiment is located at experimental station of Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor, Sumedang at an altitude of about 680 m. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Completed Block Design with factorial pattern, consisting of two factors and three replications. First factor was potato cultivar (Granola, Kennebec, and Panda), and the second factor was types of mulch, consisted of three levels : without mulch, straw mulch, and silver black polyethylene mulch. The result of the experiment showed that Panda cultivar had highest dry weight (29.5 g/plant) and leaf area ( cm2), while Granola cultivar had highest number of tuber per plant (15.17 knol/plant ) and highest tuber weight per plant was g/plant (30.3 t.ha-1). Straw and silver black polyethylene mulches increased leaf area, dry weight, number of tuber per plant and tuber weight per plant. The effect of interaction betwen potato cultivar and source of mulch was significant on plant height. Panda cultivar and silver black polyethylene mulch resulted the highest height of plant (68.2 cm). Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012 KESIMPULAN Kultivar Panda memberikan luas daun dan bobot kering tanaman tertinggi berturut turut cm2 dan g per tanaman, sedangkan kultivar Granola memberikan jumlah umbi tertinggi yaitu 15.2 butir per tanaman dan bobot umbi tertinggi yaitu g per tanaman (setara dengan 30.3 ton per hektar). Mulsa jerami dan mulsa plastik hitam perak memberikan pengaruh dapat meningkatan luas daun, bobot kering tanaman, jumlah umbi dan bobot umbi pertanaman. Namun demikian tidak ada perbedaan antara perlakuan mulsa. Interaksi antara kultivar dan jenis mulsa hanya terjadi pada peubah tinggi tanaman kentang pada umur 8 minggu setelah tanam, sedangkan pada peubah lainnya menunjukkan tidak terjadi interaksi. Kultivar Panda dengan mulsa plastik hitam perak memperlihatkan tinggi tanaman tertinggi (68.2 cm) pada umur 8 MST.

56 Potato Performance in Response to Different Mulches. 1. Nitrogen Metabolism and Yield J. M. Ruiz,* † J. Hernandez, ‡ N. Castilla, § and L. Romero †* † ‡ § † J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47 (7), pp 2660–2665 ABSTRACT This work evaluates the impact that the application of different mulches exerts on nitrogen (N) metabolism in roots and leaves and on yield of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum var. Spunta). The parameters analyzed in this experiment were root temperature; nitrate reductse and nitrite reductase activities; concentrations of nitrates, ammonium, amino acids, proteins, and organic N; dry weight of roots and leaves; and tuber yield. Use of white polyethylene (T2) and white-black plastic (T3) promoted optimal root temperatures for plant growth (23−27 °C). Under these experimental conditions, plants showed the greatest efficiency in N utilization and the greatest yield in tubers. Considering the sensitivity of this plant to thermal stress, high root temperatures caused by black polyethylene (>31 °C) (T4) depressed N metabolism as well as yield, compared with the results of T2 and T3. Finally, clear polyethylene plastic (T1) caused more damage than did the absence of mulch (control, T0). Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012 Menanam bibit kentang dengan sistem barisan: Penanaman dilakukan dengan system alur/garitan dengan jarak 40 cm dan jarak antara barisan 80 cm. Penanaman dilakukan dengan meletakkan 1 umbi bibit/lubang, lalu ditutup tipis dengan tanah. Sumber: =article&id=135:paket-teknologi-budidaya- kentang&catid=48:panduanpetunjuk-teknis-leaflet&Itemid=232

57 RESPONSE OF POTATOES TO MULCHING AT DIFFERENT PLANTING AND HARVESTING DATES D. R. HENSEL Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings. FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 1968 Abstract Several surface mulches were tested during the potato growing season. Potato planting and harvesting dates were also varied. Results show that the greatest increase in yield was obtained when black plastic mulch was used at early planting, and the potatoes were harvested early. Yield differences were minimized when the black plastic was applied to late planted potatoes, and they were harvested late in the season. Alumi num foil effects on potato yields were similar to black plastic. Petroleum mulches or wax emulsions gave no apparent benefit to production of potatoes. Differences in soil temperatures between the mulching treatments are discussed. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012 Summary Both black plastic and aluminum foil mulches increased the yield of potatoes. The effect of the mulches was greatest when planting was during the latter part of January. Increases in yield resulted from favorable effect during the early part of the growing season while they were not evident during the last month of the season. When planting was delayed until late February, no yield increases resulted from the use of either the black plastic or aluminum. The use of petroleum mulches and wax emul sions appears to be limited. No economical benefits were associated with either of them.

58 Potato and soil conservation Mulch planting and the "no-till" potato can help reduce the soil degradation, erosion and nitrate pollution often associated with potato production This fact sheet was written by Theodor Friedrich, of FAO's Plant Production and Protection Division. Potato cultivation usually involves intensive soil tillage throughout the cropping period, which often leads to soil degradation, erosion and leaching of nitrates. During soil preparation, the entire topsoil is loosened and - particularly on sticky soils - pulverized into small aggregates to avoid the formation of clods in the potato beds. Mechanical weeding and mechanized harvesting also entail intensive soil disturbance. Conservation agriculture - a resource-saving crop production system – offers several useful techniques for soil conservation in potato production. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012 Mulch planting for potatoes In conventional, tillage-based potato cropping systems, the risk of soil erosion and nitrate leaching can be reduced using the mulch planting technique. The potato beds are prepared well in advance of planting - if potato is to be planted in spring, the beds would be prepared before winter – and seeded with a green manure cover crop. The potato is later planted into the beds which, by then, are covered by the dead mulch of the manure crop. For mechanical planting, planters are equipped with special discs that cut through the mulch and split the potato beds. The mulch protects the soil from erosion during the first weeks of the crop. As the potato plants grow, the reshaping of the beds incorporates the mulch. A second green manure crop can be seeded towards the end of the potato crop, as the potato plants are drying off. The cover crop helps to dry out the potato beds, contributing to healthier tubers with reduced risk of damage during harvest. The green manure is separated from the potato by a mechanical potato harvester and is left as a mulch cover after harvest, protecting the soil from erosion.

59 The advantages of Conservation agriculture for potato Conservation agriculture aims at enhancing natural biological processes both above and below ground. It is based on three principles: minimum mechanical soil disturbance, permanent organic soil cover, and diversified crop rotations for annual crops and plant associations for perennial crops. By minimizing soil disturbance, CA creates a vertical macro-pore structure in the soil, which facilitates the infiltration of excess rainwater into the subsoil, improves the aeration of deeper soil layers, and facilitates root penetration. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012 The "no-till potato" Soil conservation can be enhanced further using a basic CA technique, "no-till" cultivation. The "no-till" potato is pressed into the soil surface, then covered with a thick layer of mulch - preferably straw, which is fairly stable and does not rot quickly. (Potatoes need to be kept in the dark to avoid the formation of chlorophyll, which renders the tubers green, bitter and toxic.) In some cases - for example in dry areas under drip irrigation - black plastic sheets can also be used as mulch. Holes are punched in the plastic to allow the potato plant to grow through it. The young potato tubers form under the mulch but above the soil surface. During harvesting, the sheets are removed and the potatoes are simply "collected". Currently, the "no-till" potato is only grown in small fields using manual labour - for example, in Peru under plastic covers and in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea under rice straw. Potato and soil conservation Mulch planting and the "no-till" potato can help reduce the soil degradation, erosion and nitrate pollution often associated with potato production This fact sheet was written by Theodor Friedrich, of FAO's Plant Production and Protection Division.

60 Effects of potato–grain rotations on soil erosion, carbon dynamics and properties of rangeland sandy soils A. Al-Sheikha,1, J.A. Delgadob,*, K. Barbaricka, R. Sparksc, M. Dillona, Y. Qiana, G. Cardona Soil & Tillage Research 81 (2005) 227–238 Abstract The potential for wind erosion in South Central Colorado is greatest in the spring, especially after harvesting of crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that leave small amounts of crop residue in the surface after harvest. Therefore it is important to implement best management practices that reduce potential wind erosion and that we understand how cropping systems are impacting soil erosion, carbon dynamics, and properties of rangeland sandy soils. We evaluate the effects of cropping systems on soil physical and chemical properties of rangeland sandy soils. The cropping system included a small grain–potato rotation. An uncultivated rangeland site and three fields that two decades ago were converted from rangeland into cultivated centerpivot- irrigation-sprinkler fields were also sampled. Plant and soil samples were collected in the rangeland area and the three adjacent cultivated sites. The soils at these sites were classified as a Gunbarrel loamy sand (Mixed, frigid Typic Psammaquent). We found that for the rangeland site, soil where brush species were growing exhibited C sequestration and increases in soil organic matter (SOM) while the bare soil areas of the rangeland are losing significant amounts of fine particles, nutrients and soil organic carbon (SOM-C) mainly due to wind erosion.When we compared the cultivated sites to the uncultivated rangeland, we found that the SOM-C and soil organic matter nitrogen (SOM-N) increased with increases in crop residue returned into the soils. Our results showed that even with potato crops, which are high intensity cultivated cropping systems, we can maintain the SOM-C with a rotation of two small grain crops (all residue incorporated) and one potato crop, or potentially increase the average SOM-C with a rotation of four small grain crops (all residue incorporated) and one potato crop. Erosion losses of fine silt and clay particles were reduced with the inclusion of small grains. Small grains have the potential to contribute to the conservation of SOM and/or sequester SOM-C and SOM-N for these rangeland systems that have very low C content and that are also losing C from their bare soils areas (40%). Cultivation of these rangelands using rotations with at least two small grain crops can reduce erosion and maintain SOM-C and increasing the number of small grain crops grown successfully in rotation above two will potentially contribute to C and N sequestration as SOM and to the sequestration of macro- and micro-nutrients. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012.

61 Rotation Effects of Potato, Maize and Winter Wheat on Water Erosion from Cultivated Land Peter Fiener and Kar1 Auerswald Abstract The effects of different crops or different management practices on water erosion have been widely evaluated in plot or field experiments. While these experiments focus on the direct effects of a certain crop there is comparably little information on how a crop influences the soil loss during the following years. Our objectives were to evaluate to which extend water erosion differs between potato and maize and how these crops influence soil loss of a following winter wheat. Soil erosion was measured in four small neighboring watersheds (0.8 to 4.2 ha in size) during 198 rainfall-runoff events (1994 to 2001). Each watershed includes one field with a crop rotation of winter wheat, potato, winter wheat, and maize. This rotation was shifted by one year for each field, and hence a vertical comparison between the fields as well as a horizontal comparison over two crop rotations was possible. Runoff and soil loss from potato and maize differed only slightly because the better protection by cover during maize years was compensated by a better protection by contouring with potato ridges. Both effects were adequately described by the CP factor of the RUSLE. A clear difference in the soil loss depending on the preceding crop occurred in the following winter wheat fields. Especially in October, November and February the soil loss after potato was significantly higher. This could be explained by little residue cover, disintegration of large aggregates and low stability of small aggregates following potato. Carry over effects should be taken into account optimizing crop rotations in respect to soil-conservation; moreover they are highly relevant for the modeling of water erosion from agricultural areas. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012

62 Effect of pre-plant tillage systems for potatoes in Prince Edward Island, Canada, on soil properties, weed control and potato yield D. HolmstromD. Holmstrom, W. Arsenault, J. Ivany, J.B. Sanderson, and A.J. CampbellW. ArsenaultJ. IvanyJ.B. SandersonA.J. Campbell Journal of Soil and Water Conservation November/December 2006 vol. 61 no ABSTRACT Prince Edward Island, Canada produces more than 45,000 ha (111,197 ac) of potatoes (Solarium tuberosum L) mostly in a three-year rotation on sloping land on a fine, sandy loam soil that is prone to soil erosion in the spring and during the growing season. This intensive production system has resulted in problems with soil quality and erosion because much of the land is plowed in the fall. Soil erosion can be reduced by use of conservation tillage, but these practices may negatively impact crop performance. Work was initiated in 1999 at the Harrington Research Farm to determine the effects of four tillage regimes: residue management, zero tillage, zone tillage, and conventional tillage on soil properties, weed control, and yield and quality of Russet Burbank potatoes. The conservation tillage practices of zone tillage, zero tillage, and residue management resulted in reduced soil erosion rates and sediment loss compared to the conventional tillage method. Soil penetration resistance was increased by as much as 1000 kPa with some systems. However, soil penetration resistance did not approach levels that are considered detrimental to root growth (1500 kPa). Early spring soil moisture levels were higher by two to 12 percent with conservation tillage treatments but planting was not delayed compared to commercial producers who used conventional tillage. No effect was found on weed control or potato plant emergence. There was no consistent difference in potato yields with conservation tillage systems used in these studies. Our data suggests that the potential benefits of reduced soil erosion risk and lower producer input costs of conservation tillage systems outweigh the negative effect of higher soil compaction and higher spring soil moisture. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012

63 Impacts of long-term intensive potato production and conservation terraces/grassed waterway on runoff hydrology and soil quality Lien Chow, Herb Rees and Zisheng Xing th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World. 1 – 6 August 2010, Brisbane, Australia. Abstract Few quantitative data are available to assess impacts of agricultural cultivation and soil conservation terraces in the soil quality and runoff characteristics. Paired drainage basins were established with objectives to evaluate runoff characteristics between drainage basins with and without conservation terraces and temporal changes in selected soil physical and chemical properties in these basins and adjacent forested soils. Intensive agricultural activities increase soil bulk density and reduce depths of the Ap and B horizons as results of soil compaction during agricultural operations. Soil conservation terraces reduce runoff and soil loss by 87 and 95 %, respectively. Peak flow rate was reduced and time of concentration was increased. Terracing also makes drainage basin runoff characteristics less prone to causing flooding. On average, soil organic carbon under terracing was significantly reduced. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012 Intensive agricultural activities increase soil bulk density and reduce depths of the Ap and B horizons as results of soil compaction during agricultural operations. Soil conservation terraces reduce runoff and soil loss by 87 and 95 %, respectively. Peak flow rate was reduced and time of concentration was increased. Terracing also makes drainage basin runoff characteristics less prone to cause flooding. In average, soil organic carbon under terracing was significantly reduced. Kesimpulan

64 Döring, Thomas F.; Brandt, M; Heß, J; Finckh, M and Saucke, H (2005) Effects of straw mulch on yield, weed development, nitrate dynamics and soil erosion in organically grown potatoes. Field Crops Research, 94, pp Summary The application of straw mulch to organic seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) has been shown to reduce virus incidence. In order to determine the associated agronomic effects of straw mulch, applied at 2.5–5 t/ ha, on soil nitrate dynamics, weed development, tuber yield and soil erosion, 12 field experiments were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on organic farms over 3 years at two locations in a temperate climate (635–709 mm precipitation/year; 8.1 8C mean air temperature) on loamy silt soils. Tuber yield and tuber size distribution were not influenced significantly by mulching. However, the risk of undesirable post harvest N-leaching was significantly reduced due to the immobilization of nitrate–N after harvest at 6.8–7.0 kg N t-1 straw in two experiments (18–34 kg NO3–N / ha). There was no consistent effect of straw mulch on number of weeds, weed cover and above ground biomass of weeds. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012 The fact that yield and weed development were not significantly affected by straw mulch is mainly attributed to the relatively low amounts of straw applied. Soil erosion was reduced by >97% in a rain simulation experiment on a potato field of 8% slope with 20% crop cover. Soil loss was greatest (1606 g m-2) in the unmulched treatment, and 31, 42 and 26 g m-2 in treatments with chopped straw at 1.25, 2.5 and 5 t ha-1, respectively. Cover crop mengurangi erosi tanah kentang

65 Effects of supplemental poultry manure applications on soil erosion and runoff water quality from a loam soil under potato production in northwestern New Brunswick H. W. Rees, 1 T. L. Chow, 1, B. J. Zebarth, 1 Z. Xing, 1 P. Toner, 2 J. Lavoie, 3 J.-L. Daigle 4 Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 2011, 91(4): Soil erosion is a major threat to the economic viability of potato production in northwestern New Brunswick. One option for growers to increase soil organic matter and improve soil quality in potato fields is through poultry manure application. While poultry manure may be beneficial for soil quality, there are also potential risks to surface water quality associated with manure application. This study evaluated the effects of time of poultry manure application on potato fields in northwestern New Brunswick on soil erosion and runoff water quality. Seven permanent Wischmeier- like erosion plots, established in 1982, were used. Treatments consisted of a control (Ctrl) with no manure applied, and applications of 4 Mg ha −1 of fresh poultry broiler manure in late fall (F), pre-planting (PP) and pre-hilling (PH) on 11% slope plots and a Ctrl, F and PH treatments on 8% slope plots. All poultry manured treatments increased potato total yield with a general trend of Ctrl

66 Alsheikh, A., Delgado, J.A., Barbarick, K., Sparks, R., Dillon, M., Qian, Y., Cardon, G Effects of Potato-Grain Rotations on Soil Erosion, Carbon Dynamics and Properties of Rangeland Sandy Soils. J. Soil Tillage Research. 81: We conducted an assessment of the effects of cropping systems in soil physical and chemical properties of coarse sandy soils. We studied the impact of incorporation of small grain in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L)-grain rotation by sampling an uncultivated rangeland site and three fields that two decades ago were converted from rangeland into cultivated center pivot irrigation sprinkler fields. Cultivation and irrigation lowered soil pH by about one unit. The amount of silt and clay was significantly reduced in the cultivated sites. The lower percent of fine particles in the cultivated sites could be due to wind erosion. The content of macro and micro nutrients such as P, Zn, Fe, Mn, and Cu were higher in the cultivated sites than the rangeland. The only nutrient that a loss was measured for was K with about 66% decrease due to K uptake, wind erosion, and K leaching. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012 We also found that for these sandy soils some of the N fertilizer is being sequestered in the soil organic matter. The particulate organic matter-nitrogen was increased. This universal tool (crop rotations) can be used to reduce the potential wind erosion, to reduce losses of fine silt and clay particles, to sequester C, N and nutrients, to increase the soil fertility and productivity levels. Cropping tools, such as crop rotations are universal tools that have the potential to protect soil quality and fertility and thereby contribute to agricultural sustainability. Rotasi tanaman memperbaiki kesuburan

67 Effectiveness of terraces/grassed waterway systems for soil and water conservation: A field evaluation T.L. ChowT.L. Chow, H.W. Rees, and J.L. DaigleH.W. ReesJ.L. Daigle Journal of Soil and Water Conservation Third Quarter 1999 vol. 54 no ABSTRACT Some of the most serious water erosion in Canada is associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in the rolling topography of the upper Saint John River Valley in northwestern New Brunswick. Soil losses of 20 to 30 t/ha/yr are common, as are related damages caused by excessive runoff from potato fields. Variable grade diversions and grassed waterways are commonly used to minimize soil erosion. This study quantifies the benefits of these engineering structures to conserve both soil and water. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012 Contour planting of potatoes associated with terracing will reduce runoff by as much as 150 mm of rainfall equivalent, and thereby increase available soil moisture for plant growth. Soil losses were reduced from 20 t/ha/yr to 1 t/ha/yr. Terracing also makes drainage basin hydological characteristics less prone to cause ditch and stream flooding. Penanaman menurut kontur mengurangi erosi

68 Hay mulching to reduce runoff and soil loss under intensive potato production in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada by H W Rees, T L Chow, R J Loro, J Lavoie, J O Monteith, A Blaauw Canadian Journal of Soil Science (2002) Volume: 82, Issue: 2, Pages: Rees, H. W., Chow, T. L., Loro, P. J., Lavoie, J., Monteith, J. O. and Blaauw, A Hay mulching to reduce runoff and soil loss under intensive potato production in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Can. J. Soil Sci. 82: Soil erosion by water associated with potato production in northwestern New Brunswick has been identified as one of the most severe soil degradation problems affecting soil quality in Canada. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of applying various rates of hay mulch following potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) harvest in reducing runoff and soil loss rates under northwestern New Brunswick climatic and soil conditions and to determine the impact of the various hay mulch application rates on potato yield. Wischmeier-like runoff-erosion plots (10 in wide by 30 in long) on a Holmesville gravelly loam soil were used. Annual hay mulch application rates of 0.00, 2.25, 4.50 and 9.00 t ha(-1) wet mass were evaluated under continuous up-and-down-slope potato production on 8 and 11% slopes between October 1995 and October During the study period, annual precipitation was lower than normal. Calculated rainfall erosivities were 102, 66, 73 and 133% of the value typically used for conservation planning in this region (1276 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1)), Seventy- three percent of the average annual erosivity for the 4-yr period was associated with storms occurring in June, July, August and September. Hay mulching at rates of 2,25, 4.50 and 9.00 t ha(-1) conserved on average 13, 18 and 28 mm of June to September precipitation, respectively. Mean annual soil losses were reduced to 14, 7 and 2% of the control (5.6 t ha(-1)) by the 2.25, 4.50 and 9.00 t ha(-1) treatments, respectively, on the 11% slope and to 43 and 24% of the control (2.0 t ha(-1)) on the 2.25 and 4.50 t ha(-1) treatments, respectively, on the 8% slope. Eroded sediment silt, clay and organic matter (OM) contents were 1.6, 1.9 and 2.3 times the content of the surface soil at the experimental site. Mulching at rates as low as 2.25 t ha(-1) reduced nutrient losses of NO3-N and available P, K, Ca and Mg to 26, 18, 28, 20 and 24% of control, respectively, on the 11% slope, and to 81, 50, 82, 66 and 77% of control, respectively, on the 8% slope. However, levels of nutrient losses from the controls were tow to begin with (2.0, 0.4, 2.8, 10.9 and 1.6 kg ha(-1) of NO3-N, and available P, K, Ca and Mg, respectively). Both total and marketable potato crop yields from all 2.25 and 4.50 t ha(-1) treatments were in excess of 5% greater than their controls; however, only the increases in total yields from the 2.25 and 4.50 t ha(-1) treatments and marketable yield from the 4.50 t ha(-1) treatment on the 8% slope were significantly greater at P < Yield of potato on the 9.00 t ha(-1) treatment showed a consistent increase in total yield over the 4-yr period, going from 80% of control in 1996 to 127% of control in 1999, indicating a possible improvement in soil productivity. Hay mulching at rates up to 9.00 t ha(-1) did not increase the incidence of disease or other defects. Hay mulching was found to be an effective tool for reducing soil loss while maintaining, and in some cases enhancing, potato yield. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012

69 Boyd, N.S., R. Gordon, S.K. Asiedu and R.C. Martin The effects of living mulches on tuber yields of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 18: The adverse effects of long term soil erosion on potato production are well established, and living mulches are one option organic farmers have for reducing erosion in potato fields. Living mulches are typically grass or legume crops that are intercropped (i.e. grown simultaneously) with a cash crop. In terms of crop management and soil quality living mulches have several benefits: they help reduce erosion by keeping the soil covered and reducing the velocity of wind and water before they reach the soil; by covering the soil they also reduce soil moisture loss and provide competition for weeds; when ploughed under living mulches return nutrients and organic matter to the soil. This helps maintain soil structure and further reduces the risk of erosion; and if all or part of the living mulch is a legume, they also improve soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Tuber yields were not significantly different when managed organically or conventionally. In both years soil moisture levels remained consistently lower in conventionally managed plots than in the organic plots planted with living mulches. However, since moisture levels were not monitored in the organic plots managed with no living mulch, there was no way to tell if this was due to the effect of the mulches or to the addition of manures to the organic plots. Of the living mulches, only the intact native sod adversely affected plant development and total tuber yields. Since the other living mulches were planted after hilling, the time for competition between the living mulches and the crop was reduced and plant development and tuber yields were not affected. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012 Planting the tubers under a layer of straw or hay also affected plant development and decreased tuber yields. Although hay or straw mulches tended to result in increased soil moisture levels, plant development and yields were most likely affected by decreased soil temperatures in the early part of the growing season. Planting in raised beds reduced the yield of Canada No. 1 tubers in 1998, especially on the inside rows. This was because the closer plant spacing increased competition for soil nutrients.

70 Chow, T.L.; Daigle, J.L.; Ghanem, L.; and Cormier, H. Effects of potato cropping practices on water runoff and soil erosion Canadian Journal of Soil Science. Issue : 70(2): Page(s) : Abstract Accelerated soil erosion by water is the most severe and widespread soil degradation problem in the Maritime provinces of Canada. It constitutes a serious potential problem on most agricultural lands if they are planted by row crops. Using runoff-erosion plots (10 m wide x 30 m long), the effects of cropping practices on surface runoff and soil loss were examined on a Hommesville gravelly loam soil to evaluate the applicability of the Universal Soil Loss Equation in New Brunswick, Canada. The amount of water runoff and soil loss from continuous fallow, up-and-down slope planting of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and clover (Trifolium pratense) on 8 and 11% slopes were measured from 1983 to In addition, runoff and soil loss from contour planting of potatoes were measured on the 11% slope. Slope planting of potatoes resulted in higher runoff and soil loss than on fallow plots. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012 There was considerable reduction in runoff and soil loss when potatoes were planted along the contour. Runoff and soil loss under clover were negligible. Rainfall erosion index and slope length and steepness correlated well with the measured soil losses. However, both the measured soil erodibility factor and the cover and management factor deviated markedly from the current values used for conservation planning.

71 Aspects of straw mulching in organic potatoes - I. Effects on microclimate, Phytophthora infestans, and Rhizoctonia solani DÖRING ThomasDÖRING Thomas ; HEIMBACH Udo ; THIEME Thomas ; FINCKH Maria ; SAUCKE HelmutHEIMBACH UdoTHIEME ThomasFINCKH MariaSAUCKE Helmut Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes 2006, vol. 58, n o 3, pp Abstract The application of straw mulch in potatoes is a possible strategy for soil erosion control, virus control and reduction of post-harvest soil nitrate losses. In this study, the effects of mulching on severity of late blight (Phytophthora infestans [MONT.] DE BARY) and black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani KÜHN) were assessed in organically managed field experiments over three years at four sites in Germany. Late blight severity was assessed in 15 of the experiments as percentage of infected leaf area or percentage of leaves with late blight lesions. Black scurf on harvested tubers was assessed on 100 to 220 tubers per plot in 18 experiments. In addition, effects of straw mulch on air temperature, relative humidity and evaporation in the potato stand were measured in two of the experiments. Straw mulch had no significant effect on late blight severity in most of the experiments, but a trend of late blight reduction through the application of straw mulch was observed in 13 out of 15 experiments. Black scurf was not influenced by straw mulch, with effects being non-significant in 16 out of 17 experiments. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 21//3/2012 Effects of straw mulch on microclimate within the crop canopy were dependent on the time of the day, with the air in mulched plots being slightly moister and cooler at night and dryer and warmer during the day. This effect was pronounced in the fortnight directly after mulching and became less marked in the period four to six weeks thereafter. In one experiment a consistent decrease of evaporation was observed over four weeks.

72 Fertilizer Management Practices for Potato Production in the Pacific Northwest By Robert Mikkelsen and Bryan Hopkins International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 550 Norcross, GA U.S.A. References Entry, J.A., A.B. Leytem, and S.A. Verwey Influence of solid dairy manure and compost with and without alum on survival of indicator bacteria in soil and on potato. Environmental Pollution. 138: Hopkins, B.G., J.C. Stark, D.T. Westermann, and J.W. Ellsworth Nutrient Management. files/NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT.pdf Hopkins, B.G., et al Evaluation of Potato Production Best Management Practices. Amer. J. Potato Res. 84: Hopkins, B.G., C.J. Rosen, A.K. Shiffler, and T.W. Taysom Enhanced efficiency fertilizers for improved nutrient management: Potato (Solanum tuberosum). Crop Manag. Online doi: /CM RV. Horneck, D. and C. Rosen Measuring nutrient accumulation rates of potatoes–tools for better management. Better Crops 92 (1) 4-6. Lang, N.S., R.G. Stevens, R.E. Thornton, W.L. Pan, and S. Victory Potato nutrient management for central Washington. Washington State Univ Ext Publ EB1871.http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/ eb1871/eb1871.pdf. Miller, J.S. and B.G. Hopkins Checklist for a holistic potato health management plan. p In D.A. Johnson (ed.) Potato Health Management (2 ed.). Amer. Phytopath. Soc. Stark, J. and D. Westermann Managing potato fertility. p In Potato Health Management (2 ed.) D.A. Johnson ed. Amer Phytopath. Soc. Stark, J., D. Westermann, and B. Hopkins Nutrient management guidelines for Russet Burbank potatoes Univ Idaho Bulletin Stark, J.C. and G.A. Porter Potato nutrient management in sustainable cropping systems. Amer. J. Potato Res. 82: Van Kessel, J.S. and J.B. Reeves III Nitrogen mineralization potential of dairy manures and its relationship to composition. Biol Fertil. Soils 36: Westermann, D.T. and G.E. Kleinkopf Phosphorus relationships in potato plants. Agron. J. 77: Westermann, D.T. and T.A. Tindall Potassium diagnostic criteria for potato plants. Better Crops. 84(3):6-8. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012


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