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KOMPENDIUM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN DAN PEMBANGUNAN EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Dikoleksi: Irene M. Lestari dan Soemarno PSKP-PPSUB- Mei 2012.

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Presentasi berjudul: "KOMPENDIUM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN DAN PEMBANGUNAN EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Dikoleksi: Irene M. Lestari dan Soemarno PSKP-PPSUB- Mei 2012."— Transcript presentasi:

1 KOMPENDIUM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN DAN PEMBANGUNAN EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Dikoleksi: Irene M. Lestari dan Soemarno PSKP-PPSUB- Mei 2012

2 EKOLOGI Ekologi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari interaksi antara organisme dengan lingkungannya. “Ekologi “ berasal dari kata Yunani oikos (berarti "habitat") dan logos (berarti "ilmu"). Ekologi mempelajari interaksi antar makhluk hidup, dan interaksi antara makhluk hidup dengan lingkungannya. Dalam ekologi, makhluk hidup dipelajari sebagai satu kesatuan atau sistem dengan lingkungan hidupnya. Ekologi merupakan cabang ilmu yang masih relatif baru, yang baru muncul pada tahun 70-an. Akan tetapi, ekologi mempunyai pengaruh yang besar terhadap cabang biologinya. Ekologi mempelajari bagaimana makhluk hidup dapat mempertahankan kehidupannya dengan mengadakan hubungan antar makhluk hidup dan dengan benda tak hidup di dalam tempat hidupnya atau lingkungannya. Ekologi, biologi dan ilmu kehidupan lainnya saling melengkapi dengan zoologi dan botani yang menggambarkan hal bahwa ekologi mencoba memperkirakan, dan ekonomi energi yang menggambarkan kebanyakan rantai makanan manusia dan tingkat tropik. Sumber: diunduh 4/5/2012 Para ahli ekologi mempelajari hal berikut : Perpindahan energi dan materi dari makhluk hidup yang satu ke makhluk hidup yang lain ke dalam lingkungannya dan faktor-faktor yang menyebabkannya. Perubahan populasi atau spesies pada waktu yang berbeda dalam faktor- faktor yang menyebabkannya. Terjadi hubungan antarspesies (interaksi antarspesies) makhluk hidup dan hubungan antara makhluk hidup dengan lingkungannya. Pada jaman sekarang para ekolog (orang yang mempelajari ekologi) berfokus kepada Ekowilayah bumi dan riset perubahan iklim.

3 EKOLOGI Konsep Ekologi Hubungan keterkaitan dan ketergantungan antara seluruh komponen ekosistem harus dipertahankan dalam kondisi yang stabil dan seimbang (homeostatis). Perubahan terhadap salah satu komponen akan memengaruhi komponen lainnya. Homeostatis adalah kecenderungan sistem biologi untuk menahan perubahan dan selalu berada dalam keseimbangan. Ekosistem mampu memelihara dan mengatur diri sendiri seperti halnya komponen penyusunnya yaitu organisme dan populasi. Dengan demikian, ekosistem dapat dianggap suatu cibernetik di alam. Namun manusia cenderung mengganggu sistem pengendalian alamiah ini. ekosistem merupakan kumpulan dari bermacam-macam dari alam tersebut, contoh hewan, tumbuhan, lingkungan, dan yang terakhir manusia Sumber: diunduh 4/5/2012 Ekologi dalam ekonomi Banyak ekolog menghubungkan ekologi dengan ekonomi manusia: Lynn Margulis mengatakan bahwa studi ekonomi bagaimana manusia membuat kehidupan. Studi ekologi bagaimana tiap binatang lainnya membuat kehidupan. Mike Nickerson mengatakan bahwa "ekonomi tiga perlima ekologi" sejak ekosistem menciptakan sumber dan membuang sampah, yang mana ekonomi menganggap dilakukan "untuk bebas". Ekonomi ekologi dan teori perkembangan manusia mencoba memisahkan pertanyaan ekonomi dengan lainnya, namun susah. Banyak orang berpikir ekonomi baru saja menjadi bagian ekologi, dan ekonomi mengabaikannya salah. "Modal alam" ialah 1 contoh 1 teori yang menggabungkan 2 hal itu.

4 EKOLOGI Beberapa Cabang Ilmu dari Ekologi Karena sifatnya yang masih sangat luas, maka ekologi mempunyai beberapa cabang ilmu yang lebih fokus, yaitu: 1.Ekologi Tingkah Laku 2.Ekologi Komunitas dan Sinekologi 3.Ekologi Fisiologi 4.Ekologi Ekosistem 5.Ekologi Evolusi 6.Ekologi Global 7.Ekologi Manusia 8.Ekologi Populasi 9.Ekologi Akuatik 10.Ekologi Api 11.Ekologi Fungsional 12.Ekologi Polinasi 13.Ekologi Hutan 14.Ekologi Laut 15.Ekologi Laut Tropis 16.Ekologi Pangan dan Gizi 17.Ekologi Hutan Mangrove 18.Ekologi Kesehatan 19.Ekologi Antariksa 20.Ekologi Pedesaan 21.Ekologi Serangga 22.Ekologi Habitat 23.Ekologi Pelestarian 24.Ekologi Hewan 25.Ekologi Produksi 26.Ekologi Purbakala 27.Ekologi Sosial 28.Ekologi Radiasi 29.Ekologi Tumbuhan Penganggu 30.Ekologi Lanskap 31.Ekologi Molekuler 32.Ekologi Robot 33.Ekologi Industri Sumber: diunduh 4/5/2012 Prinsip-Prinsip Ekologi Kajian ekologi membahas ekosistem dengan berbagai komponen penyusunnya, yaitu komponen abiotik dan komponen biotik. Komponen (Faktor) abiotik antara lain suhu, air, kelembapan, cahaya, dan topografi; sedangkan faktor biotik adalah makhluk hidup yang terdiri dari manusia, hewan, tumbuhan, dan mikroba. Ekologi juga berhubungan erat dengan tingkatan-tingkatan organisasi makhluk hidup, yaitu populasi, komunitas, dan ekosistem yang saling mempengaruhi dan merupakan suatu sistem yang menunjukkan kesatuan. Diunduh dari: ponsor- Pendamping/Praweda/Biologi/0027 %20Bio%201-6b.htm

5 EKOLOGI Interaksi antarkomponen ekologi dapatmerupakan interaksi antar organisme,antarpopulasi, dan antarkomunitas. A. Interaksi antar organisme Semua makhluk hidup selalu bergantung kepada makhluk hidup yang lain. Tiap individu akan selalu berhubungan dengan individu lain yang sejenis atau lain jenis, baik individu dalam satu populasinya atau individu-individu dari populasi lain. Interaksi demikian banyak kita lihat di sekitar kita. Interaksi antar organisme dalam komunitas ada yang sangat erat dan ada yang kurang erat. Interaksi antarorganisme dapat dikategorikan sebagai berikut. Sumber:. 6c.htm.... diunduh 4/5/2012 a. Netral Hubungan tidak saling mengganggu antarorganisme dalam habitat yang sama yang bersifat tidak menguntungkan dan tidak merugikan kedua belah pihak, disebut netral. Contohnya : antara capung dan sapi. b. Predasi Predasi adalah hubungan antara mangsa dan pemangsa (predator). Hubungan ini sangat erat sebab tanpa mangsa, predator tak dapat hidup. Sebaliknya, predator juga berfungsi sebagai pengontrol populasi mangsa. Contoh : Singa dengan mangsanya, yaitu kijang, rusa,dan burung hantu dengan tikus. c. Parasitisme Parasitisme adalah hubungan antarorganisme yang berbeda spesies, bilasalah satu organisme hidup pada organisme lain dan mengambil makanan dari hospes/inangnya sehingga bersifat merugikan inangnya. Contoh : Plasmodium dengan manusia, Taeniasaginata dengan sapi, dan benalu dengan pohon inang. d. Komensalisme Komensalisme merupakan hubunganantara dua organisme yang berbeda spesies dalam bentuk kehidupan bersama untuk berbagi sumber makanan; salah satu spesies diuntungkan dan spesies lainnya tidak dirugikan. Contohnya anggrek dengan pohon yang ditumpanginya. e. Mutualisme Mutualisme adalah hubungan antara dua organisme yang berbeda spesies yang saling menguntungkan kedua belah pihak. Contoh, bakteri Rhizobium yang hidup pada bintil akar kacang-kacangan.

6 EKOLOGI Interaksi Antar populasi Antara populasi yang satu dengan populasi lain selalu terjadi interaksi secara langsung atau tidak langsung dalam komunitasnya.Contoh interaksi antarpopulasi adalah sebagai berikut. Sumber: Pendamping/Praweda/Biologi/0028%20Bio%201-6c.htm..... diunduh 4/5/2012 Alelopati merupakan interaksi antarpopulasi, bila populasi yang satu menghasilkan zat yang dapat menghalangi tumbuhnya populasi lain. Contohnya, di sekitar pohon walnut (juglans) jarang ditumbuhi tumbuhan lain karena tumbuhan ini menghasilkan zat yang bersifat toksik. Pada mikroorganisme istilah alelopati dikenal sebagai anabiosa. Contoh, jamur Penicillium sp. dapat menghasilkan antibiotika yang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri tertentu. Kompetisi merupakan interaksi antarpopulasi, bila antarpopulasi terdapat kepentingan yang sama sehingga terjadi persaingan untuk mendapatkan apa yang diperlukan. Contoh, persaingan antara populasi kambing dengan populasi sapi di padang rumput.

7 EKOLOGI Interaksi Antar Komunitas Komunitas adalah kumpulan populasi yang berbeda di suatu daerah yang sama dan saling berinteraksi. Contoh komunitas, misalnya komunitas sawah dan sungai. Komunitas sawah disusun oleh bermacam-macam organisme, misalnya padi, belalang, burung, ular, dan gulma. Komunitas sungai terdiri dari ikan, ganggang, zooplankton, fitoplankton, dan dekomposer. Antara komunitas sungai dan sawah terjadi interaksi dalam bentuk peredaran nutrien dari air sungai ke sawah dan peredaran organisme hidup dari kedua komunitas tersebut. Interaksi antarkomunitas cukup komplek karena tidak hanya melibatkan organisme, tapi juga aliran energi dan makanan. Interaksi antarkomunitas dapat kita amati, misalnya pada daur karbon. Daur karbon melibatkan ekosistem yang berbeda misalnya laut dan darat. Sumber:. Pendamping/Praweda/Biologi/0028%20Bio%201-6c.htm.... diunduh 4/5/2012 Interaksi Antarkomponen Biotik dengan Abiotik Interaksi antara komponen biotik dengan abiotik membentuk ekosistem. Hubunganantara organisme dengan lingkungannya menyebabkan terjadinya aliran energi dalam sistem itu. Selain aliran energi, di dalam ekosistem terdapat juga struktur atau tingkat trofik, keanekaragaman biotik, serta siklus materi. Dengan adanya interaksi-interaksi tersebut, suatu ekosistem dapat mempertahankan keseimbangannya. Pengaturan untuk menjamin terjadinya keseimbangan ini merupakan ciri khas suatu ekosistem. Apabila keseimbangan ini tidak diperoleh maka akan mendorong terjadinya dinamika perubahan ekosistem untuk mencapai keseimbangan baru.

8 EKOLOGI Aliran Energi Energi dapat diartikan sebagai kemampuan untuk melakukan kerja. Energi diperoleh organismee dari makanan yang dikonsumsinya dan dipergunakan untuk aktivitas hidupnya. Cahaya matahari merupakan sumber energi utama kehidupan. Tumbuhan berklorofil memanfaatkan cahaya matahari untuk berfotosintesis. Organisme yang menggunakan energi cahaya untuk merubah zat anorganik menjadi zat organik disebut kemoautotrof Organisme yang menggunakan energi yang didapat dari reaksi kimia untuk membuat makanan disebut kemoautotrof Sumber: Pendamping/Praweda/Biologi/0031%20Bio%201-7b.htm diunduh 4/5/2012 Energi yang tersimpan dalam makanan inilah yang digunakan oleh konsumen untuk aktivitas hidupnya. Pembebasan energi yang tersimpan dalam makanan dilakukan dengan cara oksidasi (respirasi). Golongan organisme autotrof merupakan makanan penting bagi organisme heterotrof, yaitu organisme yang tidak dapat membuat makanan sendiri misalnya manusia, hewan, dan bakteri tertentu. Makanan organisme heterotrof berupa bahan organik yang sudah jadi. Aliran energi merupakan rangkaian urutan pemindahan bentuk energi satu ke bentuk energi yang lain dimulai dari sinar matahari lalu ke produsen, konsumen primer, konsumen tingkat tinggi, sampai ke saproba di dalam tanah. Siklus ini berlangsung dalam ekosistem.

9 EKOLOGI: Siklus Karbon dan Oksigen Di atmosfer terdapat kandungan COZ sebanyak 0.03%. Sumber-sumber COZ di udara berasal dari respirasi manusia dan hewan, erupsi vulkanik, pembakaran batubara, dan asap pabrik. Karbon dioksida di udara dimanfaatkan oleh tumbuhan untuk berfotosintesis dan menghasilkan oksigen yang nantinya akan digunakan oleh manusia dan hewan untuk berespirasi. Hewan dan tumbuhan yang mati, dalam waktu yang lama akan membentuk batubara di dalam tanah. Batubara akan dimanfaatkan lagi sebagai bahan bakar yang juga menambah kadar C02 di udara. Di ekosistem air, pertukaran C02 dengan atmosfer berjalan secara tidak langsung. Karbon dioksida berikatan dengan air membentuk asam karbonat yang akan terurai menjadi ion bikarbonat. Bikarbonat adalah sumber karbon bagi alga yang memproduksi makanan untuk diri mereka sendiri dan organisme heterotrof lain. Sebaliknya, saat organisme air berespirasi, COz yang mereka keluarkan menjadi bikarbonat. Jumlah bikarbonat dalam air adalah seimbang dengan jumlah C02 di air. Sumber: 7c.htm diunduh 4/5/2012 Siklus Karbon dan Oksigen di Alam

10 EKOLOGI: Keseimbangan Lingkungan Definisi lingkungan hidup adalah kesatuan ruang dengan semua benda, daya keadaan, dan makhluk hidup, termasuk di dalamnya manusia dan perilakunya. Komponen lingkungan terdiri dari faktor abiotik (tanah, air, udara, cuaca, suhu) dan faktor biotik (tumbuhan dan hewan, termasuk manusia). Lingkungan hidup balk faktor biotik maupun abiotik berpengaruh dan dipengaruhi manusia. Segala yang ada pada lingkungan dapat dimanfaatkan oleh manusia untuk mencukupi kebutuhan hidup manusia, karena lingkungan memiliki daya dukung. Daya dukung lingkungannya adalah kemampuan lingkungan untuk mendukung perikehidupan manusia dan makhluk hidup lainnya. Sumber: Pendamping/Praweda/Biologi/0036%20Bio%201-8a.htm diunduh 4/5/2012 Dalam kondisi alami, lingkungan dengan segala keragaman interaksi yang ada mampu untuk menyeimbangkan keadaannya. Namun tidak tertutup kemungkinan, kondisi demikian dapat berubah oleh campur tangan manusia dengan segala aktivitas pemenuhan kebutuhan yang terkadang melampaui Batas. Keseimbangan lingkungan secara alami dapat berlangsung karena beberapa hal, yaitu komponen-komponen yang ada terlibat dalam aksi-reaksi dan berperan sesuai kondisi keseimbangan, pemindahan energi (arus energi), dan siklus biogeokimia dapat berlangsung. Keseimbangan lingkungan dapat terganggu bila terjadi perubahan berupa pengurangan fungsi dari komponen atau hilangnya sebagian komponen yang dapat menyebabkan putusnya mata rantai dalam ekosistem. Salah satu faktor penyebab gangguan adalah polusi di samping faktor-faktor yang lain.

11 EKOLOGI: PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN Polusi atau pencemaran lingkungan adalah masuknya atau dimasukkannya makhluk hidup, zat energi, dan atau komponen lain ke dalam lingkungan, atau berubahnya tatanan lingkungan oleh kegiatan manusia atau oleh proses alam sehingga kualitas lingkungan turun sampai ke tingkat tertentu yang menyebabkan lingkungan menjadi kurang atau tidak dapat berfungsi lagi sesuai dengan peruntukannya (Undang-undang Pokok Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup No. 4 Tahun 1982). Sumber: Pendamping/Praweda/Biologi/0037%20Bio%201-8b.htm diunduh 4/5/2012 Zat atau bahan yang dapat mengakibatkan pencemaran disebut polutan. Syarat- syarat suatu zat disebut polutan bila keberadaannya dapat menyebabkan kerugian terhadap makhluk hidup. Contohnya, karbon dioksida dengan kadar 0,033% di udara berfaedah bagi tumbuhan, tetapi bila lebih tinggi dari 0,033% dapat rnemberikan efek merusak. Suatu zat dapat disebut polutan apabila: 1. jumlahnya melebihi jumlah normal 2. berada pada waktu yang tidak tepat 3. berada pada tempat yang tidak tepat. Sifat polutan adalah: 1. merusak untuk sementara, tetapi bila telah bereaksi dengan zat lingkungan tidak merusak lagi 2. merusak dalam jangka waktu lama. Contohnya Pb tidak merusak bila konsentrasinya rendah. Akan tetapi dalam jangka waktu yang lama, Pb dapat terakumulasi dalam tubuh sampai tingkat yang merusak. Macam-macam pencemaran dapat dibedakan berdasarkan pada tempat terjadinya, macam bahan pencemarnya, dan tingkat pencemaran. Menurut tempat terjadinya, pencemaran dapat digolongkan menjadi tiga, yaitu pencemaran udara, air, dan tanah.

12 EKOLOGI: Pencemaran udara Sumber polusi udara lain dapat berasal dari radiasi bahan radioaktif, misalnya, nuklir. Setelah peledakan nuklir, materi radioaktif masuk ke dalam atmosfer dan jatuh di bumi. materi radioaktif ini akan terakumulusi di tanah, air, hewan, tumbuhan, dan juga pada manusia. Efek pencemaran nuklir terhadap makhluk hidup, dalam taraf tertentu, dapat menyebabkan mutasi, berbagai penyakit akibat kelainan gen, dan bahkan kematian. Pencemaran udara dinyatakan dengan ppm (part per million) yang artinya jumlah cm3 polutan per m3 udara. Sumber: 8b.htm diunduh 4/5/2012 Pencemar udara dapat berupa gas dan partikel. Contohnya sebagai berikut. 1.Gas H2S. Gas ini bersifat racun, terdapat di kawasan gunung berapi, bisa juga dihasilkan dari pembakaran minyak bumi dan batu bara. 2.Gas CO dan CO2. Karbon monoksida (CO) tidak berwarna dan tidak berbau, bersifat racun, merupakan hash pembakaran yang tidak sempurna dari bahan buangan mobil dan mesin letup. Gas CO2 dalam udara murni berjumlah 0,03%. Bila melebihi toleransi dapat mengganggu pernapasan. Selain itu, gas C02 yang terlalu berlebihan di bumi dapat mengikat panas matahari sehingga suhu bumi panas. Pemanasan global di bumi akibat C02 disebut juga sebagai efek rumah kaca. 3.Partikel SO2 dan NO2. Kedua partikel ini bersama dengan partikel cair membentuk embun, membentuk awan dekat tanah yang dapat mengganggu pernapasan. Partikel padat, misalnya bakteri, jamur, virus, bulu, dan tepung sari juga dapat mengganggu kesehatan. 4.Batu bara yang mengandung sulfur melalui pembakaran akan meng- hasilkan sulfur dioksida. Sulfur dioksida bersama dengan udara serta oksigen dan sinar matahari dapat menghasilkan asam sulfur. Asam ini membentuk kabut dan suatu saat akan jatuh sebagai hujan yang disebut hujan asam. Hujan asam dapat menyebabkan gangguan pada manusia, hewan, maupun tumbuhan. Misalnya gangguan pernapasan, perubahan morfologi pada daun, batang, dan benih.

13 EKOLOGI: pengelolaan lingkungan Sehubungan dengan pemanfaatan sumber daya alam, agar lingkungan tetap lestari, harus diperhatikan tatanan/tata cara lingkungan itu sendiri. Dalam hal ini manusialah yang paling tepat sebagai pengelolanya karena manusia memiliki beberapa kelebihan dibandingkan dengan organisme lain. Sumber: Pendamping/Praweda/Biologi/0039%20Bio%201-8d.htm diunduh 4/5/2012 Manusia mampu merombak, memperbaiki, dan mengkondisikan lingkungan seperti yang dikehendakinya, seperti: 1.manusia mampu berpikir serta meramalkan keadaan yang akan datang 2.manusia memiliki ilmu dan teknologi 3.manusia memiliki akal dan budi sehingga dapat memilih hal-hal yang baik. Pengelolaan lingkungan hidup adalah upaya terpadu dalam pemanfaatan, penataan, pemeliharaan, pengawasan, pengendalian, pemulihan, dan pengembangan lingkungan hidup. Pengelolaan ini mempunyai tujuan : 1.Mencapai kelestarian hubungan manusia dengan lingkungan hidup sebagai tujuan membangun manusia seutuhnya. 2.Mengendalikan pemanfaatan sumber daya secara bijaksana. 3.Mewujudkan manusia sebagai pembina lingkungan hidup. 4.Melaksanakan pembangunan berwawasan lingkungan untuk kepentingan generasi sekarang dan mendatang. Melindungi negara terhadap dampak kegiatan di luar wilayah negara yang menyebabkan kerusakan dan pencemaran lingkungan. Melalui penerapan pengelolaan lingkungan hidup akan terwujud kedinamisan dan harmonisasi antara manusia dengan lingkungannya. Untuk mencegah dan menghindari tindakan manusia yang bersifat kontradiksi dari hal-hal tersebut di atas, pemerintah telah menetapkan kebijakan melalui Undang- undang Lingkungan Hidup.

14 EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Industrial Ecology (IE) is the study of material and energy flows through industrial systems. The global industrial economy can be modeled as a network of industrial processes that extract resources from the Earth and transform those resources into commodities which can be bought and sold to meet the needs of humanity. Industrial ecology seeks to quantify the material flows and document the industrial processes that make modern society function. Industrial ecologists are often concerned with the impacts that industrial activities have on the environment, with use of the planet's supply of natural resources, and with problems of waste disposal. Industrial ecology is a young but growing multidisciplinary field of research which combines aspects of engineering, economics, sociology, toxicology and the natural sciences. Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_ecology Industrial Ecology has been defined as a "systems-based, multidisciplinary discourse that seeks to understand emergent behaviour of complex integrated human/natural systems". The field approaches issues of sustainability by examining problems from multiple perspectives, usually involving aspects of sociology, the environment, economy and technology. The name comes from the idea that we should use the analogy of natural systems as an aid in understanding how to design sustainable industrial systems

15 EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Industrial ecology is concerned with the shifting of industrial process from linear (open loop) systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes can become inputs for new processes. Much of the research focuses on the following areas: 1.material and energy flow studies ("industrial metabolism") 2.dematerialization and decarbonization 3.technological change and the environment 4.life-cycle planning, design and assessment 5.design for the environment ("eco-design") 6.extended producer responsibility ("product stewardship") 7.eco-industrial parks ("industrial symbiosis") 8.product-oriented environmental policy 9.eco-efficiency Industrial ecology seeks to understand the way in which industrial systems (for example a factory, an ecoregion, or national or global economy) interact with the biosphere. Natural ecosystems provide a metaphor for understanding how different parts of industrial systems interact with one another, in an "ecosystem" based on resources and infrastructural capital rather than on natural capital. It seeks to exploit the idea that natural systems do not have waste in them to inspire sustainable design. Along with more general energy conservation and material conservation goals, and redefining commodity markets and product stewardship relations strictly as a service economy, industrial ecology is one of the four objectives of Natural Capitalism. This strategy discourages forms of amoral purchasing arising from ignorance of what goes on at a distance and implies a political economy that values natural capital highly and relies on more instructional capital to design and maintain each unique industrial ecology. Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_ecology

16 PRINSIP EKOLOGI INDUSTRI (IE) One of the central principles of Industrial Ecology is the view that societal and technological systems are bounded within the biosphere, and do not exist outside of it. Ecology is used as a metaphor due to the observation that natural systems reuse materials and have a largely closed loop cycling of nutrients. Industrial Ecology approaches problems with the hypothesis that by using similar principles as natural systems, industrial systems can be improved to reduce their impact on the natural environment as well. The table shows the general metaphor. BiosphereTechnosphere Environment Organism Natural Product Natural Selection Ecosystem Ecological Niche Anabolism / Catabolism Mutation and Selection Succession Adaptation Food Web Market Company Industrial Product Competition Eco-Industrial Park Market Niche Manufacturing / Waste Management Design for Environment Economic Growth Innovation Product Life Cycle The Kalundborg industrial park is located in Denmark. This industrial park is special because companies reuse each others' waste (which then becomes by-products). For example, the Energy E2 Asnæs Power Station produces gypsum as a by product of the electricity generation process; this gypsum becomes a resource for the BPB Gyproc A/S which produces plasterboards. This is one example of a system inspired by the biosphere-technosphere metaphor: in ecosystems, the waste from one organism is used as inputs to other organisms; in industrial systems, waste from a company is used as a resource by others. Apart from the direct benefit of incorporating waste into the loop, the use of an eco-industrial park can be a means of making renewable energy generating plants, like Solar PV, more economical and environmentally friendly. In essence, this assists the growth of the renewable energy industry and the environmental benefits that come with replacing fossil-fuels. Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_ecology

17 PRINSIP EKOLOGI INDUSTRI IE examines societal issues and their relationship with both technical systems and the environment. Through this holistic view, IE recognizes that solving problems must involve understanding the connections that exist between these systems, various aspects cannot be viewed in isolation. Often changes in one part of the overall system can propagate and cause changes in another part. Thus, you can only understand a problem if you look at its parts in relation to the whole. Based on this framework, IE looks at environmental issues with a systems thinking approach.holisticsystemsystems thinking Sebagai contoh adalah Suatu Kota. A city can be divided into commercial areas, residential areas, offices, services, infrastructures, etc. These are all sub-systems of the 'big city’ system. Problems can emerge in one sub-system, but the solution has to be global. Let’s say the price of housing is rising dramatically because there is too high a demand for housing. One solution would be to build new houses, but this will lead to more people living in the city, leading to the need of more infrastructure like roads, schools, more supermarkets, etc. This system is a simplified interpretation of reality whose behaviors can be ‘predicted’. In many cases, the systems IE deals with are complex systems. Complexity makes it difficult to understand the behavior of the system and may lead to rebound effects. Due to unforeseen behavioral change of users or consumers, a measure taken to improve environmental performance does not lead to any improvement or may even worsen the situation. For instance, in big cities, traffic can become problematic. Let's imagine the government wants to reduce air pollution and makes a policy stating that only cars with an even license plate number can drive on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Odd license plate numbers can drive on Wednesdays and Fridays. Finally, the other days, both cars are allowed on the roads. The first effect could be that people buy a second car, with a specific demand for license plate numbers, so they can drive every day. The rebound effect is that, the days when all cars are allowed to drive, some inhabitants now use both cars (whereas they only had one car to use before the policy). The policy did obviously not lead to environmental improvement but even made air pollution worse. Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_ecology

18 PRINSIP EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Moreover, life cycle thinking is also a very important principle in industrial ecology. It implies that all environmental impacts caused by a product, system, or project during its life cycle are taken into account. In this context life cycle includes: 1.Raw material extraction 2.Material processing 3.Manufacture 4.Material Use 5.Maintenance 6.Disposal of wastes. The transport necessary between these stages is also taken into account as well as, if relevant, extra stages such as reuse, remanufacture, and recycle. Adopting a life cycle approach is essential to avoid shifting environmental impacts from one life cycle stage to another. This is commonly referred to as problem shifting. For instance, during the re-design of a product, one can choose to reduce its weight, thereby decreasing use of resources. However, it is possible that the lighter materials used in the new product will be more difficult to dispose of. The environmental impacts of the product gained during the extraction phase are shifted to the disposal phase. Overall environmental improvements are thus null.recycle A final and important principle of IE is its integrated approach or multidisciplinarity. IE takes into account three different disciplines: 1.social sciences (including economics), 2.technical sciences and 3.environmental sciences. The challenge is to merge them into a single approach. Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_ecology

19 PRINSIP EKOLOGI INDUSTRI A final and important principle of IE is its integrated approach or multidisciplinarity. IE takes into account three different disciplines: social sciences (including economics), technical sciences and environmental sciences. The challenge is to merge them into a single approach. METODE ANALISIS DALAM EKOLOGI INDUSTRI PeoplePlanetProfitModeling Stakeholder analysis Strength Weakness Opportunities Threats Analysis (SWOT Analysis) Ecolabelling ISO Environmental management system (EMS) Integrated chain management (ICM) Technology assessment Environmental impact assessment (EIA) Input-output analysis (IOA) Life-cycle assessment (LCA) Material flow analysis (MFA) Substance flow analysis (SFA) MET Matrix Cost benefit analysis (CBA) Full cost accounting (FCA) Life cycle costing (LCC) Stock and flow analysis Agent based modeling Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_ecology Analisis manfaat dan biaya digunakan untuk mengevaluasi penggunaan sumberdaya ekonomi agar sumberdaya yang langka dapat digunakan secara efisien. Analisis manfaat dan biaya digunakan untuk evaluasi program atau proyek untuk kepentingan publik, seperti : manajemen sumber daya alam dan pengembangan sumber energi. Biasanya analisis B/C ini terintegrasi dengan Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan (AMDAL) yang dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi dampak suatu proyek atau program terhadap lingkungan hidup. Sehingga analisis ini tidak hanya melihat manfaat dan biaya individu, tetapi secara menyeluruh memperhitungkan manfaat dan biaya sosial dan selanjutnya dapat disebut sebagai analisis manfaat dan biaya sosial.

20 EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Sumber: ………….. diunduh 6/5/2012 KONSEP UMUM EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Pada dasarnya ekologi industri merupakan suatu pendekatan manajemen lingkungan dimana suatu sistem tidak dilihat secara terpisah dengan sistem sekelilingnya tetapi merupakan bagian utuh yang saling mendukung dalam rangka mengoptimalkan siklus material ketika suatu bahan baku diproses menjadi produk Konsep ekologi industri diterapkan untuk mengembangkan terciptanya sumber energi baru yang berasal dari limbah proses industri sebelumnya. Dengan menerapkan konsep ekologi industri beberapa industri dapat melakukan sistem pertukaran limbah yang dapat digunakan oleh perusahaan lainnya dalam suatu kawasan. Limbah dari suatu kegiatan industri bisa jadi merupakan limbah yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk sumber energi bagi industri yang lain. Tujuan utama ekologi industri dalam ruang lingkup industri bioethanol adalah memajukan dan melaksanakan konsep pembangunan berkelanjutan baik secara regional maupun lokal

21 EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Sumber: ………….. diunduh 6/5/2012 SISTEM INDUSTRI

22 EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Sumber: sistem-industri-menuju-pembangunan-berkelanjutan/ ………….. diunduh 6/5/2012 Sistem industri terdapat tiga (3) tipe, yaitu : Tipe I adalah sistem proses linier. Pada tipe ini energi dan material masuk pada sistem kemudian menghasilkan produk, produk samping, dan limbah. Limbah yang dihasilkan tidak dilakukan proses olah ulang sehingga membutuhkan pasokan bahan baku dan energi yang banyak. Tipe II adalah tipe industri yang paling banyak digunakan di Indonesia, tipe ini sebagian limbah telah diolah ulang dalam sistem dan sebagian lagi dibuang ke lingkungan. Tipe III merupakan sistem produksi kesetimbangan dinamik yang energi dan limbahnya diolah ulang secara baik dan digunakan sebagai bahan baku oleh komponen sistem lain. Pada sistem ini merupakan sistem industri yang tertutup total dan hanya energi matahari yang datang dari luar sistem. Hal ini merupakan sistem ideal yang menjadi tujuan ekologi industri. Tipe I adalah sistem proses linier. Pada tipe ini energi dan material masuk pada sistem kemudian menghasilkan produk, produk samping, dan limbah. Limbah yang dihasilkan tidak dilakukan proses olah ulang sehingga membutuhkan pasokan bahan baku dan energi yang banyak. Tipe II adalah tipe industri yang paling banyak digunakan di Indonesia, tipe ini sebagian limbah telah diolah ulang dalam sistem dan sebagian lagi dibuang ke lingkungan. Tipe III merupakan sistem produksi kesetimbangan dinamik yang energi dan limbahnya diolah ulang secara baik dan digunakan sebagai bahan baku oleh komponen sistem lain. Pada sistem ini merupakan sistem industri yang tertutup total dan hanya energi matahari yang datang dari luar sistem. Hal ini merupakan sistem ideal yang menjadi tujuan ekologi industri. Ekologi Industri Sebagai Wujud Sistem Industri Menuju Pembangunan Berkelanjutan Ekologi industri merupakan multi disiplin ilmu yang membahas masalah sistem industri, aktivitas ekonomi dan hubungannya yang fundamental dengan sistem alam. Secara idealnya sistem yang dibangun dalam ekologi industri mengikuti siklus dimana aliran energi, material, dan penggunaan sampah hasil olahannya dapat dibentuk dalam suatu siklus tertutup, sehingga dapat mengefisiensikan penggunaan sumberdaya alam,bahkan bisa melengkapi/memperkaya sumber daya alam itu sendiri. Konsep ekologi industri muncul untuk mengubah paradigma bahwa industri itu merupakan sistem yang linear, yaitu dimana hasil limbah dari sisa produksi industri dibuang ke lingkungan dan dapat merusak lingkungan, yang seharusnya suatu industri itu bersifat siklus tertutup yang artinya energi dan sampah sisa telah didaur ulang dan digunakan lagi oleh organisasi lain dan diproses dalam suatu sistem.

23 EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Sumber: ………….. diunduh 6/5/2012 SIMBIOSIS INDUSTRI Simbiosis industri merupakan suatu bentuk kerja sama diantara industri-industri yang berbeda. Bentuk kerja sama ini dapat meningkatkan keuntungan masing- masing industri dan pada akhirnya berdampak positif pada lingkungan. Dalam proses simbiosis ini limbah suatu industri diolah menjadi bahan baku industri lain. Proses simbiosis ini akan sangat efektif jika komponen-komponen industri tersebut tertata dalam suatu kawasan industri terpadu (eco-industrial parks). Ekologi industri sebenarnya menawarkan solusi untuk menciptakan pembangunan industri yang berkelanjutan dan berwawasan lingkungan. Dalam konsep ekologi industri kawasan industri ditata sedemikian rupa sehingga industri-industri mempunyai hubungan simbiosis mutualisme. Industri - industri di dalam kawasan saling terhubung untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan efisiensi proses produksinya.

24 EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Sumber: menuju-pembangunan-berkelanjutan/ ………….. diunduh 6/5/2012 Prospek Penerapan Ekologi Industri Di Indonesia Persoalan utama negara berkembang seperti Indonesia adalah sumber daya alam yang melimpah namun masih belum dioptimalkan penggunaannya. Kawasan industri masih berupa suatu kawasan yang belum terpadu secara sistematis dan hanya berupa kumpulan industri yang berdiri sendiri. Persoalan utama negara berkembang seperti Indonesia adalah sumber daya alam yang melimpah namun masih belum dioptimalkan penggunaannya. Kawasan industri masih berupa suatu kawasan yang belum terpadu secara sistematis dan hanya berupa kumpulan industri yang berdiri sendiri. Konsep ekologi industri di Indonesia masih dapat terus dikembangkan sehingga pada akhirnya diperoleh suatu pembangunan industri yang berkelanjutan dan berwawasan lingkungan. Indonesia adalah negara agraris sehingga penataan kawasan ekologi industri dapat dimulai dari pendirian kawasan industri terpadu di dekat kawasan pertanian masyarakat atau lebih dikenal dengan kawasan agroindustri. Konsep ekologi industri di Indonesia masih dapat terus dikembangkan sehingga pada akhirnya diperoleh suatu pembangunan industri yang berkelanjutan dan berwawasan lingkungan. Indonesia adalah negara agraris sehingga penataan kawasan ekologi industri dapat dimulai dari pendirian kawasan industri terpadu di dekat kawasan pertanian masyarakat atau lebih dikenal dengan kawasan agroindustri.

25 EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Sumber: ………….. diunduh 6/5/2012 Industri yang dapat diintegrasikan di Indonesia, antara lain perkebunan tebu, industri gula, industri bioetanol, industri pulp dan kertas, industri pupuk, industri semen, serta industri logam alkali. Sitem transportasi dalam industri gula tebu ess.com/2010/04/sepur_01_son dokoro.jpg

26 EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Sumber: diunduh 6/5/2012 Penerapan Ekologi Industri pada Industri Bioetanol Adanya industri gula dapat memacu bertambahnya limbah industri yang menimbulkan permasalahan lingkungan. Dimana, ketika jumlah industri semakin banyak, daya dukung alam semakin terbatas, dan sumber daya alam semakin menipis. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya sistem baru yang dapat meningkatkan produk suatu industri, penghematan bahan baku sekaligus meminimalkan pencemaran lingkungan, sistem tersebut adalah ekologi industri. Pada ekologi industri mempertimbangkan masalah polusi dan lingkungan serta mempertimbangkan kesinambungan industri serta aspek ekonomi tetap diutamakan. Dengan ekologi industri akan tercipta suatu sistem yang terpadu di antara industri-industri yang ada didalamnya dan saling bersimbiosis secara mutualisme. Production of bioethanol from sugarbeet

27 EKOLOGI INDUSTRI BIO-ETANOL Sumber: ………….. diunduh 6/5/2012 Industri etanol/bioetanol mempunyai prospek yang sangat bagus di Indonesia, karena kebutuhan etanol di Indonesia terus mengalami peningkatan. Dalam perkembangannya industri etanol diarahkan untuk diversifikasi penggunaan produk untuk bahan bakar biofuel, yang merupakan salah satu bahan bakar yang dapat diperbaharui, karena bahan bakunya dapat diperbaharui, misal : tetes tebu/molase, singkong, sorgum. Industri etanol/bioetanol mempunyai prospek yang sangat bagus di Indonesia, karena kebutuhan etanol di Indonesia terus mengalami peningkatan. Dalam perkembangannya industri etanol diarahkan untuk diversifikasi penggunaan produk untuk bahan bakar biofuel, yang merupakan salah satu bahan bakar yang dapat diperbaharui, karena bahan bakunya dapat diperbaharui, misal : tetes tebu/molase, singkong, sorgum. Tujuan utama ekologi industri dalam ruang lingkup industri bioetanol tidak lain adalah untuk memajukan dan melaksanakan konsep pembangunan berkelanjutan baik itu secara regional maupun lokal, dengan mencoba menemukan kebutuhan generasi sekarang dengan generasi yang akan datang. Dampak positif : 1.Meningkatkan perekonomian daerah melalui pembukaan lapangan kerja baru, 2.Secara sosial dengan adanya pabrik bioetanol berbahan dasar limbah industri pangan yang merupakan komoditas terbesar di Indonesia maka mata pencahariaan masyarakat lebih variatif sehingga akan memajukan daerah setempat 3.Dari aspek lingkungan pemanfaatan limbah industri pangan untuk produksi bioethanol akan sangat menguntungkan karena dapat meminimalkan limbah organic yang terbuang ke lingkungan. Dampak positif : 1.Meningkatkan perekonomian daerah melalui pembukaan lapangan kerja baru, 2.Secara sosial dengan adanya pabrik bioetanol berbahan dasar limbah industri pangan yang merupakan komoditas terbesar di Indonesia maka mata pencahariaan masyarakat lebih variatif sehingga akan memajukan daerah setempat 3.Dari aspek lingkungan pemanfaatan limbah industri pangan untuk produksi bioethanol akan sangat menguntungkan karena dapat meminimalkan limbah organic yang terbuang ke lingkungan.

28 EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Sumber: ………….. diunduh 6/5/2012 Skema ekologi industri bioetanol Bioetanol diperoleh melalui proses fermentasi menggunakan yeast (khamir), dengan bantuan urea dan asam sulfatlposfat. Limbah cair pengolahan bioetanol (vinase) dapat diolah untuk menghasilkan biogas untuk pemanas boiler dan pupuk K+ yang kaya Kalium dan unsur mikro yang sangat bermanfaat bagi tanaman (khusus untuk pabrik dengan bahan baku tetes tebu), sedangkan limbah gas C02 diproses menjadi liquid/solid C02 untuk industri minuman berkarbonasi. industri etanoi dapat menjadi industri terpadu tanpa polusi. Diunduh dari: el_dan_bioethanol-8.pdf

29 EKOLOGI INDUSTRI: BIO-ETHANOL Sumber: ………….. diunduh 6/5/2012 Optimasi penggunaan material dan energi dalam kegiatan industri dimulai dengan menganalisa proses industri gula untuk menghilangkan limbah yang terbuang. Pada industri gula masing-masing proses unit pengolahan dibuat seefektif mungkin. Kemudian dibuat simbiosis antara industri gula dengan industri yang lain sehingga bisa meminimalkan penggunaan energi dan produk samping. Bioetanol yang dihasilkan dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar alternatif sehingga dapat mengurangi penggunaan bensin. Sehingga secara tidak langsung dapat mengurangi ketergantungan pada bahan bakar fosil. Bagi industri yang lainnya, keuntungan yang bisa diambil dengan adanya industri gula adalah bisa memperoleh bahan baku industri yang mempunyai harga sangat minimal untuk memperoleh produk dengan harga jual tinggi sehingga bisa menguntungkan dari segi ekonomi. Harga bahan baku tersebut murah dikarenakan menggunakan limbah dari industri gula.

30 EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Sumber: ramah-lingkungan/ ………….. diunduh 6/5/2012 Model Ekosistem Industri di Denmark

31 PERKEMBANGAN MASA DEPAN The ecosystem metaphor popularized by Frosch and Gallopoulos has been a valuable creative tool for helping researchers look for novel solutions to difficult problems. Recently, it has been pointed out that this metaphor is based largely on a model of classical ecology, and that advancements in understanding ecology based on complexity science have been made by researchers such as C. S. Holling, James J. Kay, and others. For industrial ecology, this may mean a shift from a more mechanistic view of systems, to one where sustainability is viewed as an emergent property of a complex system. To explore this further, several researchers are working with agent based modeling techniques. Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_ecology Exergy analysis is performed in the field of industrial ecology to use energy more efficiently. The term exergy was coined by Zoran Rant in 1956, but the concept was developed by J. Willard Gibbs. In recent decades, utilization of exergy has spread outside of physics and engineering to the fields of industrial ecology, ecological economics, systems ecology, and energetics. Recently, there has been work advocating for large scale photovoltaic production facilities in an industrial ecology setting.

32 METABOLISME INDUSTRI Industrial metabolism was first proposed by Robert Ayres as "the whole integrated collection of physical processes that convert raw materials and energy, plus labour, into finished products and wastes...”” The goal is to study the flow of materials through society in order to better understand the sources and causes of emissions, along with the effects of the linkages in our socio-technological systems. Sumber: diunduh 27/4/ Ayres, R.U., Industrial metabolism: Theory and policy. In: Ayres, R.U., Simonis, U.K. (Eds.), Industrial Metabolism: Restructuring for Sustainable Development. United Nations University Press, Tokyo, pp. 3–20.Industrial Metabolism: Restructuring for Sustainable Development 2. S. Anderberg (1998), "Industrial metabolism and linkages between economics, ethics, and the environment", Ecological Economics, 24, pp

33 AKUNTING ENERGI Energy accounting is a system used to measure, analyze and report the energy consumption of different activities on a regular basis. It is done to improve energy efficiency. Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 MANAJEMEN ENERGI Energy accounting is a system used in energy management systems where measuring and analyzing energy consumption is done to improve energy efficiency within an organization. Various energy transformations are possible. An energy balance can be used to track energy through a system. This becomes a useful tool for determining resource use and environmental impacts. How much energy is needed at each point in a system and in what form that energy is, can be measured. An accounting system keeps track of energy in, energy out, and non- useful energy versus work done, and transformations within a system. Sometimes, non-useful work is what is often responsible for environmental problems.

34 TRANSFORMASI / KONSERVASI ENERGI Energy transformation or energy conversion is the process of changing one form of energy to another. In physics, the term energy describes the capacity to produce certain changes within a system, without regard to limitations in transformation imposed by entropy. Changes in total energy of systems can only be accomplished by adding or subtracting energy from them, as energy is a quantity which is conserved, according to the first law of thermodynamics. According to special relativity, changes in the energy of systems will also coincide with changes in the system's mass, and the total amount of mass of a system is a measure of its energy.form of energy special relativitymass Energy in a system may be transformed so that it resides in a different state, or different type of energy. Energy in many states may be used to do many varieties of physical work. Energy may be used in natural processes or machines, or else to provide some service to society (such as heat, light, or motion).light For example, an internal combustion engine converts the potential chemical energy in gasoline and oxygen into heat, which is then transformed into the propulsive energy (kinetic energy that moves a vehicle).heatkinetic energy A solar cell converts solar radiation into electrical energy that can then be used to light a bulb or power a computer. The generic name for a device which converts energy from one form to another, is a transducer. Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 In general, most types of energy, save for thermal energy, may be converted efficiently to any other kind of energy. Sometimes this occurs with an efficiency of essentially 100%, such as when potential energy is converted to kinetic energy as an object falls in vacuum, or when it orbits nearer or farther from another object, in space. Konversi energi menjadi panas dapat terjadi dengan efisiensi yang sangat tinggi.

35 TRANSFORMASI / KONSERVASI ENERGI Exceptions for perfect conversion efficiency (even for isolated systems) occur when energy has already been partly distributed among many available quantum states for a collection of particles, which are freely allowed to explore any state of momentum and position (phase space).phase space In such circumstances, a measure called entropy, or evening-out of energy distribution in such states, dictates that future states of the system must be of at least equal evenness in energy distribution. (There is no way, taking the universe as a whole, to collect energy into fewer states, once it has spread to them).entropy A consequence of this requirement is that there are limitations to the efficiency with which thermal energy can be converted to other kinds of energy, since thermal energy in equilibrium at a given temperature already represents the maximal evening-out of energy between all possible states. Such energy is sometimes considered "degraded energy," because it is not entirely usable. Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 The second law of thermodynamics is a way of stating that, for this reason, thermal energy in a system may be converted to other kinds of energy with efficiencies approaching 100%, only if the entropy (even- ness or disorder) of the universe is increased by other means, to compensate for the decrease in entropy associated with the disappearance of the thermal energy and its entropy content. Otherwise, only a part of thermal energy may be converted to other kinds of energy (and thus, useful work), since the remainder of the heat must be reserved to be transferred to a thermal reservoir at a lower temperature, in such a way that the increase in entropy for this process more than compensates for the entropy decrease associated with transformation of the rest of the heat into other types of energy.

36 ENERGY TRANSFORMATION IN ENERGY SYSTEMS LANGUAGE Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_ecology

37 KONSERVASI ENERGI DALAM MESIN For instance, a coal-fired power plant makes lots of energy and involves these energy transformations:coal Chemical energyChemical energy in the coal converted to thermal energythermal energy Thermal energy converted to kinetic energy in steamkinetic energysteam Kinetic energy converted to mechanical energy in the turbinemechanical energyturbine Mechanical energy of the turbine converted to electrical energy, which is the ultimate output In such a system, the last step is almost perfectly efficient, the first and second steps are fairly efficient, but the third step is relatively inefficient. The most efficient gas-fired electrical power stations can achieve 50% conversion efficiency. Oil- and coal-fired stations achieve less. In a conventional automobile, these energy transformations are involved: 1.Potential energy in the fuel converted to kinetic energy of expanding gas via combustion 2.Kinetic energy of expanding gas converted to linear piston movement 3.Linear piston movement converted to rotary crankshaft movement 4.Rotary crankshaft movement passed into transmission assembly 5.Rotary movement passed out of transmission assembly 6.Rotary movement passed through differential 7.Rotary movement passed out of differential to drive wheels 8.Rotary movement of drive wheels converted to linear motion of the vehicle. Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_ecology

38 KONSERVASI ENERGI There are many different machines and transducers that convert one energy form into another. A short list of examples follows: 1.Thermoelectric (Heat → Electric energy)Heat 2.Geothermal power (Heat→ Electric energy)Heat 3.Heat engines, such as the internal combustion engine used in cars, or the steam engine (Heat → Mechanical energy)Heat 4.Ocean thermal power (Heat → Electric energy) 5.Hydroelectric dams (Gravitational potential energy → Electric energy) 6.Electric generator (Kinetic energy or Mechanical work → Electric energy) 7.Fuel cells (Chemical energy → Electric energy) 8.Battery (electricity) (Chemical energy → Electric energy) 9.Fire (Chemical energy → Heat and Light)FireHeat 10.Electric lamp (Electric energy → Heat and Light) 11.Microphone (Sound → Electric energy) 12.Wave power (Mechanical energy → Electric energy) 13.Windmills (Wind energy → Electric energy or Mechanical energy) 14.Piezoelectrics (Strain → Electric energy) 15.Acoustoelectrics (Sound → Electric energy) 16.Friction (Kinetic energy → Heat)FrictionHeat 17.Heater (Electric energy → Heat)Heat Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_ecology Pengertian Konservasi Energi Kegiatan pemanfaatan energi secara efisien dan rasional tanpamengurangi penggunaan energi yang memang benar-benar diperlukan serta tidak mengurangi kenyamanan. Pada masa lalu harga energi relatif murah (bersubsidi) Efisiensi energi bukan merupakan pertimbangan utama dalam desainperalatan,sehinga seringkali didapat peralatan yang oversized / belum efisien sementara ituinvestasi selalu dititkberatkan pada penambahan kapasitas produksi (meski belum efisien) dan biaya investasi awal peralatan yang baik umumya lebih mahal. Terbatasnyapengetahuan teknik mengenai konservasi energi juga menjadikan salah satu alasanpemakaian energi belum efisien. Diunduh dari:

39 ANALISIS ALIRAN MATERIAL (BAHAN) Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012. Material flow analysis (MFA) (also referred to as substance flow analysis; SFA) is an analytical method of quantifying flows and stocks of materials or substances in a well-defined system. MFA is an important tool to assess the physical consequences of human activities and needs in the field of Industrial Ecology, where it is used on different spatial and temporal scales. Examples are accounting of material flows within certain industries and connected ecosystems, determination of indicators of material use by different societies, and development of strategies for improving the material flow systems in form of material flow management. The most prolific writer on the topic is Paul H. Brunner. MotivaSI MFA Human needs such as shelter, food, transport, or communication require materials such as wood, starch, sugar, iron and steel, copper, or semiconductors. As society develops and economic activity grows, production, use, and disposal of the materials employed increases to a scale where unwanted impacts on environment and society cannot be neglected anymore, neither locally nor globally: Material flows represent the core of local environmental problems such as leaching from landfills or oil spills. Rising concern about global climate change put a previously unimportant waste flow, carbon dioxide, on the top of the political and scientific agenda. In addition the gradual shift from traditional to urban mining in developed countries requires a detailed assessment of in-use and obsolete stocks of materials within the human environment. Industries, government bodies, and other organisations therefore need a tool to complement economic accounting with systematic book-keeping of materials entering, staying, and leaving the anthroposphere. Material flow analysis is such a tool.anthroposphere

40 PRINSIP-PRINSIP ANALISIS ALIRAN BAHAN Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Prinsip Dasar MFA is based on two fundamental and well-established scientific principles, system approach and mass balance. While these principles are applied wide across science and technology, it is the way they are applied to the socioeconomic metabolism that makes MFA a special method. Definisi SIstem: An MFA system is a model of a process, industry sector or region of concern. Its level of detail is chosen according to the purpose of the study. An MFA system consists of the system boundary, processes, flows, and stocks. Contrary to e.g. chemical engineering where such a system would represent a specific physical setup, systems and processes in MFA can represent much larger and more abstract things as long as they are well- defined. The concept of the system is central as it allows to allocate quantitative information either as stocks within certain processes or as flows between processes. In other words an MFA system allows to graphically allocate the meaning of measurements or statistical data in form of stocks or flows that are related to certain processes in a given system. MFA studies can be refined by disaggregating or simplified by aggregating processes. Next to the system and the arrangement of processes and flows in between, scale and scope of the system need to be specified. The spatial scale is the geographic entity that is covered by the system. A system representing a certain industrial sector can be applied to the US, China, certain world regions, or the world as a whole. The temporal scale is the point in time or time span for which the system shall be considered. A system can represent a snapshot of stocks and flows at a certain point in time or it can contain time series which describe the temporal evolution of the system variables. The material (scope) of the system is the actual physical entity that shall be quantified. This can be a certain chemical element such as cadmium or a substance such as CO2. More general things can be quantified as well as long as some kind of balance can be established. Examples are goods such as passenger cars or other physical quantities such as energy.

41 Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Sistem MFA yang umum, tanpa kuantifikasi. Sistem MFA yang elementer, tanpa kuantifikasi.

42 ANALISIS ALIRAN BARANG DAN BAHAN MFA = MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Unlike in daily life, MFA requires a more precise use of the terms material, substance, or good due to the way they are affected by the mass balance principle. A chemical element is “a pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom distinguished by its atomic number”. A substance is “any (chemical) element or compound composed of uniform units. All substances are characterized by a unique and identical constitution and are thus homogeneous.” A good is defined as “economic entity of matter with a positive or negative economic value. Goods are made up of one or several substances”. The term material in MFA “serves as an umbrella term for both substances and goods.” Komponen dalam Sistem Aliran Bahan: 1.Subjek (bahan, orang, dokumen, peralatan)2.Sumber Pergerakan: a.Fasilitas Pengolahan b.Fasilitas Transportasi c.Gudang d.Departemen Production and Quality Control 3.Komunikasi (yang mengkoordinir ³sumber pergerakan´); a.Jadwal Produksi b.Diagram Proses c.Borang Perintah Produksi/Pengiriman. d.Work Order Release Pola Aliran Bahan: Aliran di dalam Stasion Kerja Aliran di dalam Departemen (antar Stasion Kerja). Aliran antar Departemen. Bentuk Pola Aliran Bahan: ±Lokasi penerimaan dan pengiriman ±Jumlah tahapan / panjang proses. ±Prasarana transportasi di luar pabrik ±Jumlah / tingkat lantai produksi. ±Jumlah Komponen Bahan / Produk ±Ukuran dan Konfigurasi Bangunan yang ada.

43 NERACA PROSES : PROCESS BALANCE Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 One of the main purposes of MFA is to obtain a complete picture of the metabolism of certain elements or substances within the scope of the system. Such an analysis must also cover the stocks and flows that are not covered by financial accounting such as some waste flows, exhausts, or stocks of obsolete products. Mass balance or more general process balance is a first order physical principle that turns MFA into a powerful tool. The requirement for a balance to hold for each process facilitates a complete picture of the materials used, produced, and discarded within the various processes. Which balances hold for a given system depends on the specific processes that are considered: While for a process ‘oil refinery’ one can establish a mass balance for each chemical element, this is not possible for a nuclear power station. A car factory respects the balance for steel, but a steel mill doesn’t. Mass balance is a powerful and surprisingly versatile concept for the quantification of MFA systems. When quantifying MFA systems either by measurements or from statistical data, mass balance and other process balances have to be checked to ensure the correctness of the quantification and to reveal possible data inconsistencies or even misconceptions in the system such as the omission of a flow or a process. A typical MFA system with quantification.

44 APLIKASI PADA SEKALA RUANG DAN WAKTU YANG BERBEDA Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Material flow analyses are conducted on various spatial and temporal scales, for a variety of elements, substances, and goods, and cover a wide range of process chains and material cycles. Examples are MFA on a national or regional scale (also referred to as Material Flow Accounting): In this type of studies the material exchanges between an economy and the natural environment are analyzed. Several indicators are calculated in order to assess the level of resource intensity of the system. Corporate material flow analysis, or MFA along an industrial supply chain involving a number of companies: The goal of material flow analysis within a company is to optimize the production processes in such a way that materials and energy are used in the most efficient manner (e.g. by recycling and reduction of waste). Companies that implement material flow analysis can use the results to improve their operations costs and environmental performance. Dalam siklus-hidup suatu produk: The life cycle inventory as part of life cycle assessment can be considered an MFA as it involves system definition and balances.

45 METODE-METODE EKOLOGI INDUSTRI Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 MFA is complementary to Life Cycle Assessment and Input-output models. Some overlaps between the different methods exist as they all share the system approach and to some extent the mass balance principle. The methods mainly differ in purpose, scope, and data requirements. MFA studies often cover the entire cycle (mining, production, manufacturing, use, waste handling) of a certain substance within a given geographical boundary and time frame. The level of detail of the system is adapted to the substance considered. Material stocks are considered explicitly which makes MFA suitable to tackle resource scarcity and recycling from old scrap. The common use of time series and lifetime models makes MFA a suitable forecasting tool for long-term trends in material use. Compared to IO analyses the number of processes considered in MFA systems is usually much lower. On the other hand mass balance ensures that flows of by- products or waste are not overlooked in MFA studies, whereas in IO tables these flows are often not listed due to their lack in economic value. In addition, physical IO models are much less common than economic ones. Material stocks are also only indirectly covered by IO analysis in form of capital accumulation. Moreover, IO models do not have an upper limit: Any given final demand can be satisfied. MFA systems on the other hand usually contain stocks of ressources and hence a physical upper boundary of material turnover can be established. Life cycle assessments and inventories focus on the various material demands and subsequent impacts for single products, whereas MFA studies typically focus on a single material in many different products. When scaling up LCA studies to cover a whole market or sector, feedbacks on the industry, such as flows of old scrap or resource constraints should be considered, topics that are traditionally covered by MFA studies.

46 AKUNTING ALIRAN BAHAN Material flow accounting (MFA) is the study of material flows on a national or regional scale. It is therefore sometimes also referred to as regional, national or economy-wide material flow analysis. Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 DEFINISI The goal of material flow accounting is to ensure national planning, especially for scarce resources, and to allow forecasting. It also allows to assess environmental burdens through economic activities of a nation or to determine how material intensive an economy is. The principle concept underlying MFA is a simple model of this interrelation between the economy and the environment, in which the economy is an embedded subsystem of the environment. Similar to living beings, this subsystem is dependent on a constant throughput of materials and energy. Raw materials, water and air are extracted from the natural system as inputs, transformed into products and finally re-transferred to the natural system as outputs (waste and emissions). In order to highlight the similarity to natural metabolic processes, the terms “industrial” or “societal” metabolism have been introduced. In MFA studies for a region or on a national level the flows of materials between the natural environment and the economy are analyzed and quantified on a physical level. The focus may be on individual substances (e.g. Cadmium flows), specific materials, or bulk material flows (e.g. steel and steel scrap flows within an economy). Research on MFA is strong in Germany, Austria and the United States. Researchers in this field are organized in the ConAccount network.

47 AKUNTING ALIRAN BAHAN Sumber: diunduh 5/5/2012 Statistics related to material flow accounting are usually compiled by national statistical offices, using economic, agricultural and trade statistics measuring the exchange of material between different products available in an economy. TEKNIK ANALISA ALIRAN BAHAN Analisa Diskriptif –Konvensional 1. Menggunakan alat bantu Bagan / Peta-peta Kerja: Bagan Proses atau Bagan Proses Operasi Diagram Alir atau Bagan Alir Proses 2. Analisa dilakukan dengan mengajukan pertanyaan kritis: a.Apa b.Megapa c.Bagaimana atau dimana seharusnya, untuk memperoleh kriteria aliranbahan yang baik: Tidak ada hambatan atau kondisi ‘leher botol´ Tidak simpang siur dan ‘back-tracking´ Aliran atau jarak pergerakan dan penanganan yang minimum Sesuai dengan kondisi eksternal lingkungan pabrik. Analisa Kuantitatif: 1. Bagan Perjalanan 2. Keseimbangam Lini 3. Teknik Antrian

48 AKUNTING ALIRAN BAHAN Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Statistics related to material flow accounting are usually compiled by national statistical offices, using economic, agricultural and trade statistics measuring the exchange of material between different products available in an economy. Indikator Statistics related to material flows are usually combined in different indicators. Some of these indicators are listed below. More information on how the statistics are collected, under what legal framework and how they are defined is available on Economy-wide material flow accounts The following indicators are commonly used in material flow accounting to measure the resource efficiency of a country or region: Total Material Requirement (TMR) includes the domestic extraction of reources (minerals, fossil fuels, biomass), the indirect flows caused by and associated with the domestic extraction (called "Hidden Flows") and the imports. Domestic Material Input (DMI) summarizes the domestic extraction of reources and the imports, but excludes the indirect flows associated with the domestic extraction, since they are sometimes difficult to quantify. Direct Material Consumption (DMC): this indicator accounts all materials that are consumed within or remain in the domestic environment. The quantity is the domestic material input minus the exports out of the economy. Domestic Processed Output (DPO) is defined by the OECD as "the total mass of materials which have been used in the national economy, before flowing into the environment. These flows occur at the processing, manufacturing, use, and final disposal stages of the economic production- consumption chain.““ Total Domestic Output (TDO) includes the domestic processed output (DPO) plus the hidden flows associated with the domestic production. Net Addition to Stocks (NAS), the materials that are neither released to the domestic environment nor exported, but contribute to a physical increase of the economic processing system itself, e.g. infrastructure, buildings, machinery or other durable goods. Hidden Flows are materials that are extracted or moved, but do not enter the economy. According to OECD, the "displacement of environmental assets without absorption into the economic sphere", such as overburden from mining operations.

49 LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 A life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to- grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from-cradle-to-grave (i.e., from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling). LCA’s can help avoid a narrow outlook on environmental concerns by: Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; Evaluating the potential impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; Interpreting the results to help you make a more informed decision. Tujuan dan Sasaran The goal of LCA is to compare the full range of environmental effects assignable to products and services in order to improve processes, support policy and provide a sound basis for informed decisions. The term life cycle refers to the notion that a fair, holistic assessment requires the assessment of raw-material production, manufacture, distribution, use and disposal including all intervening transportation steps necessary or caused by the product's existence. There are two main types of LCA. Attributional LCAs seek to establish the burdens associated with the production and use of a product, or with a specific service or process, at a point in time (typically the recent past). Consequential LCAs seek to identify the environmental consequences of a decision or a proposed change in a system under study (oriented to the future), which means that market and economic implications of a decision may have to be taken into account. Social LCA is under development as a different approach to life cycle thinking intended to assess social implications or potential impacts. Social LCA should be considered as an approach that is complementary to environmental LCA. The procedures of life cycle assessment (LCA) are part of the ISO environmental management standards: in ISO 14040:2006 and 14044:2006. (ISO replaced earlier versions of ISO to ISO )

50 LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) analysis involves creating an inventory of flows from and to nature for a product system. Inventory flows include inputs of water, energy, and raw materials, and releases to air, land, and water. To develop the inventory, a flow model of the technical system is constructed using data on inputs and outputs. The flow model is typically illustrated with a flow chart that includes the activities that are going to be assessed in the relevant supply chain and gives a clear picture of the technical system boundaries. The input and output data needed for the construction of the model are collected for all activities within the system boundary, including from the supply chain (referred to as inputs from the technosphere). The data must be related to the functional unit defined in the goal and scope definition. Data can be presented in tables and some interpretations can be made already at this stage. The results of the inventory is an LCI which provides information about all inputs and outputs in the form of elementary flow to and from the environment from all the unit processes involved in the study. Inventory flows can number in the hundreds depending on the system boundary. For product LCAs at either the generic (i.e., representative industry averages) or brand- specific level, that data is typically collected through survey questionnaires. At an industry level, care has to be taken to ensure that questionnaires are completed by a representative sample of producers, leaning toward neither the best nor the worst, and fully representing any regional differences due to energy use, material sourcing or other factors. The questionnaires cover the full range of inputs and outputs, typically aiming to account for 99% of the mass of a product, 99% of the energy used in its production and any environmentally sensitive flows, even if they fall within the 1% level of inputs. One area where data access is likely to be difficult is flows from the technosphere. Those completing a questionnaire will be able to specify how much of a given input they use from supply chain sources, but they will not usually have access to data concerning inputs and outputs for those production processes. The entity undertaking the LCA must then turn to secondary sources if it does not already have that data from its own previous studies. National databases or data sets that come with LCA- practitioner tools, or that can be readily accessed, are the usual sources for that information. Care must then be taken to ensure that the secondary data source properly reflects regional or national conditions.

51 LCIA : LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Inventory analysis is followed by impact assessment. This phase of LCA is aimed at evaluating the significance of potential environmental impacts based on the LCI flow results. Classical life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) consists of the following mandatory elements: selection of impact categories, category indicators, and characterization models; the classification stage, where the inventory parameters are sorted and assigned to specific impact categories; and impact measurement, where the categorized LCI flows are characterized, using one of many possible LCIA methodologies, into common equivalence units that are then summed to provide an overall impact category total. In many LCAs, characterization concludes the LCIA analysis; this is also the last compulsory stage according to ISO 14044:2006. However, in addition to the above mandatory LCIA steps, other optional LCIA elements – normalization, grouping, and weighting – may be conducted depending on the goal and scope of the LCA study. In normalization, the results of the impact categories from the study are usually compared with the total impacts in the region of interest, the U.S. for example. Grouping consists of sorting and possibly ranking the impact categories. During weighting, the different environmental impacts are weighted relative to each other so that they can then be summed to get a single number for the total environmental impact. ISO 14044:2006 generally advises against weighting, stating that “weighting, shall not be used in LCA studies intended to be used in comparative assertions intended to be disclosed to the public”. This advice is often ignored, resulting in comparisons that can reflect a high degree of subjectivity as a result of weighting

52 INTERPRETASI Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Life Cycle Interpretation is a systematic technique to identify, quantify, check, and evaluate information from the results of the life cycle inventory and/or the life cycle impact assessment. The results from the inventory analysis and impact assessment are summarized during the interpretation phase. The outcome of the interpretation phase is a set of conclusions and recommendations for the study. According to ISO 14040:2006, the interpretation should include: identification of significant issues based on the results of the LCI and LCIA phases of an LCA; evaluation of the study considering completeness, sensitivity and consistency checks; and conclusions, limitations and recommendations. A key purpose of performing life cycle interpretation is to determine the level of confidence in the final results and communicate them in a fair, complete, and accurate manner. Interpreting the results of an LCA is not as simple as "3 is better than 2, therefore Alternative A is the best choice"! Interpreting the results of an LCA starts with understanding the accuracy of the results, and ensuring they meet the goal of the study. This is accomplished by identifying the data elements that contribute significantly to each impact category, evaluating the sensitivity of these significant data elements, assessing the completeness and consistency of the study, and drawing conclusions and recommendations based on a clear understanding of how the LCA was conducted and the results were developed.

53 LCA TOOLS AND USES Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 There are two basic types of LCA tools: dedicated software packages intended for practitioners; and tools with the LCA in the background intended for people who want LCA-based results without have to actually develop the LCA data and impact measures. In the former category, the principal tools are GaBi Software, developed by PE International, SimaPro, developed by PRé Consultants, Quantis SUITE 2.0, developed by Quantis International and umberto, developed by ifu Hamburg GmbH, and web-based solutions include Earthster and LinkCycle. In the second category, different tools operate at different levels. At the product level, the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) makes its BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability) tool freely available, Solidworks CAD software (Dassault Systèmes) presents LCA-based environmental information to the user through an add-on called SustainabilityXpress, and PTC’s Windchill Product Analytics makes LCA results an integral part of product development systems. At the whole building design level, different tools are available in different parts of the world. For example, the ATHENA® Impact Estimator for Buildings is capable of modeling 95% of the building stock in North America, Envest has been developed by the Building Research Establishment to meet UK needs, and EcoQuantum is available in the Netherlands. For the Netherlands, extensive databases (open access) are available on the so called eco-costs and carbon footprint of buildings and its components. The European Council of Construction Economists is planning to develop such open source databases for other European countries as well. At a building assembly level (e.g., exterior walls) the free ATHENA® EcoCalculator for Assemblies is an example of a tool that serves North America and the Whole Building Design Guide is an example of a tool applicable to the UK. Based on a survey of LCA practitioners carried out in 2006 LCA is mostly used to support business strategy (18%) and R&D (18%), as input to product or process design (15%), in education (13%) and for labeling or product declarations (11%). Major corporations all over the world are either undertaking LCA in house or commissioning studies, while governments support the development of national databases to support LCA. Of particular note is the growing use of LCA for ISO Type III labels called Environmental Product Declarations, defined as "quantified environmental data for a product with pre-set categories of parameters based on the ISO series of standards, but not excluding additional environmental information". These third-party certified LCA-based labels provide an increasingly important basis for assessing the relative environmental merits of competing products. LCA also has major roles in environmental impact assessment, integrated waste management and pollution studies.

54 LCA: ANALISIS DATA Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 A life cycle analysis is only as valid as its data; therefore, it is crucial that data used for the completion of a life cycle analysis are accurate and current. When comparing different life cycle analyses with one another, it is crucial that equivalent data are available for both products or processes in question. If one product has a much higher availability of data, it cannot be justly compared to another product which has less detailed data. There are two basic types of LCA data – unit process data and environmental input- output data (EIO), where the latter is based on national economic input-output data. Unit process data are derived from direct surveys of companies or plants producing the product of interest, carried out at a unit process level defined by the system boundaries for the study. Data validity is an ongoing concern for life cycle analyses. Due to globalization and the rapid pace of research and development, new materials and manufacturing mthods are continually being introduced to the market. This makes it both very important and very difficult to use up-to-date information when performing an LCA. If an LCA’s conclusions are to be valid, the data must be recent; however, the data-gathering process takes time. If a product and its related processes have not undergone significant revisions since the last LCA data was collected, data validity is not a problem. However, consumer electronics such as cell phones can be redesigned as often as every 9 to 12 months, creating a need for ongoing data collection. The life cycle considered usually consists of a number of stages including: materials extraction, processing and manufacturing, product use, and product disposal. If the most environmentally harmful of these stages can be determined, then impact on the environment can be efficiently reduced by focusing on making changes for that particular phase. For example, the most energy-intensive life phase of an airplane or car is during use due to fuel consumption. One of the most effective ways to increase fuel efficiency is to decrease vehicle weight, and thus, car and airplane manufacturers can decrease environmental impact in a significant way by replacing aluminum with lighter materials such as carbon fiber reinforced fibers. The reduction during the use phase should be more than enough to balance additional raw material or manufacturing cost.

55 MACAM-MACAM METODE LCA Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Cradle-to-grave Cradle-to-grave is the full Life Cycle Assessment from resource extraction ('cradle') to use phase and disposal phase ('grave'). For example, trees produce paper, which can be recycled into low-energy production cellulose (fiberised paper) insulation, then used as an energy- saving device in the ceiling of a home for 40 years, saving 2,000 times the fossil-fuel energy used in its production. After 40 years the cellulose fibers are replaced and the old fibers are disposed of, possibly incinerated. All inputs and outputs are considered for all the phases of the life cycle. Cradle-to-gate Cradle-to-gate is an assessment of a partial product life cycle from resource extraction (cradle) to the factory gate (i.e., before it is transported to the consumer). The use phase and disposal phase of the product are omitted in this case. Cradle-to-gate assessments are sometimes the basis for environmental product declarations (EPD) termed business-to- business EDPs. Cradle-to-cradle or open loop production Cradle-to-cradle is a specific kind of cradle-to-grave assessment, where the end-of-life disposal step for the product is a recycling process. It is a method used to minimize the environmental impact of products by employing sustainable production, operation, and disposal practices and aims to incorporate social responsibility into product development. From the recycling process originate new, identical products (e.g., asphalt pavement from discarded asphalt pavement, glass bottles from collected glass bottles), or different products (e.g., glass wool insulation from collected glass bottles). Allocation of burden for products in open loop production systems presents considerable challenges for LCA. Various methods, such as the avoided burden approach have been proposed to deal with the issues involved.

56 MACAM-MACAM METODE LCA Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Well-to-wheel Well-to-wheel is the specific LCA used for transport fuels and vehicles. The analysis is often broken down into stages entitled "well-to-station", or "well-to-tank", and "station-to-wheel" or "tank-to-wheel", or "plug-to-wheel". The first stage, which incorporates the feedstock or fuel production and processing and fuel delivery or energy transmission, and is called the "upstream" stage, while the stage that deals with vehicle operation itself is sometimes called the "downstream" stage. The well-to-wheel analysis is commonly used to assess total energy consumption, or energy conversion efficiency and emissions impact of marine vessels, aircrafts and motor vehicle emissions, including their carbon footprint, and the fuels used in each of these transport modes. The well-to-wheel variant has a significant input on a model developed by the Argonne National Laboratory. The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model was developed to evaluate the impacts of new fuels and vehicle technologies. The model evaluates the impacts of fuel use using a well-to-wheel evaluation while a traditional cradle-to-grave approach is used to determine the impacts from the vehicle itself. The model reports energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and six additional pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), particulate matter with size smaller than 10 micrometre (PM10), particulate matter with size smaller than 2.5 micrometre (PM2.5), and sulfur oxides (SOx) Gate-to-gate Gate-to-gate is a partial LCA looking at only one value- added process in the entire production chain. Gate-to- gate modules may also later be linked in their appropriate production chain to form a complete cradle-to-gate evaluation.

57 Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Economic input–output life cycle assessment Economic input–output LCA (EIOLCA) involves use of aggregate sector-level data on how much environmental impact can be attributed to each sector of the economy and how much each sector purchases from other sectors. Such analysis can account for long chains (for example, building an automobile requires energy, but producing energy requires vehicles, and building those vehicles requires energy, etc.), which somewhat alleviates the scoping problem of process LCA; however, EIOLCA relies on sector-level averages that may or may not be representative of the specific subset of the sector relevant to a particular product and therefore is not suitable for evaluating the environmental impacts of products. Additionally the translation of economic quantities into environmental impacts is not validated. Ecologically-based LCA While a conventional LCA uses many of the same approaches and strategies as an Eco-LCA, the latter considers a much broader range of ecological impacts. It was designed to provide a guide to wise management of human activities by understanding the direct and indirect impacts on ecological resources and surrounding ecosystems. Developed by Ohio State University Center for resilience, Eco-LCA is a methodology that quantitatively takes into account regulating and supporting services during the life cycle of economic goods and products. In this approach services are categorized in four main groups: supporting, regulating provisioning and cultural services MACAM-MACAM METODE LCA

58 LIFE CYCLE ENERGY ANALYSIS Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012. Life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) is an approach in which all energy inputs to a product are accounted for, not only direct energy inputs during manufacture, but also all energy inputs needed to produce components, materials and services needed for the manufacturing process. An earlier term for the approach was energy analysis. With LCEA, the total life cycle energy input is established. Energy production It is recognized that much energy is lost in the production of energy commodities themselves, such as nuclear energy, photovoltaic electricity or high-quality petroleum products. Net energy content is the energy content of the product minus energy input used during extraction and conversion, directly or indirectly. A controversial early result of LCEA claimed that manufacturing solar cells requires more energy than can be recovered in using the solar cell. The result was refuted. Another new concept that flows from life cycle assessments is Energy Cannibalism. Energy Cannibalism refers to an effect where rapid growth of an entire energy-intensive industry creates a need for energy that uses (or cannibalizes) the energy of existing power plants. Thus during rapid growth the industry as a whole produces no energy because new energy is used to fuel the embodied energy of future power plants. Work has been undertaken in the UK to determine the life cycle energy (alongside full LCA) impacts of a number of renewable technologies. Energy recovery If materials are incinerated during the disposal process, the energy released during burning can be harnessed and used for electricity production. This provides a low-impact energy source, especially when compared with coal and natural gas While incineration produces more greenhouse gas emissions than landfilling, the waste plants are well-fitted with filters to minimize this negative impact. A recent study comparing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from landfilling (without energy recovery) against incineration (with energy recovery) found incineration to be superior in all cases except for when landfill gas is recovered for electricity production.

59 LIFE CYCLE ENERGY ANALYSIS Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012. Criticism A criticism of LCEA is that it attempts to eliminate monetary cost analysis, that is replace the currency by which economic decisions are made with an energy currency. It has also been argued that energy efficiency is only one consideration in deciding which alternative process to employ, and that it should not be elevated to the only criterion for determining environmental acceptability; for example, simple energy analysis does not take into account the renewability of energy flows or the toxicity of waste products; however the life cycle assessment does help companies become more familiar with environmental properties and improve their environmental system. Incorporating Dynamic LCAs of renewable energy technologies (using sensitivity analyses to project future improvements in renewable systems and their share of the power grid) may help mitigate this criticism. A problem the energy analysis method cannot resolve is that different energy forms (heat, electricity, chemical energy etc.) have different quality and value even in natural sciences, as a consequence of the two main laws of thermodynamics. A thermodynamic measure of the quality of energy is exergy. According to the first law of thermodynamics, all energy inputs should be accounted with equal weight, whereas by the second law diverse energy forms should be accounted by different values. The conflict is resolved in one of these ways: 1.value difference between energy inputs is ignored, 2.a value ratio is arbitrarily assigned (e.g., a joule of electricity is 2.6 times more valuable than a joule of heat or fuel input), 3.the analysis is supplemented by economic (monetary) cost analysis, 4.exergy instead of energy can be the metric used for the life cycle analysis

60 EKO-EFISIENSI Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 The term eco-efficiency was coined by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) in its 1992 publication "Changing Course". It is based on the concept of creating more goods and services while using fewer resources and creating less waste and pollution. According to the WBCSD definition, eco-efficiency is achieved through the delivery of "competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life while progressively reducing environmental impacts of goods and resource intensity throughout the entire life-cycle to a level at least in line with the Earth's estimated carrying capacity." This concept describes a vision for the production of economically valuable goods and services while reducing the ecological impacts of production. In other words eco-efficiency means producing more with less. According to the WBCSD, critical aspects of eco-efficiency are: 1.A reduction in the material intensity of goods or services; 2.A reduction in the energy intensity of goods or services; 3.Reduced dispersion of toxic materials; 4.Improved recyclability; 5.Maximum use of renewable resources; 6.Greater durability of products; 7.Increased service intensity of goods and services. The reduction in ecological impacts translates into an increase in resource productivity, which in turn can create a competitive advantage. Strategies that have been linked to eco-efficiency include “Factor 4” and “Factor 10”, which call for specific reductions in resource use, “natural capitalism”, which incorporates eco- efficiency as part of a broader strategy, and the “cradle-to-cradle” movement, which claims to go beyond eco-efficiency in abolishing the very idea of waste. According to Boulanger, all versions of eco-efficiency share four key characteristics: Confidence in technological innovation as the main solution to un-sustainability; Reliance on business as the principal actor of transformation. The emphasis is on firms designing new products, shifting to new production processes, and investing in R&D, etc., more than on the retailer or the consumer, let alone the citizen. Trust in markets (if they are functioning well).

61 ECO-INNOVATION Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Eco-innovation is a term used to describe products and processes that contribute to sustainable development. Eco-innovation is the commercial application of knowledge to elicit direct or indirect ecological improvements. It is often used to describe a range of related ideas, from environmentally friendly technological advances to socially acceptable innovative paths towards sustainability. Related terms Eco-innovation is closely linked to a variety of related terms. It is often used interchangeably with 'environmental innovation', and is also often linked with 'environmental technology', 'eco-efficiency', 'eco-design', 'environmental design', 'sustainable design', or 'sustainable innovation'. While 'environmental innovation' is used in similar contexts to 'eco-innovation', the other terms are mostly used when referring to product or process design, and therefore focus more on the technological aspects of eco-innovation rather than the societal or political aspects. Eco-innovation as a technological term The most common usage of the term “eco-innovation” is to refer to innovative products and processes that reduce environmental impacts. This is often used in conjunction with eco- efficiency and eco-design. Leaders in many industries have been developing innovative technologies in order to work towards sustainability. However, these are not always practical, or enforced by policy and legislation. Eco-innovation as a social process Another position held (for example, by the organisation Eco Innovation) is that this definition should be complemented: eco-innovations should also bring greater social and cultural acceptance. In this view, this 'social pillar' added to James's definition is necessary because it determines learning and the effectiveness of eco-innovations. This approach gives eco-innovations a social component, a status that is more than a new type of commodity, or a new sector, even though environmental technology and eco- innovation are associated with the emergence of new economic activities or even branches (e.g., waste treatment, recycling, etc). This approach considers eco-innovation in terms of usage rather than merely in terms of product. The social pillar associated with eco- innovation introduces a governance component that makes eco-innovation a more integrated tool for sustainable development. Ecovation is the process by which responsible capitalism aligns with ecological innovation to construct products which have a generative nature and are recyclable back into the environment for usage in other industries.

62 INTENSITAS SUMBERDAYA Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Resource intensity is a measure of the resources (e.g. water, energy, materials) needed for the production, processing and disposal of a unit of good or service, or for the completion of a process or activity; it is therefore a measure of the efficiency of resource use. It is often expressed as the quantity of resource embodied in unit cost e.g. litres of water per $1 spent on product. In national economic and sustainability accounting it can be calculated as units of resource expended per unit of GDP. When applied to a single person it is expressed as the resource use of that person per unit of consumption.Relatively high resource intensities indicate a high price or environmental cost of converting resource into GDP; low resource intensity indicates a lower price or environmental cost of converting resource into GDP. Resource productivity and resource intensity are key concepts used in sustainability measurement as they measure attempts to decouple the connection between resource use and environmental degradation. Their strength is that they can be used as a metric for both economic and environmental cost. Although these concepts are two sides of the same coin, in practice they involve very different approaches and can be viewed as reflecting, on the one hand, the efficiency of resource production as outcome per unit of resource use (resource productivity) and, on the other hand, the efficiency of resource consumption as resource use per unit outcome (resource intensity). The sustainability objective is to maximize resource productivity while minimizing resource intensity. Intensitas pengolahan sumberdaya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidup yang bertambah besar jumlahnya, ragam dan mutunya itu telah mempercepat proses pemiskinan ataupun sekurang-kurangnya mengganggu keseimbangan fungsi lingkungan hidup setempat. Akibatnya pemenuhan kebutuhan hidup penduduk setempatpun menjadi sulit sehingga mengancam kesejahteraan hidup mereka. Kesulitan itu mendorong manusia untuk kembali mengembangkan teknologi pengolahan sumberdaya alam, sebagaimana tercermin dalam peninggalan sisa- sisa peralatan pada zaman batu muda, yang mempermudah manusia mengolah sumberdaya alam. Selanjutnya manusia mampu mengembangkan peradaban yang lebih kompleks dengan munculnya kota sebagai pusat kekuasaan dengan penduduk yang tidak harus secara langsung mengolah sumberdaya alam untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya berkat kemampuan penduduk pedesaan menghasilkan surplus. Diunduh dari: hidup-dan-pembangunan-berkelanjutan&catid=40:artikel-dan-opini&Itemid=77

63 INTENSITAS ENERGI Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012. Energy intensity is a measure of the energy efficiency of a nation's economy. It is calculated as units of energy per unit of GDP. High energy intensities indicate a high price or cost of converting energy into GDP. Low energy intensity indicates a lower price or cost of converting energy into GDP. Energy Intensity as defined here is not to be confused with Energy Use Intensity (EUI), a measure of building energy use per unit area. Many factors influence an economy's overall energy intensity. It may reflect requirements for general standards of living and weather conditions in an economy. It is not atypical for particularly cold or hot climates to require greater energy consumption in homes and workplaces for heating (furnaces, or electric heaters) or cooling (air conditioning, fans, refrigeration). A country with an advanced standard of living is more likely to have a wider prevalence of such consumer goods and thereby be impacted in its energy intensity than one with a lower standard of living. Energy efficiency of appliances and buildings (through use of building materials and methods, such as insulation), fuel economy of vehicles, vehicular distances travelled (frequency of travel or larger geographical distances), better methods and patterns of transportation, capacities and utility of mass transit, energy rationing or conservation efforts, 'off-grid' energy sources, and stochastic economic shocks such as disruptions of energy due to natural disasters, wars, massive power outages, unexpected new sources, efficient uses of energy or energy subsidies may all impact overall energy intensity of a nation. Thus, a nation that is highly economically productive, with mild and temperate weather, demographic patterns of work places close to home, and uses fuel efficient vehicles, supports carpools, mass transportation or walks or rides bicycles, will have a far lower energy intensity than a nation that is economically unproductive, with extreme weather conditions requiring heating and cooling, long commutes, and extensive use of generally poor fuel economy vehicles. Paradoxically, some activities that may seem to promote high energy intensities, such as long commutes, could in fact result in lower energy intensities by causing a disproportionate increase in GDP output. Figures of energy consumption used in statistics are energy sources marketed through major energy industries. Therefore some small scale but frequent consumption of energy source like firewood, charcoal peat, water wheel, wind mill are not in its count. In countries, which does not have such developed energy industries or people with highly self energy efficient life style, report smaller energy consumption figures.

64 INTENSITAS EMISI Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 An emission intensity is the average emission rate of a given pollutant from a given source relative to the intensity of a specific activity; for example grams of carbon dioxide released per megajoule of energy produced, or the ratio of greenhouse gas emissions produced to GDP. Emission intensities are used to derive estimates of air pollutant or greenhouse gas emissions based on the amount of fuel combusted, the number of animals in animal husbandry, on industrial production levels, distances traveled or similar activity data. Emission intensities may also be used to compare the environmental impact of different fuels or activities. The related terms emission factor and carbon intensity are often used interchangeably, but "factors" exclude aggregate activities such as GDP, and "carbon" excludes other pollutants. Graph of UK figures for the carbon intensity of biodiesels and fossil fuels. This graph assumes that all biodiesels are burnt in their country of origin. It also assumes that the diesel is produced from pre-existing croplands rather than by changing land use

65 ESTIMASI EMISI Emission factors assume a linear relation between the intensity of the activity and the emission resulting from this activity: Emission pollutant = Activity * Emission Factor pollutant Intensities are also used in projecting possible future scenarios such as those used in the IPCC assessments, along with projected future changes in population, economic activity and energy technologies. IPCC The interrelations of these variables is treated under the so-called Kaya identity. The level of uncertainty of the resulting estimates depends significantly on the source category and the pollutant. Some examples: Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from the combustion of fuel can be estimated with a high degree of certainty regardless of how the fuel is used as these emissions depend almost exclusively on the carbon content of the fuel, which is generally known with a high degree of precision. The same is true for sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), since also sulphur contents of fuels are generally well known. Both carbon and sulphur are almost completey oxidized during combustion and all carbon and sulphur atoms in the fuel will be present in the flue gases as CO 2 and SO 2 respectively.flue gases In contrast, the levels of other air pollutants and non-CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions from combustion depend on the precise technology applied when fuel is combusted. These emissions are basically caused by either incomplete combustion of a small fraction of the fuel (carbon monoxide, methane, non-methane volatile organic compounds) or by complicated chemical and physical processes during the combustion and in the smoke stack or tailpipe. Examples of these are particulates, NO x, a mixture of nitric oxide, NO, and nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 ). Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from agricultural soils are highly uncertain because they depend very much on both the exact conditions of the soil, the application of fertilizers and meteorological conditions. Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012

66 FAKTOR EMISI BAHAN BAKAR Fuel/ Resource Thermal g(CO 2 -eq)/MJ th Energy Intensity (min & max estimate) W·h th /W·h e Electric (min & max estimate) g(CO 2 -eq)/kW·h e Coal B:91.50–91.72 Br: B:2.62–2.85 Br: B:863–941 Br:1, Oil Natural gas cc:68.20 oc: cc:2.35 (2.20 – 2.57) oc:3.05 (2.81 – 3.46) cc:577 (491 – 655) oc:751 (627 – 891) 599 Geothermal Power Uranium Nuclear power W L 0.18 (0.16~0.40) W H 0.20 (0.18~0.35) W L 60 (10~130) W H 65 (10~120) Hydroelectricity (0.020 – 0.137)15 (6.5 – 44) Conc. Solar Pwr Photovoltaics 0.33 (0.16 – 0.67)106 (53 – 217) Wind power (0.041 – 0.12)21 (13 – 40) Note: 3.6 MJ = megajoule(s) == 1 kW·h = kilowatt-hour(s), thus 1 g/MJ = 3.6 g/kW·h. Legend: B = Black coal (supercritical)–(new subcritical), Br = Brown coal (new subcritical), cc = combined cycle, oc = open cycle, T L = low-temperature/closed-circuit (geothermal doublet), T H = high-temperature/open-circuit, W L = Light Water Reactors, W H = Heavy Water Reactors, #Educated estimate. Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012

67 PRODUKSI BERSIH Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Cleaner production is a preventive, company-specific environmental protection initiative. It is intended to minimize waste and emissions and maximize product output. By analysing the flow of materials and energy in a company, one tries to identify options to minimize waste and emissions out of industrial processes through source reduction strategies. Improvements of organisation and technology help to reduce or suggest better choices in use of materials and energy, and to avoid waste, waste water generation, and gaseous emissions, and also waste heat and noise. The concept was developed during the preparation of the Rio Summit as a programme of UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) and UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) under the leadership of Jacqueline Aloisi de Larderel, the former Assistant Executive Director of UNEP. The programme was meant to reduce the environmental impact of industry. It built on ideas used by 3M in its 3P programme (pollution prevention pays). It has found more international support than all other comparable programmes. The programme idea was described „...to assist developing nations in leapfrogging from pollution to less pollution, using available technologies“. Starting from the simple idea to produce with less waste Cleaner Production was developed into a concept to increase the resource efficiency of production in general. UNIDO has been operating a National Cleaner Production Center Programme with centres in Latin America, Africa, Asia and Europe. In the US, the term pollution prevention is more commonly used for cleaner production. Examples for cleaner production options are: 1.Documentation of consumption (as a basic analysis of material and energy flows, e. g. with a Sankey diagram) 2.Use of indicators and controlling (to identify losses from poor planning, poor education and training, mistakes) 3.Substitution of raw materials and auxiliary materials (especially renewable materials and energy) 4.Increase of useful life of auxiliary materials and process liquids (by avoiding drag in, drag out, contamination) 5.Improved control and automatisation 6.Reuse of waste (internal or external) 7.New, low waste processes and technologies

68 KONSERVASI ENERGI Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption. Energy conservation can be achieved through increased efficient energy use, in conjunction with decreased energy consumption and/or reduced consumption from conventional energy sources. An energy conservation act was passed in Energy conservation can result in increased financial capital, environmental quality, national security, personal security, and human comfort. Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy choose to conserve energy to reduce energy costs and promote economic security. Industrial and commercial users can increase energy use efficiency to maximize profit. Sustainable energy - Renewable energy - Anaerobic digestion 1.Biomass 2.Geothermal 3.Hydroelectricity 4.Solar 5.Tidal 6.Wind. Energy conservation - Cogeneration 1.Energy efficiency 2.Geothermal 3.Green building 4.Microgeneration 5.Passive Solar 6.Organic Rankine cycle Sustainable transport - Biofuel 1.Electric vehicle 2.Green vehicle 3.Plug-in hybrid

69 KONSERVASI ENERGI Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 DISAIN BANGUNAN In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design or climatic design because, unlike active solar heating systems, it doesn't involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices. The key to designing a passive solar building is to best take advantage of the local climate. Elements to be considered include window placement and glazing type, thermal insulation, thermal mass, and shading. Passive solar design techniques can be applied most easily to new buildings, but existing buildings can be adapted or "retrofitted". Elements of passive solar design, shown in a direct gain application

70 KONSERVASI ENERGI Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 PERUBAHAN IKLIM By reducing emissions, energy conservation is an important part of lessening climate change. Energy conservation facilitates the replacement of non-renewable resources with renewable energy. Energy conservation is often the most economical solution to energy shortages, and is a more environmentally being alternative to increased energy production. Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions, or in the distribution of weather around the average conditions (i.e., more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change is caused by factors that include oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics and volcanic eruptions, and human-induced alterations of the natural world; these latter effects are currently causing global warming, and "climate change" is often used to describe human-specific impacts. Scientists actively work to understand past and future climate by using observations and theoretical models. Borehole temperature profiles, ice cores, floral and faunal records, glacial and periglacial processes, stable isotope and other sediment analyses, and sea level records serve to provide a climate record that spans the geologic past. More recent data are provided by the instrumental record. Physically- based general circulation models are often used in theoretical approaches to match past climate data, make future projections, and link causes and effects in climate change. (DIUNDUH DARI:

71 KONSERVASI ENERGI Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Isu-isu Konservasi Energi The use of telecommuting by major corporations is a significant opportunity to conserve energy, as many Americans now work in service jobs that enable them to work from home instead of commuting to work each day. Electric motors consume more than 60% of all electrical energy generated and are responsible for the loss of 10 to 20% of all electricity converted into mechanical energy. Consumers are often poorly informed of the savings of energy efficient products. The research one must put into conserving energy often is too time consuming and costly when there are cheaper products and technology available using today's fossil fuels. Some governments and NGOs are attempting to reduce this complexity with ecolabels that make differences in energy efficiency easy to research while shopping. Technology needs to be able to change behavioral patterns, it can do this by allowing energy users, business and residential, to see graphically the impact their energy use can have in their workplace or homes. Advanced real-time energy metering is able to help people save energy by their actions. Rather than become wasteful automatic energy saving technologies, real-time energy monitors and meters such as the Energy Detective, Enigin Plc's Eniscope, Ecowizard, or solutions like EDSA'a Paladin Live are examples of such solutions. It is frequently argued that effective energy conservation requires more than informing consumers about energy consumption, for example through smart meters at home or ecolabels while shopping. People need practical and tailored advice how to reduce energy consumption in order to make change easy and lasting. This applies to both efficiency investments, such as investment in building renovation, or behavioral change, for example turning down the heating. To provide the kind of information and support people need to invest money, time and effort in energy conservation, it is important to understand and link to people's topical concerns. Some retailers argue that bright lighting stimulates purchasing. However, health studies have demonstrated that headache, stress, blood pressure, fatigue and worker error all generally increase with the common over-illumination present in many workplace and retail settings. It has been shown that natural daylighting increases productivity levels of workers, while reducing energy consumption.

72 KONSERVASI ENERGI Sumber: nergi.pdf ….. diunduh 2/5/2012 KEPPRES 43/1991, 25 SEPTEMBER 1991 (JAKARTA) Tentang: KONSERVASI ENERGI Dalam rangka menjamin kelestarian serta memanfaatkan sumber daya alam secara efisien, dipandang perlu untuk menggunakan sumber energi secara bijaksana, berdaya guna dan berhasil guna agar tercapai keseimbangan antara pembangunan, pemerataan dan pelestarian lingkungan Hidup. 1.Energi adalah daya yang dapat digunakan untuk melakukan berbagai proses kegiatan, termasuk bahan bakar, listrik, energi mekanik dan panas; 2.Sumber energi adalah sebagian sumber daya alam antara lain berupa minyak dan gas bumi, batubara air, panas bumi, gambut, biomasa dan sebagainya, baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai energi; 3.Konservasi energi adalah kegiatan pemanfaatan energi secara evisien dan rasional tanpa mengurangi pengunaan energi yang memang benar-benar diperlukan untuk menunjang pembangunan; 4.Optimasi adalah upaya terpadu untuk mencapai hasil yang besar dan seekonomis mungkin dalam meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan energi; 5.Perancangan adalah upaya rancang bangun atau disain yang dilakukan sebelum membangun suatu sistem, sarana atau membuat peralatan; 6.Audit energi adalah kegiatan untuk mengidentifikasikan potensi penghematan energi dan menentukan jumlah energi dan biaya yang dapat dihemat dengan usaha konservasi energi dari suatu sistem, sarana maupun peralatan yang telah ada. 7.Intensitas energi adalah jumlah energi yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan satu satuan produksi atau jasa. Tujuan konservasi energi adalah untuk memelihara kelestarian suber daya alam yang berupa sumber energi melalui kebijakan pemilihan teknologi dan pemanfaatan energi secara efisien, rasional dan bijaksana untuk mewujudkan kemampuan penyediaan energi, penggunaan energi secara efisien dan merata serta kelestarian sumber-sumber energi.

73 KONSERVASI ENERGI SASARAN KONSERVASI ENERGI Untuk mencapai tujuan konservasi energi sebagaiomana dimaksud dalam pasal 2 dilakukan kegiatan: 1.Pemanfaatan sumber daya energi secara lebih bijaksana; 2.Peningkatan efisiensi energi nasional yang antara lain melalui penurunan intensitas energi di seluruh sektor; 3.Peningkatan nilai tambah secara nasional untuk setiap satuan energi yang digunakan. PEMANFAATAN SUMBER ENERGI (1) sumber energi wajib dimanfaatkan secara berdaya guna dan berhasil guna. (2) Pemanfaatan sumber energi sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) dilakukan dengan memperhatikan: a.Kelestarian lingkungan hidup; b.Perancangan yang berorientasi pada penggunaan energi secara hemat; c.Pemilihan sarana, peralatan dan bahan yang secara langsung maupun tidak langsung menghemat penggunaan energi; d.Optimasi pengoperasian sistem, sarana, peralatan dan proses yang bertujuan menghemat energi. Sumber: nergi.pdf ….. diunduh 2/5/2012

74 KONSERVASI ENERGI LANGKAH-LANGKAH KONSERVASI ENERGI Penyebarluasan pengertian dan arti pentingnya energi dilakukan melalui: 1.Kampanye dan penyebaran informasi dengan media cetak, media elektronik, diskusi, ceramah dan lomba hemat energi; 2.Pendidikan dan pelatihan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan teknis, memperluas wawasan teknologi dalam bidang konservasi energi dan melatih penerapannya secara langsung; 3.Peragaan dan percontohan untuk memperkenalkan teknologi konservasi kepada masyarakat pemakai energi melalui percontohan peralatan hemat energi, baik dari segi perancangan maupun cara pengoperasiannya; 4.Penelitian danpengembangan untuk meningkatkan dan mengembangkan pengetahuan teknologi dalam bidang konservasi energi; 5.Pengembangan sistem audit energi dan identifikasi potensi, perbaikan efisiensi sistem, perbaikan efisiensi proses, perbaikan efisiensi sarana dan perbaikan efisiensi peralatan; 6.Standarisasi yaitu melaksanakan upaya penghematan energi melalui penetapan standar unjuk kerja dan efisiensi peralatan. Sumber: nergi.pdf ….. diunduh 2/5/2012 Strategi Konservasi Energi di Jalan Raya 1.Efisiensi bahan bakar kendaraan bermotor roda empat melalui pemberlakuan kewajiban bagi industri otomotif untuk memproduksi mobil hemat energi. 2.Melakukan subsitusi terhadap mobil pribadi dengan strategi vanpools, carpools dan angkutan umum. 3.Road pricing dan menaikkan harga bahan bakar. 4.Menerapkan pola tata guna lahan yang meminimalkan total Perjalanan tanpa mengurangi kesejahteraan masyarakat. Solusi Penghematan Konsumsi Energi Transportasi Peningkatan Teknologi Kendaraan * Ride Sharing * Peningkatan Efisiensi Pergerakan Barang * Peningkatan Pelayanan Angkutan Umum * Konstruksi dan Pemeliharaan * Rationing. diunduh dari: energi-di-jalan-raya/

75 KONSERVASI ENERGI untuk kesejahteraan manusia Sumber: kesejahteraan-manusia/ ….. diunduh 2/5/2012 Perlu sebuah kebijakan untuk mengatasi kelangkaan energi yang semakin parah dan pertumbuhan energi yang sangat tinggi. Lantas bagaimana dalam jangka panjang, bangsa ini bisa memenuhi kebutuhan energinya yang setiap tahun terus meningkat. Penghematan memang mutlak harus dilakukan namun, pengembangan sumber sumber energi alternatif yang tentunya bersifat renewable dan ramah lingkungan juga mutlak dikerjakan. Ada banyak kebijakan yang biasa telah diambil oleh pemerintah dalam rangka memperpanjang penggunaan cadangan energi nasional. Kebijakan yang dapat diambil atau yang telah berjalan pada bidang energi adalah : 1.Intensifikasi Energi: adalah kegiatan pemanfaatan energi secara besar-besaran. 2.Diversifikasi Energi: adalah kegiatan penganekaragaman jenis jenis energi 3.Harga Energi: pengaturan harga energi agar jumlah energi yang dipakai terbatas 4.Konservasi energi: konservasi energi adalah kegiatan pemanfaatan energi secara efisien dan rasional tanpa mengurangi penggunaan energi yang memang benar benar diperlukan untuk menunjang pembangunan nasional. ALASAN PENERAPAN EFISIENSI ENERGI: - menurunkan biaya energi - menurunkan biaya produksi - menurunkan konsumsi energi - menurunkan emisi gas rumah kaca - menurunkan emisi gas lain (SOx, NOx) - meningkatkan kwalitas produk - memperbaiki fungsi lingkungan secara keseluruhan - meningkatkan reputasi/pengakuan - meningkatkan kesehatan & keselamatan kerja (K3) - meningkatkan kepatuhan thd peraturan/ISO mempersiapkan Protokol Kyoto/Cleean Dev.Mechanism (CDM)

76 Sumber: kesejahteraan-manusia/ ….. diunduh 2/5/2012 Konservasi (penghematan) energi adalah tindakan mengurangi jumlah penggunaan energi atau penggunaan energi yang optimal sesuai dengan kebutuhan sehingga akan menurunkan biaya energi yang dikeluarkan (hemat energi hemat biaya). Tujuan konservasi energi adalah untuk memelihara kelestarian sumber daya alam yang berupa sumber energi melalui kebijakan pemilihan teknologi dan pemanfaatan energi secara efisien, rasional, untuk mewujudkan kemampuan penyediaan energi. Penghematan energi dapat dicapai dengan penggunaan energi secara efisien dimana manfaat yang sama diperoleh dengan menggunakan energi lebih sedikit, ataupun dengan mengurangi konsumsi dan kegiatan yang menggunakan energi. Penghematan energi dapat menyebabkan berkurangnya biaya, serta meningkatnya nilai lingkungan, keamanan negara, keamanan pribadi, serta kenyamanan. Organisasi-organisasi serta perseorangan dapat menghemat biaya dengan melakukan penghematan energi, sedangkan pengguna komersial dan industri dapat meningkatkan efisiensi dan keuntungan dengan melakukan penghematan energi. KONSERVASI ENERGI untuk kesejahteraan manusia Penghematan energi adalah unsur yang penting dari sebuah kebijakan energi. Penghematan energi menurunkan konsumsi energi dan permintaan energi per kapita, sehingga dapat menutup meningkatnya kebutuhan energi akibat pertumbuhan populasi. Hal ini mengurangi naiknya biaya energi, dan dapat mengurangi kebutuhan pembangkit energi atau impor energi. Berkurangnya permintaan energi dapat memberikan fleksibilitas dalam memilih metode produksi energi. Selain itu, dengan mengurangi emisi, penghematan energi merupakan bagian penting dari mencegah atau mengurangi perubahan iklim. Penghematan energi juga memudahkan digantinya sumber-sumber tak dapat diperbaharui dengan sumber-sumber yang dapat diperbaharui. Penghematan energi sering merupakan cara paling ekonomis dalam menghadapi kekurangan energi, dan merupakan cara yang lebih ramah lingkungan dibandingkan dengan meningkatkan produksi energi. Teknologi Konservasi Energi dikembangkan melalui pemanfaatan energi secara efisien dan rasional, serta memanfaatkan sumber daya alam yang berupa sumber energi alternatif.

77 KONSERVASI ENERGI Sumber: kesejahteraan-manusia/ ….. diunduh 2/5/2012 Efisiensi energi dapat dilakukan melalui : 1. Peralatan energi Listrik : - Motor listrik - Fan dan blower - Pompa dan sistem pemompaan - Menara pendingin - AC dan alat pendingin - Kompressor dan sistem udara tekan 2. Peralatan energi thermal : - Bahan bakar dan pembakaran - Boiler dan pemanas fluida thermis - Distribusi steam,penggunaan dan isolasi - Pemanfaatan limbah panas - Kogenerasi -Alat penukar panas. PEM = PROGRAM ENERGI MANAJEMEN Solusi efisiensi energi yang sudah diakui secara internasional dan telah diterapkan secara luas di negara-negara maju, yaitu Program Energi Managemen (PEM). Ada dua target umum dari PEM. 1.Mengehemat penggunaan segala jenis energi dengan cara mengurangi/mengilangkan energi terbuang (wasted energy) dan menggunakan energi secara efisien. 2.Mengganti bahan-bakar yang biasa digunakan untuk pabrik mereka dengan yang lebih murah, misalnya mengganti BBM (yang mahal) dengan gas (yang murah). Diunduh dari:

78 KONSERVASI ENERGI Sumber: kesejahteraan-manusia/ ….. diunduh 2/5/2012. PEMANFAATAN ENERGI ALTERNATIF. ENERGI AIR. 1.Mikrohidro. Diaplikasikan dalam bentuk Pembangkit listrik tenaga mikrohidro, dgn syarat: a. Merupakan sumber daya yang dapat menunjang pembangunan pedesaan. b. Dapat ditanggulangi oleh usaha swadaya masyarakat. c. Usaha kelistrikan dari PLTMH secara ekonomi dapat dipertanggung jawabkan. 2. Pompa hidran. Pemanfaatan gravitasi dimana akan menciptakan energi dari hantaman air yang menabrak faksi air lainnya untuk mendorong ke tempat yang lebih tinggi ENERGI ANGIN 1.Turbin Angin. Merupakan kincir angin yang digunakan untuk membangkitkan tenaga listrik dengan menggunakan prinsip konversi energi kinetik menjadi listrik. Angin yang bergerak memiliki energi kinetik. Energi tersebut bisa diubah menjadi energi mekanik, misalnya untuk menjalankan pompa air, untuk selanjutnya diubah menjadi listrik. 2.Kincir angin. Kincir angin yang digunakan untuk membangkitkan tenaga listrik pada awalnya dibuat untuk mengakomodasi kebutuhan para petani dalam melakukan penggilingan padi, keperluan irigasi, dll. Kincir angin mengkonversikan tenaga putar baling-baling ke tenaga mekanik yang kemudian digunakan untuk mengungkit pompa air sederhana yang sudah lazim digunakan oleh para petani untuk melakukan penggilingan padi, keperluan irigasi, dll.

79 KONSERVASI ENERGI Sumber: kesejahteraan-manusia/ ….. diunduh 2/5/2012. PEMANFAATAN ENERGI ALTERNATIF. ENERGI SURYA. 1.Water heating. Pemanfaatan sinar matahari untuk penghangat air. 2.Photovoltaics. Sinar matahari diubah menjadi arus listrik searah (direct current). ENERGI GELOMBANG 1.LIMPET. Cara Kerja: tabung beton dipasang di ketinggian tertentu di pantai, ujungnya di bawah permukaan air laut. Ketika ombak datang kemudian air di dalam tabung mendorong udara di bagian tabung yang terletak di darat. Ketika Ombak surut maka terjadi gerakan udara yang sebaliknya dalam tabung. 2.Tapered Channel. Menampung hempasan air laut ke dalam suatu kolam reservoir sekitar 2 meter. Air dalam reservoir dialirkan ke sebuah dum untuk memutar turbin pembangkit listrik. Terdiri dari 3 bangunan utama : saluran masuk air, reservoir (penampungan) dan pembangkit. Paling penting : pemodifikasian bangunan saluran air berbentuk U yang bertujuan untuk menaikkan air laut ke reservoir. 3.Tide Energy. Pada prinsipnya peristiwa pasang surut dapat dikonversikan menjadi energi listrik atas dasar perbedaan tinggi permukaan air laut saat pasang dan surut.

80 KONSERVASI DAN EFISIENSI ENERGI Sumber: ………….. diunduh 2/5/2012 Apa yang dimaksud dengan Konservasi Energi dan Efisiensi Energi? Menurut Peraturan Pemerintah No. 70 Tahun 2009 tentang Konservasi Energi, definisi konservasi energi adalah upaya sistematis, terencana, dan terpadu guna melestarikan sumber daya energi dalam negeri serta meningkatkan efisiensi pemanfaatannya. Pelaksanaan konservasi energi mencakup seluruh aspek dalam pengelolaan energi yaitu: Penyediaan Energi Pengusahaan Energi Pemanfaatan Energi Konservasi Sumber Daya Energi Efisiensi merupakan salah satu langkah dalam pelaksanaan konservasi energi. Efisiensi energi adalah istilah umum yang mengacu pada penggunaan energi lebih sedikit untuk menghasilkan jumlah layanan atau output berguna yang sama. Di masyarakat umum kadang kala efisiensi energi diartikan juga sebagai penghematan energi. Strategi PEM yang direkomendaskan: (1)Menggunakan lebih banyak listrik saat biaya murah, dan menggunakan sedikit listrik saat biaya tinggi, (2)Menyesuaikan disain bangunan (meningkatkan penggunaan energi alam seperti cahaya matahari untuk penerangan, sehingga penggunaan lampu bisa dikurangi), (3)Menambahkan instalasi penyimpanan es (ice storage) untuk mengurangi penggunaan AC, (4)Menggati lampu dan motor-motor listrik dengan jenis yang lebih efisien, (5)Mengurangi kebocoran pada sistem compressor dan boiler, (6)Memanfaatkan panas yang terbuang (dari oven/furnace) untuk keperluan lain, (7)Memasang sistem kontrol energi, (8)Mengganti bahan bakar dengan yang lebih murah, (9)Memasang sistem energi terbarukan (surya, angin, dll) untuk mengurangi ketergantungan pada listrik PLN, (10)dan lain-lain. (diunduh dari: energi/)

81 MENGAPA KITA HARUS EFISIEN DALAM PENGGUNAAN ENERGI? Sumber: ………….. diunduh 2/5/ Cadangan Energi Fosil Terbatas Efisiensi energi membantu mengurangi penggunaan energi fosil seperti batu bara, minyak bumi dan gas bumi yang selama ini peranannya sangat dominan. Energi fosil, yang merupakan jenis energi tidak terbarukan, suatu saat akan habis jika terus dieksploitasi. Dengan menghemat penggunaan energi fosil, pemerintah dapat menyimpannya sebagai cadangan dalam rangka menjaga ketahanan energi nasional. 2. Mengurangi Kerusakan Lingkungan Hidup Efisiensi energi merupakan solusi untuk mengurangi emisi gas rumah kaca dan kerusakan lingkungan hidup. Saat ini, sebagian besar energi yang digunakan di Indonesia berasal dari pembakaran energi fosil yang menyebabkan polusi gas rumah kaca dan mengakibatkan pemanasan global, perubahan iklim dan kerusakan lingkungan hidup. 3. Mengurangi Subsidi Pemerintah untuk Energi Fosil Saat ini subsidi pemerintah untuk energi fosil mencapai Rp 98,96 triliun rupiah (Tahun 2009). Jika kita berhasil menggunakan energi secara efisien, maka subsidi pemerintah untuk energi fosil dapat dikurangi dan dialokasikan untuk upaya konservasi energi lainnya seperti investasi pengembangan sumber energi terbarukan dan pengembangan teknologi efisien energi. 4. Memberikan Keuntungan bagi Pengguna Energi Menggunakan energi secara efisien berdampak langsung pada pengurangan biaya yang dikeluarkan oleh pengguna energi. Industri barang dan jasa menjadi lebih produktif dan kompetitif jika biaya pemakaian energi dapat ditekan. Pada sektor rumah tangga, penghematan energi juga mengurangi biaya pemakaian listrik suatu rumah tangga. Dana tersebut dapat dialokasikan untuk hal-hal lain seperti biaya keperluan sehari-hari, uang bulanan sekolah serta biaya kesehatan.

82 EFISIENSI ENERGI DI INDUSTRI Sumber: ………….. diunduh 2/5/2012 Saat ini, sekitar 44% dari total energi di Indonesia digunakan oleh sektor industri, oleh karena itu efisiensi energi di sektor ini sangatlah penting dan berdampak besar. Walaupun efisiensi energi pada sektor industri terus mengalami perkembangan dan perbaikan dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, namun masih terdapat banyak potensi penghematan energi yang dapat digali. Industri menggunakan energi dalam jumlah besar baik untuk unit proses seperti pengolahan, manufaktur, pengemasan maupun untuk unit utilitas pendukungnya. Unit proses umumnya menggunakan banyak mesin dan membutuhkan panas dalam jumlah besar. Jenis energi yang digunakan pada umumnya adalah energi fosil seperti minyak bumi, gas dan batu bara. Karena jenis dan tipe industri sangat beragam, maka efisiensi energi sangat bergantung pada peralatan dan teknologi yang digunakan untuk proses produksi tersebut. Efisiensi pada sektor industri difokuskan pada dua langkah utama, yaitu: 1. Penggunaan Teknologi Proses yang Hemat Energi Salah satu contohnya adalah dengan menggunakan co-generation atau sistem combined heat and power (CHP). Sistem CHP merupakan suatu pendekatan dalam penerapan teknologi dimana energi listrik dan energi panas dihasilkan dalam satu sistem terintegrasi. Penelitian American Council for Energy Efficient Economy menemukan metode konvensional yang menghasilkan panas dan energi secara terpisah memiliki efisiensi terpadu sebesar 45%, sementara sistem CHP efisiensi energinya dapat mencapai 80%. Industri juga dapat meningkatkan efisiensi pada motor-motor yang digunakan.Peningkatan efisiensi motor dapat dilakukan melalui perbaikan desain dan sistem operasional motor. Teknik seperti penggunaan variable speed drive (tingkat kecepatan bervariasi) dapat mengatur tingkat kecepatan konversi motor sehingga sesuai dengan bebannya. Karena motor digunakan konstan tanpa henti, maka sedikit saja perbaikan dalam efisiensinya akan sangat berpengaruh dalam efisiensi energi dan dapat membawa banyak keuntungan bagi industri melalui penghematan biaya. Efisiensi peralatan industri juga dapat ditingkatkan melalui proses kontrol yang baik. Peralatan yang rusak, haus atau bocor selain tidak aman bagi karyawan industri juga sangat boros energi. Alat-alat seperti pompa dan kompresor akan lebih efisien jika pemeliharaan dilakukan secara teratur. 2. Manajemen Energi Industri dapat menerapkan manajemen energi untuk mengatur dan mengawasi jumlah energi yang dikonsumsi. Adapun langkah yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan melaksanakan audit energi secara berkala dan melaksanakan rekomendasi hasil audit energi. Audit energi dilaksanakan untuk mengidentifikasi peluang penghematan energi serta memberikan rekomendasi bagaimana mengelola penggunaan energi agar lebih efisien.

83 EFISIENSI ENERGI DI GEDUNG Sumber: ………….. diunduh 2/5/2012 Walaupun permintaan energi di sektor komersial hanyalah 4% dari total permintaan energi nasional, efisiensi energi pada sektor ini tetap menjadi prioritas. Tipe-tipe gedung komersial yang menggunakan banyak energi meliputi perkantoran, pusat perbelanjaan, hotel dan rumah sakit. Umumnya energi yang digunakan oleh gedung komersial adalah untuk pengaturan suhu dan pencahayaan. Potensi penghematan yang dapat dicapai tentunya bergantung pada besarnya investasi perubahan yang dilakukan pada gedung. Langkah-langkah peningkatan efisiensi energi pada sektor bangunan gedung dapat dibedakan dalam dua kategori, yaitu: 1. Gedung yang Sudah Ada (Existing Buildings) Bagi gedung yang sudah ada, peningkatan efisiensi energi tercapai melalui peningkatan performa gedung. Untuk mengetahui langkah-langkahnya, perlu dilakukan audit energi yang meliputi identifikasi dan analisis secara keseluruhan masalah-masalah efisiensi energi pada gedung seperti sistem operasional HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning), tingkat kenyamanan dan pemeliharaan gedung. Langkah-langkah yang biasanya diterapkan adalah retrofitting pada bangunan gedung, upgrade teknologi peralatan dan pembiasaan perilaku hemat energi bagi para penghuni gedung. 2. Gedung Baru (New Buildings) Gedung baru memiliki lebih banyak kesempatan untuk menghemat energi dibandingkan gedung yang sudah terbangun jika efisiensi energi telah dipertimbangkan sejak awal merancang gedung. Standar-standar Nasional Indonesia yang berhubungan dengan konservasi energi pada bangunan gedung (sistem pencahayaan, sistem tata udara dan selubung gedung) harus diterapkan pada saat merancang bangunan. Gedung dengan selubung (dinding luar, jendela, atap dan lantai) yang lebih rapat tentunya akan lebih hemat energi. Sama halnya dengan insulasi gedung yang dapat mengurangi konduksi panas melalui dinding-dinding luar. Memperbaiki efisiensi selubung gedung adalah proses yang rendah biaya namun menjanjikan keuntungan yang tinggi melalui penghematan energi.

84 EFISIENSI ENERGI DI RUMAH TANGGA Sumber: ………….. diunduh 2/5/2012 Sektor rumah tangga mengkonsumsi kira-kira 11% dari total energi di Indonesia. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, upaya efisiensi energi di sektor ini sangatlah penting, bukan hanya untuk menghemat biaya pemakaian energi di rumah tangga tersebut, namun juga untuk mengerem pemakaian energi secara keseluruhan. Sebagai langkah awal upaya efisiensi energi di rumah tangga, penghuni rumah harus mengetahui jenis peralatan yang paling banyak mengkonsumsi energi. Di Indonesia, alat-alat seperti pendingin ruangan, pemanas dan pompa air serta peralatan elektronik merupakan sumber utama konsumsi listrik di sektor rumah tangga. Untuk membantu menghitung perkiraan jumlah pemakaian dan biaya listrik per bulan di suatu rumah, silahkan gunakan Kalkulator Energi EECCHI. Penghematan energi atau konservasi energi adalah tindakan mengurangi jumlah penggunaan energi. Penghematan energi dapat dicapai dengan penggunaan energi secara efisien dimana manfaat yang sama diperoleh dengan menggunakan energi lebih sedikit, ataupun dengan mengurangi konsumsi dan kegiatan yang menggunakan energi. Penghematan energi dapat menyebabkan berkurangnya biaya, serta meningkatnya nilai lingkungan, keamanan negara, keamanan pribadi, serta kenyamanan. Organisasi-organisasi serta perseorangan dapat menghemat biaya dengan melakukan penghematan energi, sedangkan pengguna komersial dan industri dapat meningkatkan efisiensi dan keuntungan dengan melakukan penghemaan energi. Diunduh dari:

85 EFISIENSI ENERGI DI RUMAH TANGGA Sumber: ………….. diunduh 2/5/2012 Bagaimana Cara Hemat Energi di Rumah? Pertama, dari sisi perencanaan kebutuhan listrik dan pemilihan peralatan pemanfaat listrik, dilakukan melalui : 1.Menyambung daya listrik dari PLN sesuai dengan kebutuhan. Rumah tangga kecil misalnya, cukup dengan daya 450 VA atau 900 VA, rumah tangga sedang cukup dengan daya 900 VA hingga 1300 VA. 2.Memilih peralatan pemanfaat listrik yang tepat dan sesuai dengan kebutuhan, termasuk memilih peralatan yang memenuhi standar efisiensi energi. Ke dua, dari sisi perilaku anggota rumah tangga yang hemat energi, dapat dilakukan antara lain dengan: Menyalakan peralatan pemanfaat listrik hanya pada saat diperlukan. Memelihara peralatan pemanfaat listrik secara teratur. Ke tiga, dari sisi desain bangunan rumah. Lokasi dan bentuk desain rumah memainkan peran penting dalam efisiensi energi khususnya dalam hal pengaturan suhu dan pencahayaan. Misalnya, bukaan-bukaan dalam sebuah bangunan rumah seperti pintu dan jendela sebaiknya dibangun menghadap Utara atau Selatan agar tidak secara langsung tersinar matahari. Hal ini akan mengurangi panas yang masuk ke dalam rumah khususnya pada siang hari. Dengan memasang lebih banyak jendela, maka cahaya alami dapat dimanfaatkan semaksimal mungkin sehingga menghemat penggunaan lampu. Memastikan tidak ada celah atau ruang hampa di antara dinding, seal jendela atau pintu juga membantu menjaga agar udara panas tidah mudah masuk ke dalam rumah sehingga beban AC tidak terlalu berat. Sirkulasi udara yang baik di dalam rumah melalui langit-langit yang lebih tinggi atau sistem ventilasi yang efektif juga akan mengurangi beban AC.

86 Sumber: ………….. diunduh 2/5/2012. Indikator Energi Indikator energi dapat dilihat dari elastisitas energi dan intensitas energi. Elastisitas energi adalah perbandingan antara laju pertumbuhan konsumsi energi dengan laju pertumbuhan ekonomi. Semakin kecil angka elastisitas, maka semakin efisien penggunaan energi di suatu negara. Elastisitas energi Indonesia pada tahun 2009 masih cukup tinggi yaitu 2,69. Sebagai perbandingan, menurut penelitian International Energy Agency pada tahun 2009, angka elastisitas Thailand adalah 1,4, Singapura 1,1 dan negara- negara maju berkisar dari 0,1 – 0,6. Intensitas energi adalah perbandingan antara jumlah konsumsi energi per Produksi Domestik Bruto (PDB). Semakin rendah angka intensitas, maka semakin efisien penggunaan energi di sebuah negara. Intensitas energi primer Indonesia pada tahun 2009 adalah sebesar 565 TOE (ton-oil-equivalent) per 1 juta USD. Artinya, untuk meningkatkan PDB sebesar 1 juta USD, Indonesia memerlukan energi sebanyak 565 TOE. Sebagai perbandingan, intensitas energi Malaysia adalah 439 TOE/juta USD dan rata-rata intensitas energi negara maju dalam OECD (Organisasi Kerja Sama Ekonomi dan Pembangunan) hanyalah 164 TOE/juta USD. Angka elastisitas dan intensitas energi di atas,menunjukkan bahwa pemakaian energi di Indonesia masih belum efisien. Berikut contoh perbandingan intensitas energi di Indonesia dan negara lain dalam sub- sektor bangunan gedung.

87 INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 This article is about the economic model. For the computer interface, see Input/output. In economics, an input-output model is a quantitative economic technique that represents the interdependencies between different branches of the national economy or between branches of different, even competing economies. Wassily Leontief ( ) developed this type of analysis and took the Nobel Prize in Economics for his development of this model.economics Earlier Francois Quesnay developed a cruder version of this technique called Tableau économique. And, in essence, Léon Walras's work Elements of Pure Economics on general equilibrium theory is both a forerunner and generalization of Leontief's seminal concept. Leontief's main contribution was that he was able to simplify Walras's piece so that it could be implemented empirically. The International Input-Output Association is dedicated to advancing knowledge in the field of input-output study, which includes "improvements in basic data, theoretical insights and modelling, and applications, both traditional and novel, of input-output techniques." Understanding the input-output model An understanding of the economy as consisting of linked sectors goes back to the French economist François Quesnay, but was developed in full generality by Léon Walras in Leontif's contribution was to state the model in such a way as to make computation feasible. He used a matrix representation of a nation's (or a region's) economy. His model depicts inter-industry relations of an economy. It shows how the output of one industry is an input to each other industry. Leontief put forward the display of this information in the form of a matrix. A given input is typically enumerated in the column of an industry and its outputs are enumerated in its corresponding row. This format, therefore, shows how dependent each industry is on all others in the economy both as customer of their outputs and as supplier of their inputs. Each column of the input-output matrix reports the monetary value of an industry's inputs and each row represents the value of an industry's outputs.

88 KEGUNAAN METODE I/O Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Because the input-output model is fundamentally linear in nature, it lends itself well to rapid computation as well as flexibility in computing the effects of changes in demand. The structure of the input-output model has been incorporated into national accounting in many developed countries, and as such forms an important part of measures such as GDP. In addition to studying the structure of national economies, input-output economics has been used to study regional economies within a nation, and as a tool for national and regional economic planning. Indeed a main use of input-output analysis is for measuring the economic impacts of events as well as public investments or programs as shown by IMPLAN and RIMS-II. But it is also used to identify economically related industry clusters and also so-called "key" or "target" industries--industries that are most likely to enhance the internal coherence of a specified economy. By linking industrial output to satellite accounts articulating energy use, effluent production, space needs, and so on, input-output analysts have extended the approaches application to a wide variety of uses. Kerangka Umum Tabel Input-Output Kerangka umum Tabel I-O terdiri atas 4 kuadran yaitu: 1.Kuadran I : Menunjukkan arus barang dan jasa yang dihasilkan dan digunakan oleh sektor-sektor ekonomi dalam proses produksi. Transaksi yang terjadi pada kuadran I lebih dikenal sebagai transaksi antara (intermediate transaction) 2.Kuadran II: Menunjukkan permintaan akhir (final demand) dan impor, serta menggambarkan penyediaan barang dan jasa. permintanaan akhir terdiri atas konsumsi rumahtangga, konsumsi pemerintah, pembentukan modal tetap bruto, perubahan stok, dan ekspor. 3.Kuadran III: menunjukan input primer sektor-sektor produksi berupa upah/gaji, surplus usaha, penyusutan, dan pajak tidak langsung neto. 4.Kuadran IV: memperlihatkan input primer yang langsung didistribusikan ke sektor-sektor permintaan akhir. Informasi ini digunakan dalam sistem neraca Sosial Ekonomi (SNSE). Dalam penyusunan Tabel I-O kuadran ini tidak disajikan.

89 DASAR-DASAR DERIVASINYA Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Say that we have an economy with sectors. Each sector produces a single homogeneous good,. Assume that the th sector, in order to produce 1 unit, must use units from sector. Furthermore, assume that each sector sells some of its output to other sectors (intermediate output) and some of its output to consumers (final output, or final demand). Call final demand in the th sector. Then we might write: or total output equals intermediate output plus final output. If we let be the matrix of coefficients, be the vector of total output, and be the vector of final demand, then our expression for the economy becomes: which after re-writing becomes If the matrix I-A is invertible then this is a linear system of equations with a unique solution, and so given some final demand vector the required output can be found. Furthermore, if the principle minors of the matrix I-A are all positive (known as the Hawkins-Simon Condition), the required output vector x is non-negative..

90 CONTOH ANALISIS MATRIKS KEBALIKAN Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Consider an economy with two goods, A and B. The matrix of coefficients and the final demand is given by Intuitively, this corresponds to finding the amount of output each sector should produce given that we want 7 units of good A and 4 units of good B. Then solving the system of linear equations derived above gives us For practical purposes it is generally a poor idea to actually compute the inverse matrix, given that some input-output tables are in excess of hundreds of sectors. ILUSTRASI TABEL INPUT-OUTPUT ( 3 X 3 ) SEKTOR

91 ECOLABEL Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012. Ecolabels and green stickers are labelling systems for food and consumer products. Ecolabels are often voluntary, but green stickers are mandated by law in North America for major appliances and automobiles. They are a form of sustainability measurement directed at consumers, intended to make it easy to take environmental concerns into account when shopping. Some labels quantify pollution or energy consumption by way of index scores or units of measurement; others simply assert compliance with a set of practices or minimum requirements for sustainability or reduction of harm to the environment. Usually both the precautionary principle and the substitution principle are used when defining the rules for what products can be ecolabelled. Ecolabelling systems exist for both food and consumer products. Both systems were started by NGOs but nowadays the European Union have legislation for the rules of ecolabelling and also have their own ecolabels, one for food and one for consumer products. At least for food, the ecolabel is nearly identical with the common NGO definition of the rules for ecolabelling. Trust in the label is an issue for consumers, as manufacturers or manufacturing associations could set up "rubber stamp" labels to greenwash their products. Many people believe that most food ecolabels are the same as organic labelling. This is not inaccurate, a great many certification standards with ecolabels exist, such as Rainforest Alliance, Utz coffee, cocoa and tea, GreenPalm, Marine Stewardship Council, and many more; these are aimed at sustainable food production and good social and environmental performance. These are mainstream standards aimed at improving whole sectors of the food industry, in addition there are many more of these which are business-to-business standards that do not carry consumer-facing ecolabels.

92 ECOLABEL Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012. The last few years have seen a few key trends in the ecolabels space. One is the explosion in the numbers of different ecolabeling programs across the world and across business sectors, with many schemes broadening their issues to cover social, ethical and safety issues as well as just environmental. This has led to some confusion and perhaps fatigue amongst consumers and brand awareness of most labels (such as the EU Ecolabels) remains low. A second key trend is the rise in uptake of voluntary ecolabels and sustainability standards by the business-to-business sector. In this space, global firms are demanding that the standards be (a) global in nature and (b) well documented, transparent and trustworthy. This has led to the growth of a few "super standards" which have become major global brands and are likely to edge out some of the smaller standards and labels in place. Key examples are the Fairtrade label, the Forest Stewardship Council for the forestry sector and the Marine Stewardship Council for fish products. All have become well known consumer brands as well as key supplier filters for global buyers. This has led to the emergence of "standards for standards" whereby the organizations setting voluntary ecolabels adhere to guidelines laid down by wider stakeholder bodies such as the ISEAL Alliance

93 ANALISIS STAKEHOLDER Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Stakeholder analysis in conflict resolution, project management, and business administration, is the process of identifying the individuals or groups that are likely to affect or be affected by a proposed action, and sorting them according to their impact on the action and the impact the action will have on them. This information is used to assess how the interests of those stakeholders should be addressed in a project plan, policy, program, or other action. Stakeholder analysis is a key part of stakeholder management. Overview Stakeholder analysis is a term that refers to the action of analyzing the attitudes of stakeholders towards something (most frequently a project). It is frequently used during the preparation phase of a project to assess the attitudes of the stakeholders regarding the potential changes. Stakeholder analysis can be done once or on a regular basis to track changes in stakeholder attitudes over time. A stakeholder is any person or organization, who can be positively or negatively impacted by, or cause an impact on the actions of a company, government, or organization. Types of stakeholders are: Primary stakeholders : are those ultimately affected, either positively or negatively by an organization's actions. Secondary stakeholders : are the ‘intermediaries’, that is, persons or organizations who are indirectly affected by an organization's actions. Key stakeholders : (who can also belong to the first two groups) have significant influence upon or importance within an organization. Therefore, stakeholder analysis has the goal of developing cooperation between the stakeholder and the project team and, ultimately, assuring successful outcomes for the project. Stakeholder analysis is performed when there is a need to clarify the consequences of envisaged changes, or at the start of new projects and in connection with organizational changes generally. It is important to identify all stakeholders for the purpose of identifying their success criteria and turning these into quality goals.

94 ANALISIS STAKEHOLDER Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Stakeholder analysis in conflict resolution, project management, and business administration, is the process of identifying the individuals or groups that are likely to affect or be affected by a proposed action, and sorting them according to their impact on the action and the impact the action will have on them. This information is used to assess how the interests of those stakeholders should be addressed in a project plan, policy, program, or other action. Stakeholder analysis is a key part of stakeholder management. METHODS OF STAKEHOLDER MAPPING The following list identifies some of the best known and most commonly used methods for stakeholder mapping: 1.(Mitchell, Agle et al. 1997) proposed a classification of stakeholders based on power to influence, the legitimacy of each stakeholder’s relationship with the organization, and the urgency of the stakeholder’s claim on the organization. The results of this classification may assess the fundamental question of "which groups are stakeholders deserving or requiring manager’s attention, and which are not?" This is salience - "the degree to which managers give priority to competing stakeholder claims" (Mitchell, Agle et al., 1997:854) 2.(Fletcher, Guthrie et al. 2003) defined a process for mapping stakeholder expectations based on value hierarchies and Key Performance Areas (KPA), 3.(Cameron, Crawley et al. 2010) defined a process for ranking stakeholders based on needs and the relative importance of stakeholders to others in the network. 4.(Savage, Nix et al. 1991) offer a way to classify stakeholders according to potential for threat and potential for cooperation. 5.(Turner, Kristoffer and Thurloway, 2002) have developed a process of identification, assessment of awareness, support, influence leading to strategies for communication and assessing stakeholder satisfaction, and who is aware or ignorant and whether their attitude is supportive or opposing.

95 ANALISIS STAKEHOLDER Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 Stakeholder analysis in conflict resolution, project management, and business administration, is the process of identifying the individuals or groups that are likely to affect or be affected by a proposed action, and sorting them according to their impact on the action and the impact the action will have on them. This information is used to assess how the interests of those stakeholders should be addressed in a project plan, policy, program, or other action. Stakeholder analysis is a key part of stakeholder management. METHODS OF STAKEHOLDER MAPPING Mapping techniques include the following sub-set of results from a Web search of analysis techniques being used by aid agencies, governments or consultant groups: 1.Influence-interest grid (Imperial College London) 2.Power-impact grid (Office of Government Commerce UK 2003) 3.Mendelow's Power-interest grid (Aubrey L. Mendelow, Kent State University, Ohio 1991) 4.Three-dimensional grouping of power, interest and attitude (Murray-Webster and Simon 2005) 5.The Stakeholder Circle (Bourne 2007) The first step in building any stakeholder map is to develop a categorised list of the members of the stakeholder community. Once the list is reasonably complete it is then possible to assign priorities in some way, and then to translate the ‘highest priority’ stakeholders into a table or a picture. The potential list of stakeholders for any project will always exceed both the time available for analysis and the capability of the mapping tool to sensibly display the results, the challenge is to focus on the ‘right stakeholders’ who are currently important and to use the tool to visualise this critical sub-set of the total community. The most common presentation styles use a matrix to represent two dimensions of interest with frequently a third dimension shown by the colour or size of the symbol representing the individual stakeholders. Some of the commonly used ‘dimensions’ include: 1.Power (high, medium, low) 2.Support (positive, neutral, negative) 3.Influence (high or low) 4.Need (strong, medium, weak)

96 1.Fletcher, A., et al. (2003). "Mapping stakeholder perceptions for a third sector organization." in: Journal of Intellectual Capital 4(4): 505 – Mitchell, R. K., B. R. Agle, and D.J. Wood. (1997). "Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What really Counts." in: Academy of Management Review 22(4): Savage, G. T., T. W. Nix, Whitehead and Blair. (1991). "Strategies for assessing and managing organizational stakeholders." In: Academy of Management Executive 5(2): 61 – Cameron, B.G., T. Seher, E.F. Crawley (2010). "Goals for space exploration based on stakeholder network value considerations." in: Acta Astronautica doi: /j.actaastro doi /j.actaastro Turner, J. R., V. Kristoffer, et al., Eds. (2002). The Project Manager as Change Agent. London, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 6.Weaver, P. (2007). A Simple View of Complexity in Project Management. Proceedings of the 4th World Project Management Week. Singapore. 7.Hemmati, M., Dodds F., Enayti, J.,McHarry J. (2002) "Multistakeholder Procesess on Governance and Sustainability. London Earthscan 8.Mendelow, A. (1991) ‘Stakeholder Mapping’, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Information Systems, Cambridge, MA (Cited in Scholes,1998). Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 OTHER FORMS OF STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS A more recent form of Stakeholder Analysis can be seen in Triple Task Method. An approach which seeks to blend three disciplines: psychoanalytic theory, systems analysis and action research. Benefits Stakeholder analysis helps with the identification of the following [1] : [1] Stakeholders' interests Mechanisms to influence other stakeholders Potential risks Key people to be informed about the project during the execution phase Negative stakeholders as well as their adverse effects on the project

97 STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012 This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2009) The importance of stakeholder management is to support an organization in achieving its strategic objectives by interpreting and influencing both the external and internal environments and by creating positive relationships with stakeholders through the appropriate management of their expectations and agreed objectives. Stakeholder Management is a process and control that must be planned and guided by underlying Principles. Stakeholder management, within business or projects, prepares a strategy utilising information (or intelligence) gathered during the following common processes: Stakeholder identification - Interested parties either internal or external to organisation/project. A stakeholder map is helpful for identifying the stakeholders. Stakeholder analysis - Recognise and acknowledge stakeholder's needs, concerns, wants, authority, common relationships, interfaces and align this information within the Stakeholder Matrix. Stakeholder matrix - Positioning stakeholders according to the level of influence, impact or enhancement they may provide to the business or its projects. Stakeholder engagement - Different to Stakeholder Management in that the engagement does not seek to develop the project/business requirements, solution or problem creation, or establishing roles and responsibilities. It is primarily focused at getting to know and understand each other, at the Executive level. Engagement is the opportunity to discuss and agree expectations of communication and, primarily, agree a set of Values and Principles that all stakeholders will abide by. Communicating information - Expectations are established and agreed for the manner in which communications are managed between stakeholders - who receives communications, when, how and to what level of detail. Protocols may be established including security and confidentiality classifications.) Stakeholder agreements is a collection of agreed decisions between stakeholders. This may be the lexicon of an organisation or project, or the Values of an initiative, the objectives, or the model of the organisation, etc. These should be signed by key stakeholder representatives. Contemporary or modern business and project practice favours transparent, honest and open stakeholder management processes Stakeholder Management Overview. Rob Llewellyn, May 2009

98 INTEGRATED CHAIN MANAGEMENT Sumber: diunduh 27/4/2012. Integrated Chain Management (ICM), also known as Integral Chain Management, is an approach for the reduction of environmental impact of product chains. Such a product chain exists out of an extraction phase, a production phase, a use phase and a waste phase. The ultimate goal of ICM is a reduction of environmental load over the whole chain. Integrated Chain Management is one of the approaches that can be used to come to sustainable development. Other approaches in this line are the Ecological Footprint and the DTO approach. Within the ICM approach all phases within the chain must be considered. Therefore it can be seen as a "cradle to grave" approach. Several inputs and outputs can be taken into account when applying the ICM approach. Such as: Energy flows, mass flows, materials, waste flows and emissions. Within ICM material cycles should be closed where possible and the remainder flows of emissions and waste should be brought within acceptable boundaries. Also the use of resources should be kept to a minimum. Integrated chain management should not be mixed up with Supply Chain Management or Integrated Supply Chain Management. These concepts do not have the reduction of environmental load as their main goal. An important aspect of ICM is that shifting to other phases in the product chain is avoided. For instance, a producer of chairs can choose to leave away an environment unfriendly material in a new product. The producer can even see this as an extra selling point for the customer. But as a consequence the supplier of raw materials has to use much more energy to produce a material with the same qualities. Within the integrated chain management approach this is not possible. The chain can be managed by developing new policies and economical or political incentives. Therefore one must have insight into the inputs and outputs of the production chain. Before these policies can be developed one must engage in several actions. Analyse the processes into a preferred level of detail Determine the boundaries of the chain. Should links outside the companies be involved as well? Determine whether there should be a focus on just one or on several environmental problems Determine on which material flows or energy flows there should be a focus. Effective supply chain management can impact virtually all business and production processes CONTOH An example of applying the ICM approach would be to develop policies in a particular product area. The responsibility of problems caused by the waste stage can be assigned to the producers of these products. This leads to improved product design and new insight in how to put these products in the market. For instance the product can be sold with a disposal contribution. On the price tag of a radio nowadays can be printed: "this radio costs 25 $ not including the 3 $ disposal contribution" The effects can be seen within the whole chain. The producer will try to choose for not to polluting materials, as they increase the costs of the waste-stage. The producer of raw materials will try to improve its production process in order to meet the increased demand for 'clean' primary products. And the consumer will be aware that some products give more pressure on the environment than others when its economical lifespan has run out.

99 In its most common usage, the term Industrial Ecology refers to idea that nature (specifically, nature at its higher levels of organization such as communities and ecosystems) can serve as a useful metaphor for industrial systems. Drawing on biological analogies may help industry become more efficient and more sustainable. A commonly cited example is the flow of nutrients (materials) in natural ecosystems, where waste from one organism becomes the food for others, creating a web of interrelated processes that effectively recycle nutrients on a continuous basis. Industrial ecologists view this as a potential model for industrial systems where one process' waste becomes the feedstock for the next. Applied more broadly, the term encompasses the analysis of industrial systems, using tools analogous to those used in the analysis of ecosystems, to gain insight into the role that technologies, companies or industry sectors play within so-called "industrial ecosystems.“ Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 AN INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY: Material flows and engineering design David T. Allen Department of Chemical Engineering University of Texas Austin, Texas The materials used in industrialized economies average tons per person, per year. Whether we express this personal consumption as a ton per week, or a body weight per day, it amounts to staggering quantities of materials, most of which are used once, then discarded. An alternative to designing industrial systems that use materials once is to design industrial ecosystems that mimic the mass conservation properties of natural ecosystems. In industrial ecosystems, the wastes and by-products from one industrial process would be used as the raw materials for another. Are such systems realistic? Do they exist now? How could they be designed? This chapter will address these questions, which will be among the engineering challenges for the next century.

100 ALIRAN MATERIAL Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 Extraction and use of materials at regional, national and global scales have been tracked for more than a century. In the United States, systematic efforts to track mineral and commodity flows began in the 19 th century, and have been gradually expanded to include additional material flows, such as environmental emissions. These mineral and commodity material flow data have been used to answer questions such as (national Research Council, 2003): 1.“Where were the metals and construction materials needed to supply the growth of manufacturing, cities, housing and highways? 2.Where were the energy resources to keep transportation moving, keep the machinery turning, and keep us warm in winter and cool in summer? 3.Where were the alternate sources of supply or substitutes for strategic materials?” Impact of coal mining on Ha Long Bay

101 Conceptual framework for analyzing material flows (National Research Council, 2003) Sumber: pdf …… diunduh 29/4/2012 material flow analyses are performed on defined systems. The system boundary might be the geopolitical boundaries of a nation, the natural boundaries of a river’s drainage basin, or the technological boundaries of a cluster of industries. The headings for the system inputs and outputs used suggest that the system is a nation, but these inputs and outputs (domestic extraction, imports and exports) could be labeled feedstocks and products, and the system would then appear to be a cluster of industries.

102 MATERIAL FLOW ACCOUNTING Material flow accounting (MFA) is the study of material flows on a national or regional scale. It is therefore sometimes also referred to as regional, national or economy-wide material flow analysis. Sumber: ….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Definition The goal of material flow accounting is to ensure national planning, especially for scarce resources, and to allow forecasting. It also allows to assess environmental burdens through economic activities of a nation or to determine how material intensive an economy is. The principle concept underlying MFA is a simple model of this interrelation between the economy and the environment, in which the economy is an embedded subsystem of the environment. Similar to living beings, this subsystem is dependent on a constant throughput of materials and energy. Raw materials, water and air are extracted from the natural system as inputs, transformed into products and finally re-transferred to the natural system as outputs (waste and emissions). In order to highlight the similarity to natural metabolic processes, the terms “industrial” or “societal” metabolism have been introduced. In MFA studies for a region or on a national level the flows of materials between the natural environment and the economy are analyzed and quantified on a physical level. The focus may be on individual substances (e.g. Cadmium flows), specific materials, or bulk material flows (e.g. steel and steel scrap flows within an economy). Research on MFA is strong in Germany, Austria and the United States. Statistics related to material flow accounting are usually compiled by national statistical offices, using economic, agricultural and trade statistics measuring the exchange of material between different products available in an economy.

103 INDIKATOR MFA Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 Statistics related to material flows are usually combined in different indicators. Some of these indicators are listed below. More information on how the statistics are collected, under what legal framework and how they are defined is available on Economy-wide material flow accounts. The following indicators are commonly used in material flow accounting to measure the resource efficiency of a country or region: Total Material Requirement (TMR) includes the domestic extraction of reources (minerals, fossil fuels, biomass), the indirect flows caused by and associated with the domestic extraction (called "Hidden Flows") and the imports. Domestic Material Input (DMI) summarizes the domestic extraction of reources and the imports, but excludes the indirect flows associated with the domestic extraction, since they are sometimes difficult to quantify. Direct Material Consumption (DMC): this indicator accounts all materials that are consumed within or remain in the domestic environment. The quantity is the domestic material input minus the exports out of the economy. Domestic Processed Output (DPO) is defined by the OECD as "the total mass of materials which have been used in the national economy, before flowing into the environment. These flows occur at the processing, manufacturing, use, and final disposal stages of the economic production-consumption chain.““ Total Domestic Output (TDO) includes the domestic processed output (DPO) plus the hidden flows associated with the domestic production. Net Addition to Stocks (NAS), the materials that are neither released to the domestic environment nor exported, but contribute to a physical increase of the economic processing system itself, e.g. infrastructure, buildings, machinery or other durable goods. Hidden Flows are materials that are extracted or moved, but do not enter the economy. According to OECD, the "displacement of environmental assets without absorption into the economic sphere", such as overburden from mining operations.

104 LINGKUP ANALISIS The underlying definition of economy-wide material flow accounts includes statistics on the overall material inputs into national economies, the changes of material stock within the economic system and the material outputs to other economies or to the environment. Statistics on EW-MFA cover all solid, gaseous, and liquid materials, except for water and air. However, water in products is included. EW-MFA includes statistics on material flows crossing the national (geographical) border, i.e. imports and exports. EW-MFA strives to produce a mass balance of material flows. It systematically categorises material input and output flows crossing the functional border between economy (technosphere, anthroposphere) and environment. Mass balances are defined as "...on the first law of thermodynamics (called the law of conservation of matter), which states that matter (mass, energy) is neither created nor destroyed by any physical process" Sumber: ……. ….. diunduh 29/4/2012 ECONOMY-WIDE MATERIAL FLOW ACCOUNTS Economy-wide material flow accounts (EW-MFA) is a framework to compile statistics linking flows of materials from natural resources to a national economy. EW-MFA are descriptive statistics, in physical units such as tonnes per year. EW-MFA is consistent with the principles and system boundaries of the System of National Accounts (SNA) and follows the residence principle. This means that EW-MFA is also a part of the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA).

105 INTERPRETASI SECARA STATISTIK Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 In principle, the statistics will show which countries are dependent on others for natural resources and which are major exporters of natural resources. The statistics also show if a countries production is sustainable, i.e. whether the economy of a country can produce more products using fewer natural resources. In the European Union between 2000 and 2007, resource productivity increased by almost eight percent. Resource productivity of the EU is expressed by the amount of gross domestic product (GDP) generated per unit of material consumed (Domestic Material Consumption, see below), in other words GDP / DMC in euro per kg. This means that less material was consumed in order to produce the same amount of products in the EU. However, breaking down the components of the index it is seen that both GDP and DMC are increasing, only not equally fast. Dewan Produktivitas Nasional mendefinisikan produktivitas dalam beberapa segi,yaitu : a.Secara fisiologi / psikologis. Produktivitas merupakan sikap mental yang selalu mempunyai pandangan bahwa kehidupan hari ini harus lebih baik dari kemarin dan hari esok haruslebih baik dari hari ini. b. Secara ekonomis. Produktivitas merupakan usaha memperoleh hasil (output) sebesar-besarnya dengan pengorbanan sumber daya (input) yang sekecil-kecilnya. c.Secara teknis. Produktivitas diformulasikan sebagai rasio output terhadap input Diunduh dari:

106 IMPLEMENTING EW-MFA Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 There is a link between the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) and EW-MFA. Statistics are based on the same principles (the residence principle of the SNA) and thus become the EW-MFA a sub-component of the SEEA. The EW-MFA links the environment to the economy through the flows of materials extracted, processed and traded. Compiling the statistics The only international data collection on EW-MFA is conducted through Eurostat. In 2011 the European Council and European Parliament passed a statistical regulation for the compilation of annual statistics on material flows. Most European statistical offices compile the statistics on EW-MFA through the use of existing statistics. Trade statistics, some agricultural statistics and other sources are used in combination to create EW-MFA statistics. Compiling the indicators The statistics on EW-MFA are usually combined in order to create indicators. The definitions explained below are extracted from the work of Eurostat and are applied by the national statistical officies who are following the framework of EW-MFA. Input side: DE, DMC, and DMI Output side: DPO Direct Material Consumption (DMC) is defined as the total amount of material directly used in an economy, i.e. it equals domestic extraction plus imports minus exports. DMC does not include upstream hidden flows related to imports and exports of raw materials and products.

107 IMPLEMENTING EW-MFA Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 Domestic Material Input (DMI) summarizes domestic extraction of reources and the imports, i.e. all materials which are of economic value and are used in production and consumption activities, except balancing items. It should be noted that DMI is not additive across countries. Due to the inlclusion of trade within the EU double counting would occur if one would add several countries together. Physical trade balance (PTB) equals physical imports minus physical exports. This means that in relation to monetary trade balances which is exports minus imports) the flows are the reverse. It measures the fact that in economies money and goods move in opposite direction. A physical trade surplus indicates a net import of materials, whereas a physical trade deficit indicates a net export. Net Additions to Stock (NAS) measures the ‘physical growth of the economy’, i.e. the quantity (weight) of new construction materials used in buildings and other infrastructure, and materials incorporated into new durable goods such as cars, industrial machinery, and household appliances. Materials are added to the economy’s stock each year (gross additions), and old materials are removed from stock as buildings are demolished, and durable goods. Domestic processed output (DPO) measures the total weight of materials which are released back to the environment after having been used in the domestic economy. These flows occur at the processing, manufacturing, use, and final disposal stages of the production-consumption chain. Included in DPO are emissions to air, industrial and household wastes deposited in controlled and uncontrolled landfills, material loads in wastewater and materials dispersed into the environment as a result of product use (dissipative flows). Recycled material flows in the economy (e.g. of metals, paper, glass) are not included in DPO.

108 NERACA BAHAN Sumber: …… diunduh 29/4/2012. A mass balance (also called a material balance) is an application of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems. By accounting for material entering and leaving a system, mass flows can be identified which might have been unknown, or difficult to measure without this technique. The exact conservation law used in the analysis of the system depends on the context of the problem but all revolve around mass conservation, i.e. that matter cannot disappear or be created spontaneously. Therefore, mass balances are used widely in engineering and environmental analyses. For example mass balance theory is used to design chemical reactors, analyse alternative processes to produce chemicals as well as in pollution dispersion models and other models of physical systems. Closely related and complementary analysis techniques include the population balance, energy balance and the somewhat more complex entropy balance. These techniques are required for thorough design and analysis of systems such as the refrigeration cycle. In environmental monitoring the term budget calculations is used to describe mass balance equations where they are used to evaluate the monitoring data (comparing input and output, etc.) In biology the dynamic energy budget theory for metabolic organisation makes explicit use of time, mass and energy balances.

109 NERACA BAHAN The general form quoted for a mass balance is The mass that enters a system must, by conservation of mass, either leave the system or accumulate within the system. Mathematically the mass balance for a system without a chemical reaction is as follows: Strictly speaking the above equation holds also for systems with chemical reactions if the terms in the balance equation are taken to refer to total mass i.e. the sum of all the chemical species of the system. In the absence of a chemical reaction the amount of any chemical species flowing in and out will be the same; This gives rise to an equation for each species in the system. However if this is not the case then the mass balance equation must be amended to allow for the generation or depletion (consumption) of each chemical species. Some use one term in this equation to account for chemical reactions, which will be negative for depletion and positive for generation. However, the conventional form of this equation is written to account for both a positive generation term (i.e. product of reaction) and a negative consumption term (the reactants used to produce the products). Although overall one term will account for the total balance on the system, if this balance equation is to be applied to an individual species and then the entire process, both terms are necessary. This modified equation can be used not only for reactive systems, but for population balances such as occur in particle mechanics problems. The equation is given below; Note that it simplifies to the earlier equation in the case that the generation term is zero. In the absence of a nuclear reaction the number of atoms flowing in and out are the same, even in the presence of a chemical reaction To perform a balance the boundaries of the system must be well defined Mass balances can be taken over physical systems at multiple scales. Mass balances can be simplified with the assumption of steady state, where the accumulation term is zero. Sumber: …… diunduh 29/4/2012

110 Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 CONTOH ILUSTRATIF At this point a simple example shall be given for illustrative purposes. Consider the situation whereby a slurry is flowing into a settling tank to remove the solids in the tank, solids are collected at the bottom by means of a conveyor belt partially submerged in the tank, water exits via an overflow outlet. In this example we shall consider there to be two species, solids and water. The species are concentrated in each of the output streams, that is to say that the water-to-solid ratio at the water-overflow outlet is higher than at the slurry inlet and the solids concentration at the exit of the conveyor belt is higher than that at the slurry inlet. Assumptions Steady state Non-reactive system Analysis The slurry inlet composition has been measured by sampling the inlet and has a composition (by mass) of 50% solid and 50% water, with a mass flow of 100 kg per minute, the tank is assumed to be operating at steady state, and as such accumulation is zero, so input and output must be equal for both the solids and water. If we know that the removal efficiency for the slurry tank is 60%, then the water outlet will contain 20kg/min of solids (40% times 100kg/min times 50% solids). If we measure the flow-rate of the combined solids and water, and the water outlet is shown to be 60kg/min, then the amount of water exiting via the conveyor belt is 10kg/min. This allows us to completely determine how the mass has been distributed in the system with only limited information and using the mass balance relations across the system boundaries Diagram showing clarifier example NERACA BAHAN

111 MASS FEEDBACK (RECYCLE) Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Mass balances can be performed across systems which have cyclic flows. In these systems output streams are fed back into the input of a unit, often for further reprocessing. Such systems are common in grinding circuits, where materials are crushed then sieved to only allow a particular size of particle out of the circuit and the larger particles are returned to the grinder. However recycle flows are by no means restricted to solid mechanics operations, they are used in liquid and gas flows as well. One such example is in cooling towers, where water is pumped through the cooling tower many times, with only a small quantity of water drawn off at each pass (to prevent solids build up) until it has either evaporated or exited with the drawn off water. The use of the recycle aids in increasing overall conversion of input products, which is useful for low per-pass conversion processes, for example the Haber process. Cooling towers are a good example of a recycle system

112 DIFFERENTIAL MASS BALANCES Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 A mass balance can also be taken differentially. The concept is the same as for a large mass balance, however it is performed in the context of a limiting system (for example, one can consider the limiting case in time or, more commonly, volume). The use of a differential mass balance is to generate differential equations that can be used to provide an understanding and effective modelling tool for the target system. The differential mass balance is usually solved in two steps, firstly a set of governing differential equations must be obtained, and then these equations must be solved, either analytically or, for less tractable problems, numerically. A good example of the applications of differential mass balance are shown in the following systems: Ideal (stirred) Batch reactor Ideal tank reactor, also named Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) Ideal Plug Flow Reactor (PFR) Forests can feed world’s hungry and over- exploitation for timber must be curbed – UN Forests can play an even greater role in feeding the world with products ranging from vitamin-rich leaves to fruits and roots, a United Nations-backed international consortium said today, calling on governments to invest more in sustainable forest management and rehabilitation.

113 GREEN ACCOUNTING is a type of accounting that attempts to factor environmental costs into the financial results of operations. It has been argued that gross domestic product ignores the environment and therefore decisionmakers need a revised model that incorporates green accounting. It is a controversial practice however, since depletion is already factored into accounting for the extraction industries and the accounting for externalities may be arbitrary. Julian Lincoln Simon, a professor of business administration at the University of Maryland and a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute, argued that use of natural resources results in greater wealth, as evidenced by the falling prices over time of virtually all nonrenewable resources. (DIUNDUH DARI: Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 TOTAL ECONOMIC VALUE Total economic value (TEV) is a concept in cost benefit analysis that refers to the value derived by people from a natural resource, a man-made heritage resource or an infrastructure system, compared to not having it. It appears in environmental economics as an aggregation of the (main function based) values provided by a given ecosystem. Those include use and non-use values. Use Value – Direct: Obtained through a removable product in nature (i.e. timber, fish, water). Use Value – Indirect: Obtained through a non-removable product in nature (i.e. sunset, waterfall). Option value: Placed on the potential future ability to use a resource even though it is not currently used and the likelihood of future use is very low. This reflects the willingness to preserve an option for potential future use. Bequest value or existence value: Placed on a resource that will never be used by current individuals, dervied from the value of satisfaction from preserving a natural environment or a historic environment (i.e., natural heritage or cultural heritage) for future generations.

114 DEPLESI NILAI SUMBERDAYA ALAM Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Resource depletion Resource depletion is an economic term referring to the exhaustion of raw materials within a region. Resources are commonly divided between renewable resources and non- renewable resources. (See also Mineral resource classification.) Use of either of these forms of resources beyond their rate of replacement is considered to be resource depletion. Resource depletion is most commonly used in reference to farming, fishing, mining, and fossil fuels. Causes of resource depletion 1.Over-consumption/excessive or unnecessary use of resources 2.Non-equitable distribution of resources 3.Overpopulation... 4.Slash and burn agricultural practices, currently occurring in many developing countries 5.Technological and industrial development 6.Erosion 7.Habitat degradation leads to the loss of Biodiversity (i.e. species and ecosystems). 8.Irrigation 9.Mining for oil and minerals 10.Aquifer depletion 11.Forestry Forest Reserves within a particular country 12.Pollution or contamination of resources (DIUNDUH DARI: ) Depletion may refer to: 1.Depletion (accounting), an accounting concept 2.Depletion region, a concept of semiconductor physics 3.Depletion width, a concept of semiconductor physics 4.Grain boundary depletion, a mechanism of corrosion 5.Oil depletion, the declining of oil supply 6.Overdrafting, extracting groundwater beyond the equilibrium yield of an aquifer 7.Ozone depletion, a decline in the total amount of ozone in Earth's stratosphere]] 8.Resource depletion, the exhaustion of raw materials within a region

115 DEPLESI: MINERALS Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Materials removed from the Earth are needed to provide humans with food, clothing, and housing and to continually upgrade the standard of living. Some of the materials needed are renewable resources, such as agricultural and forestry products, while others are nonrenewable, such as minerals. The USGS reported in Materials Flow and Sustainability (1998) that the number of renewable resources is decreasing; meanwhile there is an increasing demand for nonrenewable resources. Since 1900, the use of construction materials such as stone, sand, and gravel has soared. The large-scale exploitation of minerals began in the Industrial Revolution around 1760 in England and has grown rapidly ever since. Today’s economy is largely based on fossil fuels, minerals and oil. The value increases because of the large demand, but the supply is decreasing. This has resulted in more efforts to drill and search other territories. The environment is being abused and this depletion of resources is one way of showing the effects. Mining still pollutes the environment, only on a larger scale. Penambangan SIRTU = Pasir + Batu yang cenderung menyebabkan degradasi lahan list&archives-type=tags

116 FOREST RESOURCES DEPLETION Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Deforestation Deforestation is the clearing of natural forests by logging or burning of trees and plants in a forested area. As a result of deforestation, presently about one half of the forests that once covered the Earth have been destroyed. It occurs for many different reasons, and it has several negative implications on the atmosphere and the quality of the land in and surrounding the forest. Causes One of the main causes of deforestation is clearing forests for agricultural reasons. As the population of developing areas, especially near rainforests, increases, the need for land for farming becomes more and more important. For most people, a forest has no value when its resources aren’t being used, so the incentives to deforest these areas outweigh the incentives to preserve the forests. For this reason, the economic value of the forests is very important for developing worlds. Environmental impact Because deforestation is so extensive, it has made several significant impacts on the environment, including carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, changing the water cycle, an increase in soil erosion, and a decrease in biodiversity. Deforestation is often cited as a cause of global warming. Because trees and plants remove carbon dioxide and emit oxygen into the atmosphere, the reduction of forests contribute to about 12% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. One of the most pressing issues that deforestation creates is soil erosion. The removal of trees causes higher rates of erosion, increasing risks of landslides, which is a direct threat to many people living close to deforested areas. As forests get destroyed, so does the habitat for millions of animals. It is estimated that 80% of the world’s known biodiversity lives in the rainforests, and the destruction of these rainforests is accelerating extinction at an alarming rate. Controlling deforestation Efforts to control deforestation must be taken on a global scale. Organizations like the United Nations and the World Bank have started to create programs like Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) that works especially with developing countries to use subsidies or other incentives to encourage citizens to use the forest in a more sustainable way. In addition to making sure that emissions from deforestation are kept to a minimum, an effort to educate people on sustainability and helping them to focus on the long-term risks is key to the success of these programs. Reforestation is also being encouraged in many countries in an attempt to repair the damage that deforestation has done.

117 DEPLESI: WETLANDS Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 A wetland is a term used to describe areas that are often saturated by enough surface or groundwater to sustain vegetation that is usually adapted to saturated soil conditions, such as cattails, bulrushes, red maples, wild rice, blackberries, cranberries, and peat moss. Because some varieties of wetlands are rich in minerals and nutrients and provide many of the advantages of both land and water environments they contain diverse species and possibly even form a food chain. When human activities take away resources many species are affected. Many species act as an ecosystem. Years ago people assumed wetlands were useless so it was not a large concern when they were being dug up. Many people want to use them for developing homes etc. On the other side of the argument people believe the wetlands are a vital source for other life forms and a part of the life cycle. Wetlands provide services for: 1) Food and habitat 2) Improving water quality 3) Commercial fishing 4) Floodwater reduction 5) Shoreline stabilization 6) Recreation / wisata. Some loss of wetlands resulted from natural causes such as erosion, sedimentation (the buildup of soil by the settling of fine particles over a long period of time), subsidence (the sinking of land because of diminishing underground water supplies), and a rise in the sea level. However, 95% of the losses since the 1970s have been caused by humans, especially by the conversion of wetlands to agricultural land. More than half (56%) the losses of coastal wetlands resulted from dredging for marinas, canals, port development, and, to some extent, from natural shoreline erosion. The conversion of wetlands causes the loss of natural pollutant sinks. The dramatic decline in wetlands globally suggests not only loss of habitat but also diminished water quality

118 EKSPLOITASI SUMBERDAYA ALAM Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns. Sustained overexploitation can lead to the destruction of the resource. The term applies to natural resources such as: wild medicinal plants, grazing pastures, fish stocks, forests and water aquifers. In ecology, overexploitation describes one of the five main activities threatening global biodiversity. Ecologists use the term to describe populations that are harvested at a rate that is unsustainable, given their natural rates of mortality and capacities for reproduction. This can result in extinction at the population level and even extinction of whole species. In conservation biology the term is usually used in the context of human economic activity that involves the taking of biological resources, or organisms, in larger numbers than their populations can withstand. The term is also used and defined somewhat differently in fisheries, hydrology and natural resource management. Overexploitation can lead to resource destruction, including extinctions. However it is also possible for overexploitation to be sustainable, as discussed below in the section on fisheries. In the context of fishing, the term overfishing can be used instead of overexploitation, as can overgrazing in stock management, overlogging in forest management, overdrafting in aquifer management, and endangered species in species monitoring. Overexploitation is not an activity limited to humans. Introduced predators and herbivores, for example, can overexploit native flora and fauna. The over-exploitation of trees and their resultant scarcity are usually symptomatic manifestations of larger problems which have accompanied the development process - and which are often poorly understood and oversimplified. Sometimes people have abandoned tree conservation practices simply because they are no longer consistent with their perception of the rural agricultural economy. An understanding of the reasons for the breakdown of active and passive adaptive tree management strategies is necessary before interventions to remedy them can be effectively implemented. SUMBER:

119 EKSPLOITASI SUMBERDAYA ALAM Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Water resource, such as lakes and aquifers, are usually renewable resources which naturally recharge (the term fossil water is sometimes used to describe aquifers which don't recharge). Overexploitation occurs if a water resource, such as the Ogallala Aquifer, is mined or extracted at a rate that exceeds the recharge rate, that is, at a rate that exceeds the practical sustained yield. Recharge usually comes from area streams, rivers and lakes. An aquifer which has been overexploited is said to be overdrafted or depleted. Forests enhance the recharge of aquifers in some locales, although generally forests are a major source of aquifer depletion. Depleted aquifers can become polluted with contaminants such as nitrates, or permanently damaged through subsidence or through saline intrusion from the ocean. This turns much of the world's underground water and lakes into finite resources with peak usage debates similar to oil. These debates usually centre around agriculture and suburban water usage but generation of electricity from nuclear energy or coal and tar sands mining is also water resource intensive. A modified Hubbert curve applies to any resource that can be harvested faster than it can be replaced. Though Hubbert's original analysis did not apply to renewable resources, their overexploitation can result in a Hubbert-like peak. This has led to the concept of peak water. Overexploitation of groundwater from an aquifer can result in a peak water curve

120 EKSPLOITASI SUMBERDAYA HUTAN Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Forests are overexploited when they are logged at a rate faster than reforestation takes place. Reforestation competes with other land uses such as food production, livestock grazing, and living space for further economic growth. Historically utilization of forest products, including timber and fuel wood, have played a key role in human societies, comparable to the roles of water and cultivable land. Today, developed countries continue to utilize timber for building houses, and wood pulp for paper. In developing countries almost three billion people rely on wood for heating and cooking. Short-term economic gains made by conversion of forest to agriculture, or overexploitation of wood products, typically leads to loss of long-term income and long term biological productivity. West Africa, Madagascar, Southeast Asia and many other regions have experienced lower revenue because of overexploitation and the consequent declining timber harvests. Fitoremediasi: Uptake, Translocation and Volatilization Organic contaminants in the soil: are absorbed by the roots (uptake), travel up the shoot to the leaves (translocation), and are released into the air (volatilization).

121 EKSPLOITASI BIODIVERSITAS Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 Overexploitation is one of the five main activities threatening global biodiversity. The other four activities are pollution, introduced species, habitat fragmentation and habitat destruction. One of the key health issues associated with biodiversity is drug discovery and the availability of medicinal resources. A significant proportion of drugs are natural products derived, directly or indirectly, from biological sources. Marine ecosystems are of particular interest in this regard. However unregulated and inappropriate bioprospecting could potentially lead to overexploitation, ecosystem degradation and loss of biodiversity, as well as impact on the rights of the communities and states from which the resources are taken The rich diversity of marine life inhabiting coral reefs attracts bioprospectors. Many coral reefs are overexploited; threats include coral mining, cyanide and blast fishing, and overfishing in general.

122 EKSPLOITASI SUMBERDAYA PERIKANAN In wild fisheries, overexploitation or overfishing occurs when a fish stock has been fished down "below the size that, on average, would support the long-term maximum sustainable yield of the fishery". However, overexploitation can be sustainable. When a fishery starts harvesting fish from a previously unexploited stock, the biomass of the fish stock will decrease, since harvesting means fish are being removed. For sustainability, the rate at which the fish replenish biomass through reproduction must balance the rate at which the fish are being harvested. If the harvest rate is increased, then the stock biomass will further decrease. At a certain point, the maximum harvest yield that can be sustained will be reached, and further attempts to increase the harvest rate will result in the collapse of the fishery. This point is called the maximum sustainable yield, and in practice, usually occurs when the fishery has been fished down to about 30% of the biomass it had before harvesting started. It is possible to fish the stock down further to, say, 15% of the pre-harvest biomass, and then adjust the harvest rate so the biomass remains at that level. In this case, the fishery is sustainable, but is now overexploited, because the stock has been run down to the point where the sustainable yield is less than it could be. Fish stocks are said to "collapse" if their biomass declines by more than 95 percent of their maximum historical biomass. Atlantic cod stocks were severely overexploited in the 1970s and 1980s, leading to their abrupt collapse in Even though fishing has ceased, the cod stocks have failed to recover. The absence of cod as the apex predator in many areas has led to trophic cascades. About 25% of world fisheries are now overexploited to the point where their current biomass is less than the level that maximizes their sustainable yield. These depleted fisheries can often recover if fishing pressure is reduced until the stock biomass returns to the optimal biomass. At this point, harvesting can be resumed near the maximum sustainable yield. The tragedy of the commons can be avoided within the context of fisheries if fishing effort and practices are regulated appropriately by fisheries management. One effective approach may be assigning some measure of ownership in the form of individual transferable quotas (ITQs) to fishermen. In 2008, a large scale study of fisheries that used ITQs, and ones that didn't, provided strong evidence that ITQs help prevent collapses and restore fisheries that appear to be in decline Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012

123 EKSPLOITASI SUMBERDAYA ALAM Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 Another non-renewable resource that is exploited by humans are Subsoil minerals such as precious metals that are mainly used in the production of industrial commodities. Intensive agriculture is an example of a mode of production that hinders many aspects of the natural environment, for example the degradation of forests in a terrestrial ecosystem and water pollution in an aquatic ecosystem. As the world population rises and economic growth occurs, the depletion of natural resources influenced by the unsustainable extraction of raw materials becomes an increasing concern. Why resources are under pressure Increase in the sophistication of technology enabling natural resources to be extracted quickly and efficiently. E.g., in the past, it could take long hours just to cut down one tree only using saws. Due to increased technology, rates of deforestation have greatly increased A rapid increase in population. This leads to greater demand for natural resources. Cultures of consumerism. Materialistic views lead to the mining of gold and diamonds to produce jewelry, unnecessary commodities for human life or advancement. Excessive demand often leads to conflicts due to intense competition. Organizations such as Global Witness and the United Nations have documented the connection. Non-equitable distribution of resources. The exploitation of natural resources started to emerge in the 19th century as natural resource extraction developed. During the 20th century, energy consumption rapidly increased. Today, about 80% of the world’s energy consumption is sustained by the extraction of fossil fuels, which consists of oil, coal and gas.

124 Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 Problems arising from the exploitation of natural resources Deforestation Desertification Extinction of species Forced migration Soil erosion Oil depletion Ozone depletion Greenhouse gas increase Extreme energy Water pollution Natural hazard/Natural disaster NATURAL DISASTER A natural disaster is the effect of earths natural hazards, for example flood, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake, heatwave, or landslide. They can lead to financial, environmental or human losses. The resulting loss depends on the vulnerability of the affected population to resist the hazard, also called their resilience. If these disasters continue it would be a great danger for the earth. This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability.” Thus a natural hazard will not result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term natural has consequently been disputed because the events simply are not hazards or disasters without human involvement. A concrete example of the division between a natural hazard and a natural disaster is that the 1906 San Francisco earthquake was a disaster, whereas earthquakes are a hazard. This article gives an introduction to notable natural disasters, refer to the list of natural disasters for a comprehensive listing. Diunduh dari: EKSPLOITASI SUMBERDAYA ALAM

125 Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 Effects on local communities The Global South When a mining company enters a developing country to extract raw materials, advocating the advantages of the industry’s presence and minimizing the potential negative effects gain cooperation of the local people. Advantageous factors are primarily in economic development so services that the government could not provide such as health centers, police departments and schools can be established. However with economic development, money becomes a dominant subject of interest. This can bring about major conflicts that a local community in a developing country has never dealt with before. These conflicts emerge by a change to more egocentric views among the locals influenced by consumerist values. The effects of the exploitation of natural resources in the local community of a developing country are exhibited in the impacts from the Ok Tedi Mine. After BHP, now BHP Billiton, entered into Papua New Guinea to exploit copper and gold, the economy of the indigenous peoples boomed. Although their quality of life has improved, initially disputes were common among the locals in terms of land rights and who should be getting the benefits from the mining project. The consequences of the Ok Tedi environmental disaster illustrate the potential negative effects from the exploitation of natural resources. The resulting mining pollution includes toxic contamination of the natural water supply for communities along the Ok Tedi River, causing widespread killing of aquatic life. When a mining company ends a project after extracting the raw materials from an area of a developing country, the local people are left to manage with the environmental damage done to their community and the long run sustainability of the economic benefits stimulated by the mining company’s presence becomes a concern. EKSPLOITASI SUMBERDAYA ALAM

126 KONSUMSI YANG BERLEBIHAN Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 Over-consumption is a situation where resource-use has outpaced the sustainable capacity of the ecosystem. A prolonged pattern of overconsumption leads to inevitable environmental degradation and the eventual loss of resource bases. Generally the discussion of overconsumption parallels that of overpopulation; that is the more people, the more consumption of raw materials to sustain their lives. Currently, the developed nations of the world consume at a rate of 32, while the rest of the developing worlds’ 5.5 billion people consume at a rate closer to 1.”” The theory was coined to augment the discussion of overpopulation, which reflects issues of carrying capacity without taking into account per capita consumption, by which developing nations are evaluated to consume more than their land can support. Green parties and the ecology movement often argue that consumption per person, or ecological footprint, is typically lower in poor than in rich nations. EFEK - DAMPAK A fundamental effect of over-consumption is a reduction in the planet's carrying capacity. Excessive unsustainable consumption will exceed the long term carrying capacity of its environment (ecological overshoot) and subsequent resource depletion, environmental degradation and reduced ecological health. The scale of modern life's over-consumption has enabled an overclass to exist, displaying affluenza and obesity. However once again both of these claims are controversial with the latter being correlated to other factors more so than over-consumption. In the long term these effects can lead to increased conflict over dwindling resources and in the worst case a Malthusian catastrophe. Pertumbuhan Ekonomi The Worldwatch Institute said China and India, with their booming economies, along with the United States, are the three planetary forces that are shaping the global biosphere. The State of the World 2006 report said the two countries' high economic growth exposed the reality of severe pollution. The report states that The world's ecological capacity is simply insufficient to satisfy the ambitions of China, India, Japan, Europe and the United States as well as the aspirations of the rest of the world in a sustainable way,

127 KONSUMSI YANG BERLEBIHAN Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 Over-consumption is a situation where resource-use has outpaced the sustainable capacity of the ecosystem. A prolonged pattern of overconsumption leads to inevitable environmental degradation and the eventual loss of resource bases. Generally the discussion of overconsumption parallels that of overpopulation; that is the more people, the more consumption of raw materials to sustain their lives. Currently, the developed nations of the world consume at a rate of 32, while the rest of the developing worlds’ 5.5 billion people consume at a rate closer to 1.”” The theory was coined to augment the discussion of overpopulation, which reflects issues of carrying capacity without taking into account per capita consumption, by which developing nations are evaluated to consume more than their land can support. Green parties and the ecology movement often argue that consumption per person, or ecological footprint, is typically lower in poor than in rich nations. EFEK - DAMPAK Footprint The idea of overconsumption is also strongly tied to the idea of an ecological footprint. The term “ecological footprint” refers to the “resource accounting framework for measuring human demand on the biosphere.” A study by Mathis Wackernagel has shown that the global ecological footprint was in overshoot by.4 global hectares per person, or roughly 23%. Of these developing countries, China presents the largest threat. Currently, China is roughly 11 times lower in per capita footprint, yet has a population that is more than four times the size of the USA. It is estimated that if China developed to the level of the United States that world consumption rates would roughly double. Counteractions The most obvious solution to the issue of overconsumption is to simply slow the rate at which materials are becoming depleted. To consume less is to watch these economies suffer. Instead, countries must look to curb consumption rates while allowing for new industries, such as renewable energy and recycling technologies, to flourish and deflect some of the economic burden. A fundamental shift in the global economy may be necessary in order to account for the current change that is taking place or that will need to take place. Movements and lifestyle choices related to stopping overconsumption include: anti-consumerism, freeganism, green economics, ecological economics, degrowth, frugality, downshifting, simple living and thrifting.

128 EKSTERNALITAS Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 In economics, an externality, or transaction spillover, is a cost or benefit not transmitted through prices that is incurred by a party who did not agree to the action causing the cost or benefit. The cost of an externality is a negative externality, or external cost, while the benefit of an externality is a positive externality, or external benefit. In the case of both negative and positive externalities, prices in a competitive market do not reflect the full costs or benefits of producing or consuming a product or service. Also, producers and consumers may neither bear all of the costs nor reap all of the benefits of the economic activity, and too much or too little of the goods will be produced or consumed in terms of overall costs and benefits to society. For example, manufacturing that causes air pollution imposes costs on the whole society, while fire-proofing a home improves the fire safety of neighbors. If there exist external costs such as pollution, the good will be overproduced by a competitive market, as the producer does not take into account the external costs when producing the good. If there are external benefits, such as in areas of education or public safety, too little of the good would be produced by private markets as producers and buyers do not take into account the external benefits to others. Here, overall cost and benefit to society is defined as the sum of the economic benefits and costs for all parties involved. External costs and benefits

129 Implications Standard economic theory states that any voluntary exchange is mutually beneficial to both parties involved in the trade. This is because buyers or sellers would not trade if either thought it not beneficial to themselves. However, an exchange can cause additional effects on third parties. From the perspective of those affected, these effects may be negative (pollution from a factory), or positive (honey bees kept for honey that also pollinate crops). Welfare economics has shown that the existence of externalities results in outcomes that are not socially optimal. Those who suffer from external costs do so involuntarily, while those who enjoy external benefits do so at no cost. A voluntary exchange may reduce societal welfare if external costs exist. The person who is affected by the negative externalities in the case of air pollution will see it as lowered utility: either subjective displeasure or potentially explicit costs, such as higher medical expenses. The externality may even be seen as a trespass on their lungs, violating their property rights. Thus, an external cost may pose an ethical or political problem. Alternatively, it might be seen as a case of poorly defined property rights, as with, for example, pollution of bodies of water that may belong to no-one (either figuratively, in the case of publicly-owned, or literally, in some countries and/or legal traditions). EKSTERNALITAS The positive externality would increase the utility of third parties at no cost to them. Since collective societal welfare is improved, but the providers have no way of monetizing the benefit, less of the good will be produced than would be optimal for society as a whole. Goods with positive externalities include education (believed to increase societal productivity and well-being; but controversial, as these benefits may be internalized), public health initiatives (which may reduce the health risks and costs for third parties for such things as transmittable diseases) and law enforcement. Positive externalities are often associated with the free rider problem. For example, individuals who are vaccinated reduce the risk of contracting the relevant disease for all others around them, and at high levels of vaccination, society may receive large health and welfare benefits; but any one individual can refuse vaccination, still avoiding the disease by "free riding" on the costs borne by others. Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012

130 Implications There are a number of potential means of improving overall social utility when externalities are involved. The market-driven approach to correcting externalities is to "internalize" third party costs and benefits, for example, by requiring a polluter to repair any damage caused. But, in many cases internalizing costs or benefits is not feasible, especially if the true monetary values cannot be determined. Laissez-faire economists such as Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman sometimes refer to externalities as "neighborhood effects" or "spillovers", although externalities are not necessarily minor or localized. Similarly, Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises argues that externalities arise from lack of "clear personal property definition." Private and social costs: Social costs are the spillover costs to society (society pays off the costs), while private costs are the costs given to the individual firms or producer. EKSTERNALITAS Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Negative Externality (diunduh dari: policy.html)

131 EKSTERNALITAS NEGATIF A negative externality is an action of a product on consumers that imposes a negative side effect on a third party; it is "social cost". Many negative externalities (also called "external costs" or "external diseconomies") are related to the environmental consequences of production and use. The article on environmental economics also addresses externalities and how they may be addressed in the context of environmental issues. Air pollution from burning fossil fuels causes damages to crops, (historic) buildings and public health. The most extensive and integrated effort to quantify and monetise these impacts was in the European ExternE project series. Anthropogenic climate change is attributed to greenhouse gas emissions from burning oil, gas, and coal. The Stern Review on the Economics Of Climate Change says "Climate change presents a unique challenge for economics: it is the greatest example of market failure we have ever seen.““ Water pollution by industries that adds poisons to the water, which harm plants, animals, and humans. Systemic risk describes the risks to the overall economy arising from the risks which the banking system takes. A condition of moral hazard can occur in the absence of well- designed banking regulation, or in the presence of badly designed regulation. Industrial farm animal production, on the rise in the 20th century, resulted in farms that were easier to run, with fewer and often less-skilled employees, and a greater output of uniform animal products. However, the externalities with these farms include "contributing to the increase in the pool of antibiotic-resistant bacteria because of the overuse of antibiotics; air quality problems; the contamination of rivers, streams, and coastal waters with concentrated animal waste; animal welfare problems, mainly as a result of the extremely close quarters in which the animals are housed.”” The harvesting by one fishing company in the ocean depletes the stock of available fish for the other companies and overfishing may be the result. The stock fish is an example of a common property resource, and that, in the absence of appropriate environmental governance, is vulnerable to the Tragedy of the commons. When car owners use roads, they impose congestion costs and higher accidents risks on all other users. Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012

132 EKSTERNALITAS NEGATIF A business may purposely underfund one part of their business, such as their pension funds, in order to push the costs onto someone else, creating an externality. Here, the "cost" is that of providing minimum social welfare or retirement income; economists more frequently attribute this problem to the category of moral hazards. Consumption by one consumer causes prices to rise and therefore makes other consumers worse off, perhaps by reducing their consumption. These effects are sometimes called "pecuniary externalities" and are distinguished from "real externalities" or "technological externalities". Pecuniary externalities appear to be externalities, but occur within the market mechanism and are not a source of market failure or inefficiency. The consumption of alcohol when it leads to traffic or other accidents that injure or kill others. Shared costs of declining health and vitality caused by smoking and/or alcohol abuse. Here, the "cost" is that of providing minimum social welfare. Economists more frequently attribute this problem to the category of moral hazards, the prospect that a party insulated from risk may behave differently from the way they would if they were fully exposed to the risk. For example, an individual with insurance against automobile theft may be less vigilant about locking his car, because the negative consequences of automobile theft are (partially) borne by the insurance company. Antibiotic overuse contributes to antimicrobial resistance, reducing the future effectiveness of antibiotics. Individuals do not consider this efficacy cost when making usage decisions, leading to socially sub-optimal antibiotic consumption. Government policies proposed to preserve future antibiotic effectiveness include educational campaigns, regulation, Pigouvian taxes, and patents. There is evidence that crime in a neighborhood increases after the opening of a liquor store. Liquor stores may draw an undesirable class of citizens into the neighborhood to shop and hang out. They may also cause more people in the area to drink; such people may then proceed to commit acts in the neighborhood that they would not normally do, or else these drunk people may become easy targets for the crimes of others. Even if the crimes start out small, they may eventually become much worse if not effectively addressed (broken windows theory). Liquor stores are more likely to be open late into the night than other stores, and may result in increased noise levels which harm property values in the community. Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012

133 Examples of positive externalities (beneficial externality, external benefit, external economy, or Merit goods) include: Increased education of individuals can lead to broader society benefits in the form of greater economic productivity, lower unemployment rate, greater household mobility and higher rates of political participation. A beekeeper keeps the bees for their honey. A side effect or externality associated with his activity is the pollination of surrounding crops by the bees. The value generated by the pollination may be more important than the value of the harvested honey. An individual planting an attractive garden in front of his or her house may provide benefits to others living in the area, and even financial benefits in the form of increased property values for all property owners. A public organization that coordinates the control of an infectious disease preventing others in society from getting sick. An individual buying a product that is interconnected in a network (e.g., a video cellphone) will increase the usefulness of such phones to other people who have a video cellphone. When each new user of a product increases the value of the same product owned by others, the phenomenon is called a network externality or a network effect. Network externalities often have "tipping points" where, suddenly, the product reaches general acceptance and near-universal usage. EKSTERNALITAS POSITIF Knowledge spillover of inventions and information - once an invention (or most other forms of practical information) is discovered or made more easily accessible, others benefit by exploiting the invention or information. Patent law is a mechanism to allow the inventor or creator to benefit from a temporary, state-protected monopoly in return for "sharing" the information through publication or other means. Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012

134 Sometimes the better part of a benefit from a good comes from having the option to buy something rather than actually having to buy it. A private fire department that charged only those people whose house fire they responded to, would arguably provide a positive externality to the entire community at the expense of an unlucky few who actually had to pay. Some form of insurance could be a solution in such cases, as long as people can accurately evaluate the benefit they have from the option. The major downside to such a system is that the service provider has no obligation to provide the service. In 2010 in Tennessee, a home caught fire and the fire department refused to put the fire out because the household had failed to pay their fire fee of $ In this instance, House A (Did not pay their fee) and the fire department refused to respond to quell the fire. After the fire spread to the neighbor’s home, the fire department responded and put House B’s (Paid the fee) fire out. House A eventually burned to the ground and House B incurred some fire damage but was generally still stable structurally etc. If the fee is not purchased, you will not receive the fire service. The optimal solution to this externality would be to instead charge a mandatory tax rather than an optional fee. The sprinkler systems could eliminate the need for a fire department if it effectively eliminates the fire. “California and Pennsylvania, starting Jan. 1, 2011, will be the first two states in the country to require sprinklers in every new home based on the International Code Council (ICC) mandating the installation of residential fire sprinklers in all new one- and two-family residences, including townhouses in the 2009 International Residential Code (IRC). Other states, however, plan to adopt the residential fire sprinkler mandate but delay its implementation, while other states still oppose it.”(www.contractormag.com) This would have the potential to reduce the need of a large fire department in the long run. The argument could be made that the installation of a sprinkler system could pay for itself quickly, instead of having to pay a fire fee each year. Similarly, an “opt-in” policy of this nature would enable residents to pay the fire protection fee if they desired fire service, otherwise, they would not need to worry about being victimized by a neighbor’s “production” of fire damage (cost) to their home. Renewable energy may create positive externalities insofar as it reduces net environmental pollution. EKSTERNALITAS POSITIF Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012

135 EKSTERNALITAS DIAGRAM Supply - Demand The usual economic analysis of externalities can be illustrated using a standard supply and demand diagram if the externality can be valued in terms of money. An extra supply or demand curve is added, as in the diagrams below. One of the curves is the private cost that consumers pay as individuals for additional quantities of the good, which in competitive markets, is the marginal private cost. The other curve is the true cost that society as a whole pays for production and consumption of increased production the good, or the marginal social cost. Similarly there might be two curves for the demand or benefit of the good. The social demand curve would reflect the benefit to society as a whole, while the normal demand curve reflects the benefit to consumers as individuals and is reflected as effective demand in the market. BIAYA EKSTERNAL The graph below shows the effects of a negative externality. For example, the steel industry is assumed to be selling in a competitive market – before pollution-control laws were imposed and enforced (e.g. under laissez-faire). The marginal private cost is less than the marginal social or public cost by the amount of the external cost, i.e., the cost of air pollution and water pollution. This is represented by the vertical distance between the two supply curves. It is assumed that there are no external benefits, so that social benefit equals individual benefit. Demand curve with external costs; if social costs are not accounted for price is too low to cover all costs and hence quantity produced is unnecessarily high (because the producers of the good and their customers are essentially underpaying the total, real factors of production) Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012

136 BIAYA EKSTERNAL If the consumers only take into account their own private cost, they will end up at price P p and quantity Q p, instead of the more efficient price P s and quantity Q s. These latter reflect the idea that the marginal social benefit should equal the marginal social cost, that is that production should be increased only as long as the marginal social benefit exceeds the marginal social cost. The result is that a free market is inefficient since at the quantity Q p, the social benefit is less than the social cost, so society as a whole would be better off if the goods between Q p and Q s had not been produced. The problem is that people are buying and consuming too much steel. This discussion implies that negative externalities (such as pollution) is more than merely an ethical problem. The problem is one of the disjuncture between marginal private and social costs that is not solved by the free market. It is a problem of societal communication and coordination to balance costs and benefits. This also implies that pollution is not something solved by competitive markets. Some collective solution is needed, such as a court system to allow parties affected by the pollution to be compensated, government intervention banning or discouraging pollution, or economic incentives such as green taxes. Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012

137 BENEFIT EKSTERNAL The graph below shows the effects of a positive or beneficial externality. For example, the industry supplying smallpox vaccinations is assumed to be selling in a competitive market. The marginal private benefit of getting the vaccination is less than the marginal social or public benefit by the amount of the external benefit (for example, society as a whole is increasingly protected from smallpox by each vaccination, including those who refuse to participate). This marginal external benefit of getting a smallpox shot is represented by the vertical distance between the two demand curves. Assume there are no external costs, so that social cost equals individual cost. Supply curve with external benefits; when the market does not account for additional social benefits of a good both the price for the good and the quantity produced are lower than the market could bear. Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012

138 BENEFIT EKSTERNAL If consumers only take into account their own private benefits from getting vaccinations, the market will end up at price P p and quantity Q p as before, instead of the more efficient price P s and quantity Q s. These latter again reflect the idea that the marginal social benefit should equal the marginal social cost, i.e., that production should be increased as long as the marginal social benefit exceeds the marginal social cost. The result in an unfettered market is inefficient since at the quantity Q p, the social benefit is greater than the societal cost, so society as a whole would be better off if more goods had been produced. The problem is that people are buying too few vaccinations. The issue of external benefits is related to that of public goods, which are goods where it is difficult if not impossible to exclude people from benefits. The production of a public good has beneficial externalities for all, or almost all, of the public. As with external costs, there is a problem here of societal communication and coordination to balance benefits and costs. This also implies that vaccination is not something solved by competitive markets. The government may have to step in with a collective solution, such as subsidizing or legally requiring vaccine use. If the government does this, the good is called a merit good. Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012

139 SOLUSI YANG MUNGKIN There are at least four general types of solutions to the problem of externalities: Criminalization: As with prostitution in some countries, drugs, commercial fraud, and many types of environmental and public health laws. Civil Tort law: For example, class action by smokers, various product liability suits. Government provision: As with lighthouses, education, and national defense. Pigovian taxes or subsidies intended to redress economic injustices or imbalances. A Pigovian tax is a tax imposed that is equal in value to the negative externality. The result is that the market outcome would be reduced to the efficient amount. A side effect is that revenue is raised for the government, reducing the amount of distortionary taxes that the government must impose elsewhere. Economists prefer Pigovian taxes and subsidies as being the least intrusive and most efficient method to resolve externalities. Governments justify the use of Pigouvian Taxes saying that these taxes help the market reach an efficient outcome because this tax bridges the gap between marginal social costs and marginal private costs. Some counter arguments against Pigouvian Taxes say that the tax does not account for all the transfers and regulations involved with an externality. In other words, the tax only considers the amount of externality produced. Another argument against the tax is: it does not take private property into consideration. Under the Pigouvian system, one firm for example, can be taxed more than another firm, when in reality, the latter firm is producing greater amounts of the negative externality. However, the most common type of solution is tacit agreement through the political process. Governments are elected to represent citizens and to strike political compromises between various interests. Normally governments pass laws and regulations to address pollution and other types of environmental harm. These laws and regulations can take the form of "command and control" regulation (such as setting standards, targets, or process requirements), or environmental pricing reform (such as ecotaxes or other pigovian taxes, tradable pollution permits or the creation of markets for ecological services). The second type of resolution is a purely private agreement between the parties involved. Government intervention may not always be needed. Traditional ways of life may have evolved as ways to deal with external costs and benefits. Alternatively, democratically-run communities can agree to deal with these costs and benefits in an amicable way. Externalities can sometimes be resolved by agreement between the parties involved. This resolution may even come about because of the threat of government action. Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012

140 SOLUSI YANG MUNGKIN Government intervention may not always be needed. Traditional ways of life may have evolved as ways to deal with external costs and benefits. Alternatively, democratically- run communities can agree to deal with these costs and benefits in an amicable way. Externalities can sometimes be resolved by agreement between the parties involved. This resolution may even come about because of the threat of government action. Ronald Coase argued that if all parties involved can easily organize payments so as to pay each other for their actions, then an efficient outcome can be reached without government intervention. Some take this argument further, and make the political claim that government should restrict its role to facilitating bargaining among the affected groups or individuals and to enforcing any contracts that result. This result, often known as the Coase Theorem, requires that: 1.Property rights be well defined 2.People act rationally 3.Transaction costs be minimal If all of these conditions apply, the private parties can bargain to solve the problem of externalities. This theorem would not apply to the steel industry case discussed above. For example, with a steel factory that trespasses on the lungs of a large number of individuals with pollution, it is difficult if not impossible for any one person to negotiate with the producer, and there are large transaction costs. Hence the most common approach may be to regulate the firm (by imposing limits on the amount of pollution considered "acceptable") while paying for the regulation and enforcement with taxes. The case of the vaccinations would also not satisfy the requirements of the Coase Theorem. Since the potential external beneficiaries of vaccination are the people themselves, the people would have to self-organize to pay each other to be vaccinated. But such an organization that involves the entire populace would be indistinguishable from government action. In some cases, the Coase theorem is relevant. For example, if a logger is planning to clear-cut a forest in a way that has a negative impact on a nearby resort, the resort- owner and the logger could, in theory, get together to agree to a deal. For example, the resort-owner could pay the logger not to clear-cut – or could buy the forest. The most problematic situation, from Coase's perspective, occurs when the forest literally does not belong to anyone; the question of "who" owns the forest is not important, as any specific owner will have an interest in coming to an agreement with the resort owner (if such an agreement is mutually beneficial).forest Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012

141 BEKAS TAMBANG Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Tailings, also called mine dumps, slimes, tails, refuse, leach residue, or slickens, [ are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of an ore. Tailings are distinct from overburden or waste rock, which are the materials overlying an ore or mineral body that are displaced during mining without being processed. The extraction of minerals from ore can be done two ways: placer mining, which uses water and gravity to extract the valuable minerals, or hard rock mining, which uses pulverization of rock, then chemicals. In the latter, the extraction of minerals from ore requires that the ore be ground into fine particles, so tailings are typically small and range from the size of a grain of sand to a few micrometres. Mine tailings are usually produced from the mill in slurry form (a mixture of fine mineral particles and water). Tailings represent an external cost of mining, particularly true of early mining operations which did not take adequate steps to make tailings areas environmentally safe after closure. Modern day mines, particularly in jurisdictions with well-developed mining regulations or operated by responsible mining companies, incorporate the rehabilitation and proper closure of tailings areas in the mining costs and activities. For example, the province of Quebec, Canada, requires not only submission of closure plan before the start of mining activity, but also the deposit of a financial guarantee equal to 100% of the estimated rehabilitation costs. Tailings dams are often the most significant environmental liability for a mining project. When applied to coal and oil sands mining, the term 'tailings' refers specifically to fine waste suspended in water

142 BEKAS TAMBANG Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Environmental considerations The elements and compounds uncovered and liberated through mining and processing, which are not usually part of the ecological systems (in such a form or concentration) have the potential to alter the receiving environment to its detriment. Most mining and minerals processing wastes contain minerals, such as sulphides, which are formed at higher temperatures and pressures at geological depth. When exposed to aerobic surficial conditions, or as a result of processing, minerals may breakdown releasing elements from their mineralogical bindings which may not be easily absorbed by unaccustomed ecosystems without impact (this process is sometimes known as Acid and Metaliferous Drainage). It is precisely because these elements did not interact with the overlying ecosystems before mining that they may pose issues to ecosystems and communities post- mining. In order to prevent the uncontrolled release of tailings material into the environment, mines usually have a disposal facility which quite often takes the form of a dam or pond. This is a convenient method of storage since tailings are often in the form of a slurry when they are discharged from the concentrator. These facilities often require the clearing of more land than the rest of the mine (including open-pit operations) combined, and failure of the wall can result in a massive release of tailings. As such they are of great environmental concern. Tailings release and subsequent damage to the environment can also occur without catastrophic failure of the storage facility. These kinds of release are much less obvious and may take the form of acid drainage or dry tailings dust being blown away from the storage area. Several major environmental disasters have been caused by tailings dam failures and other release of tailings into the environment. Some examples are the Ok Tedi environmental disaster, the Buffalo Creek Flood, the 2000 Baia Mare cyanide spill and the Ajka alumina plant accident.

143 BEKAS TAMBANG Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Pertimbangan Lingkungan Disposal of mine tailings is one of the most important environmental issues for any mine during the project's life. While significant pressure is placed on mining projects in developed countries to conform to stringent environmental standards, many projects in developing nations do not take significant steps to prevent or mitigate environmental damage. The sustainability challenge in the management of tailings and waste rock is to dispose of material, such that it is inert or, if not, stable and contained, to minimise water and energy inputs and the surface footprint of wastes and to move toward finding alternate uses. Although ideally the tailings would be made up of gangue materials (i.e. silica), to some degree, the sought-after mineral also appears in the tailings. Tailings also commonly contain unmineralised sulphides that can breakdown and release metals and generate acidic conditions. In operations that recover lead, uranium and other toxic heavy metals, this represents a significant environmental hazard. In addition to the minerals themselves, some processing methods involve marine pollutants such as copper sulfate, xanthate or cyanide which will be present to some degree in the tailings. In some operations, components of the gangue may also be toxic, though it is rare for these materials to be present above trace levels. An example is thallium in sulfide ores. Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) at the Source

144 STORAGE METHODS Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Summary of the range of tailings products

145 FITO-STABILISASI Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Phytostabilisation Phytostabilisation is a form of phytoremediation that uses plants for long-term stabilisation and containment of tailings, by sequestering pollutants in soil near the roots. The plant's presence can reduce wind erosion, or the plant's roots can prevent water erosion, immobilise metals by adsorption or accumulation, and provide a zone around the roots where the metals can precipitate and stabilise. Pollutants become less bioavailable and livestock, wildlife, and human exposure is reduced. This approach can be especially useful in dry environments, which are subject to wind and water dispersion. New work is also being done by Pan Pacific in the development of algal sequestration for plutonium and uranium tailings. Riverine tailings Usually called RTD – Riverine Tailings Disposal. In most environments, not a particularly environmentally sound practice, it has seen significant utilisation in the past, leading to such spectacular environmental damage as done by the Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company in Tasmania to the King River, or the poisoning from the Panguna mine on Bougainville Island, which led to large- scale civil unrest on the island, and the eventual permanent closing of the mine. As of 2005, only three mines operated by international companies continued to use river disposal: The Ok Tedi mine, the Grasberg mine and the Porgera mine, all on New Guinea. This method is used in these cases due to seismic activity and landslide dangers which make other disposal methods impractical and dangerous.

146 FITO-STABILISASI Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Pond storage Tailing ponds are areas of refused mining tailings where the water borne refuse material is pumped into a pond to allow the sedimentation (meaning separation) of solid particles from the water. The pond is generally impounded with a dam, and known as tailings impoundments or tailings dams. It was estimated in 2000 that there were about 3,500 active tailings impoundments in the world. [4] The ponded water is of some benefit as it minimizes fine tailings from being transported by wind into populated areas where the toxic chemicals could be potentially hazardous to human health; however, it is also harmful to the environment. Tailing ponds are often somewhat dangerous because they attract wildlife such as waterfowl or caribou as they appear to be a natural pond, but they can be highly toxic and harmful to the health of these animals. Tailings ponds are used to store the waste made from separating minerals from rocks, or the slurry produced from tar sands mining. Tailings are sometimes mixed with other materials such as bentonite to form a thicker slurry that slows the release of impacted water to the environment. [4] There are many different subsets of this method, including valley impoundments, ring dikes, in-pit impoundments, and specially dug pits. The most common is the valley pond, which takes advantage of the natural topographical depression in the ground. Large earthen dams may be constructed and then filled with the tailings. Exhausted open pit mines may be refilled with tailings. In all instances, due consideration must be made to contamination of the underlying water table, amongst other issues. Dewatering is an important part of pond storage, as the tailings are added to the storage facility the water is removed - usually by draining into decant tower structures. The water removed can thus be reused in the processing cycle. Once a storage facility is filled and completed, the surface can be covered with topsoil and revegetation commenced. However, unless a non-permeable capping method is used, water that infiltrates into the storage facility will have to be continually pumped out into the future. The biggest danger of tailings ponds is dam failure, with the most publicized failure in the US being the failure of a coal slurry dam in the West Virginia Buffalo Creek disaster, which killed 125 people; other collapses include the Ok Tedi environmental disaster on New Guinea, which destroyed the fishery of the Ok Tedi River. On the average, worldwide, there is one big accident involving a tailings dam each year. Tailings ponds can also be a source of acid drainage, leading to the need for permanent monitoring and treatment of water passing through the tailings dam; the cost of mine cleanup has typically been 10 times that of mining industry estimates when acid drainage was involved

147 FITO-REMEDIASI Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 Phytoremediation Phytoremediation (from Ancient Greek φυτο (phyto), meaning "plant", and Latin remedium, meaning "restoring balance") describes the treatment of environmental problems (bioremediation) through the use of plants that mitigate the environmental problem without the need to excavate the contaminant material and dispose of it elsewhere. Phytoremediation consists of mitigating pollutant concentrations in contaminated soils, water, or air, with plants able to contain, degrade, or eliminate metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, crude oil and its derivatives, and various other contaminants from the media that contain them.soilsair Application Phytoremediation may be applied wherever the soil or static water environment has become polluted or is suffering ongoing chronic pollution. Examples where phytoremediation has been used successfully include the restoration of abandoned metal-mine workings, reducing the impact of sites where polychlorinated biphenyls have been dumped during manufacture and mitigation of on-going coal mine discharges. Phytoremediation refers to the natural ability of certain plants called hyperaccumulators to bioaccumulate, degrade,or render harmless contaminants in soils, water, or air. Contaminants such as metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, [1] and crude oil and its derivatives, have been mitigated in phytoremediation projects worldwide. Many plants such as mustard plants, alpine pennycress, hemp, and pigweed have proven to be successful at hyperaccumulating contaminants at toxic waste sites. [1] Phytoremediation is considered a clean, cost-effective and non-environmentally disruptive technology, as opposed to mechanical cleanup methods such as soil excavation or pumping polluted groundwater. Over the past 20 years, this technology has become increasingly popular and has been employed at sites with soils contaminated with lead, uranium, and arsenic. However, one major disadvantage of phytoremediation is that it requires a long-term commitment, as the process is dependent on plant growth, tolerance to toxicity, and bioaccumulation capacity.

148 KEUNTUNGAN DAN KETERBATASAN Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 Keuntungan Fitoremediasi: 1.the cost of the phytoremediation is lower than that of traditional processes both in situ and ex situ 2.the plants can be easily monitored 3.the possibility of the recovery and re-use of valuable metals (by companies specializing in “phyto mining”) 4.it is potentially the least harmful method because it uses naturally occurring organisms and preserves the environment in a more natural state. Keterbatasan: 1.Phytoremediation is limited to the surface area and depth occupied by the roots. 2.Slow growth and low biomass require a long-term commitment 3.With plant-based systems of remediation, it is not possible to completely prevent the leaching of contaminants into the groundwater (without the complete removal of the contaminated ground, which in itself does not resolve the problem of contamination) 4.The survival of the plants is affected by the toxicity of the contaminated land and the general condition of the soil. 5.Bio-accumulation of contaminants, especially metals, into the plants which then pass into the food chain, from primary level consumers upwards or requires the safe disposal of the affected plant material. Direct Effect : Uptake, Translocation and Metabolism Organic contaminants in the soil: are absorbed by the roots (uptake), travel up the shoot to the leaves (translocation), where they are broken down into their component parts (metabolism) and stored in the leaves.

149 PROSES-PROSES FITO-REMEDIASI Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 A range of processes mediated by plants or algae are useful in treating environmental problems: 1.Phytoextraction — uptake and concentration of substances from the environment into the plant biomass. 2.Phytostabilization — reducing the mobility of substances in the environment, for example, by limiting the leaching of substances from the soil.soil 3.Phytotransformation — chemical modification of environmental substances as a direct result of plant metabolism, often resulting in their inactivation, degradation (phytodegradation), or immobilization (phytostabilization). 4.Phytostimulation — enhancement of soil microbial activity for the degradation of contaminants, typically by organisms that associate with roots. This process is also known as rhizosphere degradation. Phytostimulation can also involve aquatic plants supporting active populations of microbial degraders, as in the stimulation of atrazine degradation by hornwort. 5.Phytovolatilization — removal of substances from soil or water with release into the air, sometimes as a result of phytotransformation to more volatile and/or less polluting substances. 6.Rhizofiltration — filtering water through a mass of roots to remove toxic substances or excess nutrients. The pollutants remain absorbed in or adsorbed to the roots. FITO-STABILISASI Phytostabilization focuses on long-term stabilization and containment of the pollutant. Example, the plant's presence can reduce wind erosion; or the plant's roots can prevent water erosion, immobilize the pollutants by adsorption or accumulation, and provide a zone around the roots where the pollutant can precipitate and stabilize. Unlike phytoextraction, phytostabilization focuses mainly on sequestering pollutants in soil near the roots but not in plant tissues. Pollutants become less bioavailable, and livestock, wildlife, and human exposure is reduced. An example application of this sort is using a vegetative cap to stabilize and contain mine tailings.

150 KAPITAL SUMBERDAYA ALAM Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 Natural capital is the extension of the economic notion of capital (manufactured means of production) to goods and services relating to the natural environment. Natural capital is thus the stock of natural ecosystem that yields a flow of valuable ecosystem goods or services into the future. For example, a stock of trees or fish provides a flow of new trees or fish, a flow which can be indefinitely sustainable. Natural capital may also provide services like recycling wastes or water catchment and erosion control. Since the flow of services from ecosystems requires that they function as whole systems, the structure and diversity of the system are important components of natural capital. Natural capital is described in the book Natural Capitalism as a metaphor for the mineral, plant, and animal formations of the Earth's biosphere when viewed as a means of production of oxygen, water filter, erosion preventer, or provider of other ecosystem services. It is one approach to ecosystem valuation, an alternative to the traditional view of all non-human life as passive natural resources, and to the idea of ecological health. However, human knowledge and understanding of the natural environment is never complete, and therefore the boundaries of natural capital expand or contract as knowledge is gained or lost. In a traditional economic analysis of the factors of production, natural capital would usually be classified as "land" distinct from "capital" in its original sense. The historical distinction between "land" and "capital" was that land is naturally occurring and its supply is assumed to be fixed, whereas capital as originally defined referred only to man-made goods, (e.g., Georgism ). It has been argued that it's useful to view many natural systems as capital because they can be improved or degraded by the actions of man over time (Tragedy of the commons), so that to view them as if their productive capacity is fixed by nature alone is misleading. Moreover, they yield benefits naturally which are harvested by humans, those being nature's services, 17 of which were closely analyzed by Robert Costanza. These benefits are in some ways similar to those realized by owners of infrastructural capital which yields more goods, e.g. a factory which produces automobiles just as an apple tree produces apples.

151 KAPITAL SUMBERDAYA ALAM Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 The term and metaphor were first used by E.F. Schumacher in his book Small Is Beautiful and are closely identified with Herman Daly, Robert Costanza, the Biosphere 2 project, and the Natural Capitalism economic model of Paul Hawken, Amory Lovins, and Hunter Lovins until recently, when it began to be used by politicians, notably Ralph Nader, Paul Martin Jr., and agencies of the UK government including the London Health Observatory. Some economists and politicians, including Martin, believe natural capital measures play a key role in money supply and inflation measurements in a modern economy. They point to uneconomic growth and a lack of any direct connection between measuring well- being and such indicators as GDP. Indicators adopted by United Nations Environment Programme's World Conservation Monitoring Centre and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to measure natural biodiversity use the term in a slightly more specific way. However, all users of the term differentiate natural from man- made manufactured capital or infrastructural capital in some way. It does not appear that the basic principle is controversial, although there is much controversy on ecological health indicators, value of nature's services and Earth itself, consistent methods of ecosystem valuation, biodiversity metrics and methods of audit that might apply to these services, systems and biomes. Full cost accounting, triple bottom line, measuring well-being and other proposals for accounting reform often include proposals to measure an "ecological deficit" or "natural deficit" alongside a social deficit and financial deficit. It is difficult to measure such a deficit without some agreement on methods of valuating and auditing at least the global forms of natural capital (e.g. value of air, water, soil). The concept of natural capital implies that the savings rate of an economy is an imperfect measure of what the country is actually saving, because it measures only investment in man-made capital. The World Bank now calculates the genuine savings rate of a country, taking into account the extraction of natural resources and the ecological damage caused by CO 2 emissions.

152 KAPITAL SUMBERDAYA ALAM Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 Ecologists are teaming up with economists to measure the wealth of ecosystems and to express their value as a way of finding solutions to the biodiversity crisis. Some researchers have attempted to place a dollar figure on ecosystem services, such as the value that the Canadian boreal forest is contributing to global ecosystem services. If ecologically intact, the boreal forest has an estimated value of US$3.7 trillion. The boreal forest ecosystem is one of the planet's great atmospheric regulators and it stores more carbon than any other biome on the planet. The annual value for ecological services of the Boreal Forest is estimated at US$93.2 billion, or 2.5 greater than the annual value of resource extraction. The economic value of 17 ecosystem services for the entire biosphere (calculated in 1997) has an estimated average value of US$33 trillion per year. These ecological economic values are not currently included in calculations of national income accounts, the GDP and they have no price attributes because they exist mostly outside of the global markets. The loss of natural capital continues to accelerate and goes undetected by mainstream monetary analysis.

153 Sumber: ………….. diunduh 29/4/2012 DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT There are three main concepts that fall under the Design for Environment umbrella: Design for environmental processing and manufacturing: This ensures that raw material extraction (mining, drilling, etc.), processing (processing reusable materials, metal melting, etc.) and manufacturing are done using materials and processes which are not dangerous to the environment or the employees working on said processes. This includes the minimization of waste and hazardous by-products, air pollution, energy expenditure and other factors. Design for environmental packaging: This ensures that the materials used in packaging are environmentally friendly, which can be achieved through the reuse of shipping products, elimination of unnecessary paper and packaging products, efficient use of materials and space, use of recycled and/or recyclable materials.packaging Design for disposal or reuse: The end-of-life of a product is very important, because some products emit dangerous chemicals into the air, ground and water after they are disposed of in a landfill. Planning for the reuse or refurbishing of a product will change the types of materials that would be used, how they could later be disassembled and reused, and the environmental impacts such materials have. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is employed to forecast the impacts of different (production) alternatives of the product in question, thus being able to choose the most environmentally friendly. A life cycle analysis can serve as a tool when determining the environmental impact of a product or process. Proper LCAs can help a designer compare several different products according to several categories, such as energy use, toxicity, acidification, CO2 emissions, ozone depletion, resource depletion and many others. By comparing different products, designers can make decisions about which environmental hazard to focus on in order to make the product more environmentally friendly. Safer Product Labeling Program DfE certifies green cleaning products through its Safer Product Labeling Program. This program offers an opportunity to product manufacturers to partner with DfE and have their products certified by DfE criteria and standards. The DfE scientific review team screens each ingredient in a cleaning product for potential human health and environmental effects based on the best currently available information, EPA predictive models, and expert judgment. DfE recognized products that contain only those ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. There are currently 2,000 DfE certified cleaning products. Alternatives Assessment Program In order to help industries choose safer chemicals for applications, DfE conducts Alternatives Assessments. This program brings together environmental organizations, industry leaders, academia, and others to evaluate the environmental and health impacts of potential alternatives to problematic chemicals. The program uses a variety of approaches to investigate safer chemistries. Life-cycle assessment can be conducted to understand the phases (e.g., production, use, and disposal) where industry can make changes to realize environmental and health benefits. DfE Hazard-based Alternatives Analyses evaluate the hazards posed by chemicals during relevant phases in the product life cycle. These approaches can be applied to identifying safer alternative chemicals for applications that now use priority chemicals of concern. The outcome of an Alternatives Assessments Partnership provides industry with the information they need to choose safer chemicals, as well as avoid unintended consequences of switching to a poorly understood substitute. [6] [6] Best Practices Approach DfE's Best Practices approach is designed to enhance the awareness of health and environmental concerns, minimize pollution, and protect workers and communities by promoting the use of safer alternative chemical products and cleaner, more efficient practices. After a chemical ingredient has been reviewed by a DfE Alternatives Assessment and no clear alternative is available, the industry is encouraged to use the Best Practices approach as formulated by DfE. Currently, there is a Best Practices approach for both the Automotive Refinishing industry and Spray Polyurethane Foam

154 MATERIAL FLOW MANAGEMENT Sumber: diunduh 29/4/2012 Material flow management (MFM) is a method of efficiently managing materials. Material flow management is the goal oriented, efficient use of materials, material streams and energy. The goals are given by ecological and economical areas and by observing social aspects. (in "Protection of human beings and environment", by an Enquete Commission of the German Bundestag) This triple jump of environmental, social and economical orientation makes MFM a tool of high importance in the field of Sustainable Development (SD) and Circular Economy (CE). Seen historically Material Flow Management is a relatively new tool that can be understood as an implementation-orientated advancement of the methodology of Material Flow Analysis (MFA). MFM was established as a policy tool after the UN conference in Rio de Janeiro The German “Bundestag” clearly outlined the targets and specific goals of MFM in a special report by an Enquete Commission. Material flows pathway in industrial ecosystem: A case study of Nanning Sugar Group in China Service Operations and Logistics, and Informatics, IEEE/SOLI IEEE International Conference on. Conference: Oct Yin Jianhu and Wang Zhaohua Volume: 1, On Page(s): Yin Jianhu With the environment and resource facing more and more serious challenge, Circular Economy in China become a considerable topic. Integrating industrial symbiosis into the corporate development plans to optimize materials and energy flows is a feasible strategy for many corporations in their transition between nonsustainable and sustainable development. This paper takes the Nanning Sugar Group, a Chinese sugar complex, as a case to conduct an analysis on the material flow. On the basis of a brief introduction of the concept of industrial ecosystem, the paper describes the Nanning Sugar Group and its material flows of ecosystem After summarizing experiences of the application of the Group's model, it analyzes challenges and then introduces possible solutions. The material flows experience in question is hoped to point to a feasible development path for similar corporations.

155 MINIMISASI LIMBAH Sumber: diunduh 30/4/2012 Waste minimization is the process and the policy of reducing the amount of waste produced by a person or a society. Waste minimization involves efforts to minimize resource and energy use during manufacture. For the same commercial output, usually the fewer materials are used, the less waste is produced. Waste minimisation usually requires knowledge of the production process, cradle-to-grave analysis (the tracking of materials from their extraction to their return to earth) and detailed knowledge of the composition of the waste. The main sources of waste vary from country to country. In the UK, most waste comes from the construction and demolition of buildings, followed by mining and quarrying, industry and commerce. Household waste constitutes a relatively small proportion of all waste. Reasons for the creation of waste sometimes include requirements in the supply chain. For example, a company handling a product may insist that it should be packaged using particular packing because it fits its packaging equipment. In the waste hierarchy, the most effective approaches to managing waste are at the top. In contrast to waste minimisation, waste management focuses on processing waste after it is created, concentrating on re-use, recycling, and waste-to-energy conversion. Waste hierarchy

156 Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012 Industries In industries, using more efficient manufacturing processes and better materials will generally reduce the production of waste. The application of waste minimisation techniques has led to the development of innovative and commercially successful replacement products. Waste minimisation has proven benefits to industry and the wider environment. Waste minimisation often requires investment, which is usually compensated by the savings. However, waste reduction in one part of the production process may create waste production in another part. There are government incentives for waste minimisation, which focus on the environmental benefits of adopting waste minimisation strategies. In the UK, several pilot schemes such as The Catalyst Project and the Dee Waste Minimisation Project, have shown the efficacy of such policies. Fourteen companies in Merseyside took part in the Catalyst Project; the project generated overall savings of £9 million and landfill waste was reduced by 12,000 tonnes per year Processes Resource optimisation Minimising the amount of waste produced by organisations or individuals goes hand-in-hand with optimising their use of raw materials. For example, a dressmaker may arrange pattern pieces on a length of fabric in a particular way to enable the garment to be cut out from the smallest area of fabric. Reuse of scrap material Scraps can be immediately re-incorporated at the beginning of the manufacturing line so that they do not become a waste product. Many industries routinely do this; for example, paper mills return any damaged rolls to the beginning of the production line, and in the manufacture of plastic items, off-cuts and scrap are re- incorporated into new products. Improved quality control and process monitoring Steps can be taken to ensure that the number of reject batches is kept to a minimum. This is achieved by increasing the frequency of inspection and the number of points of inspection. For example, installing automated continuous monitoring equipment can help to identify production problems at an early stage. Waste exchanges This is where the waste product of one process becomes the raw material for a second process. Waste exchanges represent another way of reducing waste disposal volumes for waste that cannot be eliminated. Ship to point of use This involves making deliveries of incoming raw materials or components direct to the point where they are assembled or used in the manufacturing process to minimise handling and the use of protective wrappings or enclosures.

157 STRATEGI MEMINIMUMKAN LIMBAH Product design Waste minimisation and resource maximisation for manufactured products can most easily be done at the design stage. Reducing the number of components used in a product or making the product easier to take apart can make it easier to be repaired or recycled at the end of its useful life. In some cases, it may be best not to minimise the volume of raw materials used to make a product, but instead reduce the volume or toxicity of the waste created at the end of a product's life, or the environmental impact of the product's use. Fitting the intended use In this strategy, products and packages are optimally designed to meet their intended use. This applies especially to packaging materials, which should only be as durable as necessary to serve their intended purpose. On the other hand, it could be more wasteful if food, which has consumed resources and energy in its production, is damaged and spoiled because of extreme measures to reduce the use of paper, metals, glass and plastics in its packaging. Durability Improving product durability, such as extending a vacuum cleaner's useful life to 15 years instead of 12, can reduce waste and usually much improves resource optimisation. But in some cases it has a negative environmental impact. If a product is too durable, its replacement with more efficient technology is likely to be delayed. For example, a washing machine produced 10 years ago may use twice as much water, detergent and energy as one produced today. Therefore, extending an older machine's useful life may place a heavier burden on the environment than scrapping it, recycling its metal and buying a new model. Similarly, older vehicles consume more fuel and produce more emissions than their modern counterparts. Most proponents of waste minimisation consider that the way forward may be to view any manufactured product at the end of its useful life as a resource for recycling and reuse rather than waste. Recycling a product is easier if it is constructed of fewer materials. Car manufacturers have recently reduced the number of plastics used in their cars from twenty or more to three or four, hence simplifying the recovery of plastics from scrapped cars. However, exceptions (like having a combination of paper and plastic or plastic coating on glass) do exist, and might enable a product to fulfill its role with the minimum of resources. Sumber: diunduh 30/4/2012

158 REDUKSI SUMBERDAYA Sumber: diunduh 30/4/2012 Source reduction is activities designed to reduce the volume or toxicity of waste generated, including the design and manufacture of products with minimum toxic content, minimum volume of material, and/or a longer useful life. An example of source reduction is bringing a reusable bag to the grocery store. Synonyms Pollution Prevention (or P2) and Toxics use reduction are also called source reduction because they address the use of hazardous substances at the source. Procedures Source Reduction is achieved through improvements in production and product design, or through Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP). REDUKSI SUMBER DI USA In the United States, the Federal Trade Commission offers guidance for labelling claims: "Source reduction" refers to reducing or lowering the weight, volume or toxicity of a product or package. To avoid being misleading, source reduction claims must qualify the amount of the source reduction and give the basis for any comparison that is made. These principles apply regardless of whether a term like "source reduced" is used. The Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Program (TURA) offers 6 strategies to achieve source reduction: 1.Toxic chemical substitution 2.Production process modification 3.Finished product reformulation 4.Production modernization 5.Improvements in operations and maintenance 6.In-process recycling of production material

159 ZERO WASTE Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012 Zero waste is a philosophy that encourages the redesign of resource life cycles so that all products are reused. Any trash sent to landfills and incinerators is minimal. The process recommended is one similar to the way that resources are reused in nature. A working definition of zero waste, often cited by experts in the field originated from a working group of the Zero Waste International Alliance in The definition is as follows: "Zero Waste is a goal that is ethical, economical, efficient and visionary, to guide people in changing their lifestyles and practices to emulate sustainable natural cycles, where all discarded materials are designed to become resources for others to use. Zero Waste means designing and managing products and processes to systematically avoid and eliminate the volume and toxicity of waste and materials, conserve and recover all resources, and not burn or bury them. Implementing Zero Waste will eliminate all discharges to land, water or air that are a threat to planetary, human, animal or plant health." In industry this process involves creating commodities out of traditional waste products, essentially making old outputs new inputs for similar or different industrial sectors. An example might be the cycle of a glass milk bottle. The primary input (or resource) is silica-sand, which is formed into glass and then into a bottle. The bottle is filled with milk and distributed to the consumer. At this point, normal waste methods would see the bottle disposed in a landfill or similar. But with a zero-waste method, the bottle can be saddled at the time of sale with a deposit, which is returned to the bearer upon redemption. The bottle is then washed, refilled, and resold. The only material waste is the wash water, and energy loss has been minimized. Zero waste can represent an economical alternative to waste systems, where new resources are continually required to replenish wasted raw materials. It can also represent an environmental alternative to waste since waste represents a significant amount of pollution in the world.

160 LCA LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS / ASSESSMENT Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012 A life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from-cradle-to-grave (i.e., from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling). LCA’s can help avoid a narrow outlook on environmental concerns by: Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; Evaluating the potential impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; Interpreting the results to help you make a more informed decision. SASARAN DAN TUJUAN The goal of LCA is to compare the full range of environmental effects assignable to products and services in order to improve processes, support policy and provide a sound basis for informed decisions. The term life cycle refers to the notion that a fair, holistic assessment requires the assessment of raw-material production, manufacture, distribution, use and disposal including all intervening transportation steps necessary or caused by the product's existence. There are two main types of LCA. Attributional LCAs seek to establish the burdens associated with the production and use of a product, or with a specific service or process, at a point in time (typically the recent past). Consequential LCAs seek to identify the environmental consequences of a decision or a proposed change in a system under study (oriented to the future), which means that market and economic implications of a decision may have to be taken into account. Social LCA is under development as a different approach to life cycle thinking intended to assess social implications or potential impacts. Social LCA should be considered as an approach that is complementary to environmental LCA. The procedures of life cycle assessment (LCA) are part of the ISO environmental management standards: in ISO 14040:2006 and 14044:2006. (ISO replaced earlier versions of ISO to ISO )

161 EMPAT TAHAPAN UTAMA LCA Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012 According to the ISO and standards, a Life Cycle Assessment is carried out in four distinct phases as illustrated in the figure shown to the right. The phases are often interdependent in that the results of one phase will inform how other phases are completed. Illustration of LCA phases. Goal and scope An LCA starts with an explicit statement of the goal and scope of the study, which sets out the context of the study and explains how and to whom the results are to be communicated. This is a key step and the ISO standards require that the goal and scope of an LCA be clearly defined and consistent with the intended application. The goal and scope document therefore includes technical details that guide subsequent work: 1.The functional unit, which defines what precisely is being studied and quantifies the service delivered by the product system, providing a reference to which the inputs and outputs can be related; 2.The system boundaries; 3.Any assumptions and limitations; 4.The allocation methods used to partition the environmental load of a process when several products or functions share the same process; 5.The impact categories chosen.

162 LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) analysis involves creating an inventory of flows from and to nature for a product system. Inventory flows include inputs of water, energy, and raw materials, and releases to air, land, and water. To develop the inventory, a flow model of the technical system is constructed using data on inputs and outputs. The flow model is typically illustrated with a flow chart that includes the activities that are going to be assessed in the relevant supply chain and gives a clear picture of the technical system boundaries. The input and output data needed for the construction of the model are collected for all activities within the system boundary, including from the supply chain (referred to as inputs from the technosphere). The data must be related to the functional unit defined in the goal and scope definition. Data can be presented in tables and some interpretations can be made already at this stage. The results of the inventory is an LCI which provides information about all inputs and outputs in the form of elementary flow to and from the environment from all the unit processes involved in the study. Inventory flows can number in the hundreds depending on the system boundary. For product LCAs at either the generic (i.e., representative industry averages) or brand- specific level, that data is typically collected through survey questionnaires. At an industry level, care has to be taken to ensure that questionnaires are completed by a representative sample of producers, leaning toward neither the best nor the worst, and fully representing any regional differences due to energy use, material sourcing or other factors. The questionnaires cover the full range of inputs and outputs, typically aiming to account for 99% of the mass of a product, 99% of the energy used in its production and any environmentally sensitive flows, even if they fall within the 1% level of inputs. One area where data access is likely to be difficult is flows from the technosphere. Those completing a questionnaire will be able to specify how much of a given input they use from supply chain sources, but they will not usually have access to data concerning inputs and outputs for those production processes. The entity undertaking the LCA must then turn to secondary sources if it does not already have that data from its own previous studies. National databases or data sets that come with LCA-practitioner tools, or that can be readily accessed, are the usual sources for that information. Care must then be taken to ensure that the secondary data source properly reflects regional or national conditions. Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012

163 LCIA : LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT Inventory analysis is followed by impact assessment. This phase of LCA is aimed at evaluating the significance of potential environmental impacts based on the LCI flow results. Classical life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) consists of the following mandatory elements: 1.Selection of impact categories, category indicators, and characterization models; 2.The classification stage, where the inventory parameters are sorted and assigned to specific impact categories; and 3.Impact measurement, where the categorized LCI flows are characterized, using one of many possible LCIA methodologies, into common equivalence units that are then summed to provide an overall impact category total. In many LCAs, characterization concludes the LCIA analysis; this is also the last compulsory stage according to ISO 14044:2006. However, in addition to the above mandatory LCIA steps, other optional LCIA elements – normalization, grouping, and weighting – may be conducted depending on the goal and scope of the LCA study. In normalization, the results of the impact categories from the study are usually compared with the total impacts in the region of interest, the U.S. for example. Grouping consists of sorting and possibly ranking the impact categories. During weighting, the different environmental impacts are weighted relative to each other so that they can then be summed to get a single number for the total environmental impact. ISO 14044:2006 generally advises against weighting, stating that “weighting, shall not be used in LCA studies intended to be used in comparative assertions intended to be disclosed to the public”. This advice is often ignored, resulting in comparisons that can reflect a high degree of subjectivity as a result of weighting Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012

164 INTERPRETASI LCA Life Cycle Interpretation is a systematic technique to identify, quantify, check, and evaluate information from the results of the life cycle inventory and/or the life cycle impact assessment. The results from the inventory analysis and impact assessment are summarized during the interpretation phase. The outcome of the interpretation phase is a set of conclusions and recommendations for the study. According to ISO 14040:2006, the interpretation should include: 1.Identification of significant issues based on the results of the LCI and LCIA phases of an LCA; 2.Evaluation of the study considering completeness, sensitivity and consistency checks; and 3.Conclusions, limitations and recommendations. A key purpose of performing life cycle interpretation is to determine the level of confidence in the final results and communicate them in a fair, complete, and accurate manner. Interpreting the results of an LCA is not as simple as "3 is better than 2, therefore Alternative A is the best choice"! Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012 Interpreting the results of an LCA starts with understanding the accuracy of the results, and ensuring they meet the goal of the study. This is accomplished by identifying the data elements that contribute significantly to each impact category, evaluating the sensitivity of these significant data elements, assessing the completeness and consistency of the study, and drawing conclusions and recommendations based on a clear understanding of how the LCA was conducted and the results were developed.

165 LCA TOOLS AND USES There are two basic types of LCA tools: 1.Dedicated software packages intended for practitioners; and 2.Tools with the LCA in the background intended for people who want LCA-based results without have to actually develop the LCA data and impact measures. In the former category, the principal tools are GaBi Software, developed by PE International, SimaPro, developed by PRé Consultants, Quantis SUITE 2.0, developed by Quantis International and umberto, developed by ifu Hamburg GmbH, and web- based solutions include Earthster and LinkCycle. In the second category, different tools operate at different levels. At the product level, the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) makes its BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability) tool freely available, Solidworks CAD software (Dassault Systèmes) presents LCA-based environmental information to the user through an add-on called SustainabilityXpress, and PTC’s Windchill Product Analytics makes LCA results an integral part of product development systems. Based on a survey of LCA practitioners carried out in 2006 LCA is mostly used to support business strategy (18%) and R&D (18%), as input to product or process design (15%), in education (13%) and for labeling or product declarations (11%). Major corporations all over the world are either undertaking LCA in house or commissioning studies, while governments support the development of national databases to support LCA. Of particular note is the growing use of LCA for ISO Type III labels called Environmental Product Declarations, defined as "quantified environmental data for a product with pre-set categories of parameters based on the ISO series of standards, but not excluding additional environmental information". These third-party certified LCA-based labels provide an increasingly important basis for assessing the relative environmental merits of competing products. LCA also has major roles in environmental impact assessment, integrated waste management and pollution studies. Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012

166 VARIANT LCA Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012 Cradle-to-grave Cradle-to-grave is the full Life Cycle Assessment from resource extraction ('cradle') to use phase and disposal phase ('grave'). For example, trees produce paper, which can be recycled into low-energy production cellulose (fiberised paper) insulation, then used as an energy-saving device in the ceiling of a home for 40 years, saving 2,000 times the fossil-fuel energy used in its production. After 40 years the cellulose fibers are replaced and the old fibers are disposed of, possibly incinerated. All inputs and outputs are considered for all the phases of the life cycle. Cradle-to-gate Cradle-to-gate is an assessment of a partial product life cycle from resource extraction (cradle) to the factory gate (i.e., before it is transported to the consumer). The use phase and disposal phase of the product are omitted in this case. Cradle-to-gate assessments are sometimes the basis for environmental product declarations (EPD) termed business-to- business EDPs.

167 VARIANT LCA Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012 Cradle-to-cradle or open loop production Cradle-to-cradle is a specific kind of cradle-to-grave assessment, where the end-of-life disposal step for the product is a recycling process. It is a method used to minimize the environmental impact of products by employing sustainable production, operation, and disposal practices and aims to incorporate social responsibility into product development. From the recycling process originate new, identical products (e.g., asphalt pavement from discarded asphalt pavement, glass bottles from collected glass bottles), or different products (e.g., glass wool insulation from collected glass bottles).recycling Allocation of burden for products in open loop production systems presents considerable challenges for LCA. Various methods, such as the avoided burden approach have been proposed to deal with the issues involved. Gate-to-gate Gate-to-gate is a partial LCA looking at only one value-added process in the entire production chain. Gate-to-gate modules may also later be linked in their appropriate production chain to form a complete cradle-to-gate evaluation.

168 VARIANT LCA Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012 Well-to-wheel Well-to-wheel is the specific LCA used for transport fuels and vehicles. The analysis is often broken down into stages entitled "well-to-station", or "well-to-tank", and "station-to-wheel" or "tank-to-wheel", or "plug-to-wheel". The first stage, which incorporates the feedstock or fuel production and processing and fuel delivery or energy transmission, and is called the "upstream" stage, while the stage that deals with vehicle operation itself is sometimes called the "downstream" stage. The well-to-wheel analysis is commonly used to assess total energy consumption, or energy conversion efficiency and emissions impact of marine vessels, aircrafts and motor vehicle emissions, including their carbon footprint, and the fuels used in each of these transport modes. The well-to-wheel variant has a significant input on a model developed by the Argonne National Laboratory. The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model was developed to evaluate the impacts of new fuels and vehicle technologies. The model evaluates the impacts of fuel use using a well-to-wheel evaluation while a traditional cradle-to-grave approach is used to determine the impacts from the vehicle itself. The model reports energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and six additional pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), particulate matter with size smaller than 10 micrometre (PM10), particulate matter with size smaller than 2.5 micrometre (PM2.5), and sulfur oxides (SOx).

169 VARIANT LCA Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012 Economic input–output life cycle assessment Economic input–output LCA (EIOLCA) involves use of aggregate sector-level data on how much environmental impact can be attributed to each sector of the economy and how much each sector purchases from other sectors. Such analysis can account for long chains (for example, building an automobile requires energy, but producing energy requires vehicles, and building those vehicles requires energy, etc.), which somewhat alleviates the scoping problem of process LCA; however, EIOLCA relies on sector-level averages that may or may not be representative of the specific subset of the sector relevant to a particular product and therefore is not suitable for evaluating the environmental impacts of products. Additionally the translation of economic quantities into environmental impacts is not validated. Ecologically-based LCA While a conventional LCA uses many of the same approaches and strategies as an Eco-LCA, the latter considers a much broader range of ecological impacts. It was designed to provide a guide to wise management of human activities by understanding the direct and indirect impacts on ecological resources and surrounding ecosystems. Developed by Ohio State University Center for resilience, Eco-LCA is a methodology that quantitatively takes into account regulating and supporting services during the life cycle of economic goods and products. In this approach services are categorized in four main groups: supporting, regulating provisioning and cultural services

170 EFISIENSI PRODUKTIF Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012 Productive efficiency occurs when the economy is utilizing all of its resources efficiently, producing most output from least input. The concept is illustrated on a production possibility frontier (PPF) where all points on the curve are points of maximum productive efficiency (i.e., no more output can be achieved from the given inputs). An equilibrium may be productively efficient without being allocatively efficient i.e. it may result in a distribution of goods where social welfare is not maximized. This takes place when production of one good is achieved at the lowest cost possible, given the production of the other good(s). Equivalently, it is when the highest possible output of one good is produced, given the production level of the other good(s). In long-run equilibrium for perfectly competitive markets, this is where average cost is at the base on the average (total) cost curve i.e. where MC=A(T)C. Productive efficiency requires that all firms operate using best-practice technological and managerial processes. By improving these processes, an economy or business can extend its production possibility frontier outward and increase efficiency further. Due to the nature of monopolistic companies, they will choose to produce at profit maximizing levels (where MC=MR). They may not be productively efficient, because of X- inefficiency, whereby companies operating in a monopoly have less of an incentive to maximize output due to lack of competition. However, due to economies of scale it can become possible for monopolistic companies to produce at MC=MR with a lower price to the consumer than perfectly competitive companies producing at MC=A(T)C. An example PPF: points B, C and D are all productively efficient, but an economy at A would not be

171 Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012 Productive efficiency can also be illustrated by the intersection MC=A(T)C. Allocative efficiency is a type of economic efficiency in which economy/producers produce only that type of goods and services which are more desirable in the society and also in high demand. According to the formula the point of allocative efficiency is a point where price is equal to Marginal cost (P=MC). [1][2] [1][2] Although there are different standards of evaluation for the concept of allocative efficiency, the basic principle asserts that in any economic system, choices in resource allocation produce both "winners" and "losers" relative to the choice being evaluated. The principles of rational choice, individual maximization, utilitarianism and market theory further suppose that the outcomes for winners and losers can be identified, compared and measured.utilitarianism Under these basic premises, the goal of maximizing allocative efficiency can be defined according to some neutral principle where some allocations are objectively better than others. For example, an economist might say that a change in policy increases allocative efficiency as long as those who benefit from the change (winners) gain more than the losers lose. DIUNDUH DARI:

172 PRODUCTION–POSSIBILITY FRONTIER KURVA KEMUNGKINAN PRODUKSI Sumber: diunduh 30/4/2012 In economics, a production–possibility frontier (PPF), sometimes called a production– possibility curve, production-possibility boundary or product transformation curve, is a graph that compares the production rates of two commodities that use the same fixed total of the factors of production. The PPF curve shows a possible specified production level of one commodity that results given the production level of the other. By doing so, it defines productive efficiency, such that production of one commodity is maximised given the production level of the other commodity. A period of time is specified as well as the production technologies. The commodity compared can either be a good or a service. PPFs are normally drawn as bulging upwards ("concave") from the origin but can also be represented as bulging downward or linear (straight), depending on a number of factors. A PPF can be used to represent a number of economic concepts, such as scarcity of resources (i.e., the fundamental economic problem all societies face), opportunity cost (or marginal rate of transformation), productive efficiency, allocative efficiency, and economies of scale. In addition, an outward shift of the PPF results from growth of the availability of inputs such as physical capital or labour, or technological progress in our knowledge of how to transform inputs into outputs. Such a shift allows economic growth of an economy already operating at its full productivity (on the PPF), which means that more of both outputs can be produced during the specified period of time without sacrificing the output of either good. Conversely, the PPF will shift inward if the labor force shrinks, the supply of raw materials is depleted, or a natural disaster decreases the stock of physical capital. However, most economic contractions reflect not that less can be produced, but that the economy has started operating below the frontier—typically both labor and physical capital are underemployed. The combination represented by the point on the PPF where an economy operates shows the priorities or choices of the economy, such as the choice between producing more capital goods and fewer consumer goods, or vice versa.

173 Sumber: diunduh 30/4/2012. EFISIENSI PRODUKSI One of the three conditions necessary for an economy to be economically efficient is that it be on its production-possibilities frontier. If it is not on the production-possibilities frontier, more could be produced with the given resources and technology. Because greater production would increase value, any position below the production-possibilities frontier is inefficient. Notice that a great many points satisfy this condition of production efficiency--every point on the production-possibilities frontier is production efficient. Unemployed resources indicate that more goods and services could be produced, which means that the economy is not on the production-possibilities frontier. To be on the frontier, all resources must be used. In addition, resources must be used properly. A society that randomly assigns jobs to people or assigns jobs on the basis of political reliability will not produce as much as it could. It will require some people with little intellectual ability to perform jobs that require great intellectual ability, and it will require some people with little strength and endurance to perform jobs that demand much strength and endurance. If switching people among jobs can increase output, the original situation was not on the production-possibilities frontier and thus not economically efficient. This requirement that resources must be used properly can be stated more technically. Production efficiency requires that an equimarginal principle be satisfied. It requires that the ratio of marginal products for any two resources be the same for all products. The table presents a case in which this condition is not met. Here the ratio of the two marginal products for the production of widgets is (5/5) or 1 and the ratio of the two marginal products for getwids is (6/4) or 1 1/2. EFISIENSI PRODUKSI KOMODITAS LADA DI PROPINSI BANGKA BELITUNG

174 IN-EFISIENSI PRODUKSI Sumber: diunduh 30/4/2012. Production Inefficiency Marginal product of capital is: 5 widgets or 6 getwids Marginal product of labor is: 5 widgets or 4 getwids To show that the situation in the table is not production-efficient, consider what happens if a getwid producer trades a unit of labor to a widget maker for one unit of capital. The widget maker will have no change in output as a result. Reducing capital by one unit cuts output by five, but this is offset by the five widgets the extra labor adds. However, there will be more getwids. The extra unit of capital adds 6 getwids, whereas the loss of a unit of labor subtracts 4 getwids. There is a net gain of two getwids. Because the amount of production after the exchange of resources was more than the original amount, the economy could not have been on the production-possibilities frontier originally. Further, because more output has more value to consumers, the original use of resources was less efficient than the use of resources after the trade. As a result of the trade of resources, marginal products should change. Because more capital is being used in producing getwids, its marginal product in getwid production should drop (by the law of diminishing returns). Because more labor is being used in producing widgets, its marginal product in widget production should drop. Hence some exchange of resources should bring the ratios of marginal products to equality. Inefisiensi pada Proses Bisnis Business process seperti kita ketahui bersama merupakan denyut nadi suatu organisasi. Proses bisnislah yang selama ini menggerakkan roda suatu organisasi, sehingga kinerja suatu organisasi akan sangat bergantung pada efektivitas dan efisiensi proses bisnisnya. Karena begitu pentingnya peranan business process bagi suatu organisasi inilah maka tidak mengherankan kita dapat menemukan berbagai macam metode dan cara untuk meningkatkan performa proses bisnis, atau yang biasa dikenal dengan Business Process Improvement (BPI), mulai dari Six Sigma, Total Quality Management (TQM), Business Process Re-engineering (BPR), hingga Lean. Setiap metode tersebut memiliki karakteristik dan kelebihan masing-masing. Pada kesempatan ini akan dibahas sekilas tentang sebuah prinsip dasar dari lean. Lean merupakan sebuah metode yang diperkenalkan oleh Toyota, sebuah perusahaan otomotif terbesar dunia. Lean yang nama aslinya adalah Lean Manufacturing atau Toyota Production System memiliki tujuan utama mengeliminasi inefisiensi atau pemborosan (atau dalam bahasa Jepangnya adalah muda). Ada tujuh jenis pemborosan atau inefisiensi yang berusaha dibidik. Setiap jenis pemborosan ini sangat sering ditemukan pada proses bisnis setiap organisasi.

175 EFISIENSI PRODUKSI Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012. Definition of 'Production Efficiency‘ An economic level at which the economy can no longer produce additional amounts of a good without lowering the production level of another product. This will happen when an economy is operating along its production possibility frontier. The ability to produce a good using the fewest resources possible. Efficient production is achieved when a product is created at its lowest average total cost. 'Production Efficiency‘ 1.Production efficiency measures whether the economy is producing as much as possible without wasting precious resources. Theoretically, production efficiency will include all of the points along the production possibility frontier, but this is difficult to measure in practice. 2.Because resources are limited, being able to make products efficiently allows for higher levels of production. If the economy can't make more of a good without sacrificing the production of another, then a maximum level of production has been reached.

176 EFISIENSI EKONOMI Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012 Definition of 'Economic Efficiency' A broad term that implies an economic state in which every resource is optimally allocated to serve each person in the best way while minimizing waste and inefficiency. When an economy is economically efficient, any changes made to assist one person would harm another. In terms of production, goods are produced at their lowest possible cost, as are the variable inputs of production. Some terms that encompass phases of economic efficiency include allocational efficiency, production efficiency and Pareto efficiency. 'Economic Efficiency' A state of economic efficiency is essentially just a theoretical one; a limit that can be approached but never reached. Instead, economists look at the amount of waste (or loss) between pure efficiency and reality to see how efficiently an economy is functioning. Measuring economic efficiency is often subjective, relying on assumptions about the social good created and how well that serves consumers. Basic market forces like the level of prices, employment rates and interest rates can be analyzed to determine the relative improvements made toward economic efficiency from one point in time to another.

177 MENGHITUNG EFISIENSI MANUFAKTURING Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012 How to Calculate Manufacturing Efficiency Manufacturing efficiency determines how well a factory operates in production. To avoid wasting money, all processes in manufacturing must be as efficient as possible. Calculating a numerical value to the efficiency helps to identify if improvements to the production process need to be made. Keeping careful records facilitates the calculations. Instructions 1.Determine the time it takes to complete each piece of an order from the point of order until delivery. Record this as the total production time. In this time are included inspection time, the time during which the product is moved and downtime waiting between steps to continue the manufacturing process. Do not include waiting time before the order process actually begins. 2.Separate out the time actually spent manufacturing the product, also called the value-added time. Look for the length of time the product spends in the factory line where the actual construction occurs. Do not include other parts of the order and delivery process in this time. Write this down. 3.Calculate the manufacturing efficiency. Divide the amount of total manufacturing time by the value-added time. For instance, a car that is delivered 15 days from when it is ordered and production is initiated, and that spends three days on the manufacturing line would have manufacturing efficiency of 3/15 =.2. 4.Convert the answer from step 3 to a percentage by multiplying it by 100. For instance,.2 x 100 = 20 percent. Use this percentage as the manufacturing efficiency: A lower number means less efficiency and indicates time wasted in the manufacturing process. 5.Use the information to plan how to improve manufacturing to create a more efficient process. Reduce waiting, queuing and inspection times to help better the efficiency rate.

178 EFISIENSI PRODUKSI Sumber: ………….. diunduh 30/4/2012 Production efficiency is a term used to describe the state or level at which a business is producing the greatest number of units while utilizing the least amount of resources possible. The idea is to achieve a balance between use and production without decreasing the quality of the products that are manufactured. As it relates to an economy in general, production efficiency focuses on whether or not that economy is making the most prudent use of the resources available, or if making some changes would make it possible to derive more benefit from the consumption of those resources. In a business setting, evaluating production efficiency typically involves assessing each phase of the production process. The assessment begins with the acquisition of raw materials and continues through the consumption of those materials as new products are assembled and completed. This involves obtaining the highest quality materials at the best possible prices, then keeping the amount of waste generated during the production to a minimum. This in turn makes it easier to manage the long-run average total cost associated with the production process, and keep the efficiency of the manufacturing effort as high as possible. True production efficiency is achieved when the process can no longer produce any additional units without generating some type of loss in some other aspect of the business operation. For example, if a company produces yo-yos and boomerangs, increasing production time on the yo-yos may mean curtailing the production of boomerangs. While this may aid in producing more yo-yos and generating more returns from that activity, producing fewer boomerangs creates a loss in efficiency that the business must absorb. Assuming that both products are equally successful, the end result is that diverting resources does not enhance the company’s revenue at all, and may even have a small negative effect. The same general concept can be found in balancing the production of different goods and services within a particular economy. If expansion in one area leads to the need to sacrifice production of goods considered equally important to the well being of that economy, the rate of production efficiency is decreased. If these activities continue and the balance between production and the consumption of resources is further undermined, the economy as a whole may suffer. Once the trend begins, it may take some time to compensate and restore the economic balance that is a central characteristic of true production efficiency.

179 INTEGRATED CHAIN MANAGEMENT (ICM) Sumber: ………….. diunduh 3/5/2012 Integrated Chain Management (ICM), also known as Integral Chain Management, is an approach for the reduction of environmental impact of product chains. Such a product chain exists out of an extraction phase, a production phase, a use phase and a waste phase. The ultimate goal of ICM is a reduction of environmental load over the whole chain. Integrated Chain Management is one of the approaches that can be used to come to sustainable development. Other approaches in this line are the Ecological Footprint and the DTO approach. Within the ICM approach all phases within the chain must be considered. Therefore it can be seen as a "cradle to grave" approach. Several inputs and outputs can be taken into account when applying the ICM approach. Such as: Energy flows, mass flows, materials, waste flows and emissions. Within ICM material cycles should be closed where possible and the remainder flows of emissions and waste should be brought within acceptable boundaries. Also the use of resources should be kept to a minimum.emissions Integrated chain management should not be mixed up with Supply Chain Management or Integrated Supply Chain Management. These concepts do not have the reduction of environmental load as their main goal. An important aspect of ICM is that shifting to other phases in the product chain is avoided. For instance, a producer of chairs can choose to leave away an environment unfriendly material in a new product. The producer can even see this as an extra selling point for the customer. But as a consequence the supplier of raw materials has to use much more energy to produce a material with the same qualities. Within the integrated chain management approach this is not possible. The chain can be managed by developing new policies and economical or political incentives. Therefore one must have insight into the inputs and outputs of the production chain. Before these policies can be developed one must engage in several actions. Analyse the processes into a preferred level of detail Determine the boundaries of the chain. Should links outside the companies be involved as well? Determine whether there should be a focus on just one or on several environmental problems Determine on which material flows or energy flows there should be a focus. Effective supply chain management can impact virtually all business and production processes

180 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM) Sumber: ………….. diunduh 3/5/2012 Supply chain management (SCM) is the management of a network of interconnected businesses involved in the ultimate provision of product and service packages required by end customers. Supply chain management spans all movement and storage of raw materials, work-in- process inventory, and finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption (supply chain). Another definition is provided by the APICS Dictionary when it defines SCM as the "design, planning, execution, control, and monitoring of supply chain activities with the objective of creating net value, building a competitive infrastructure, leveraging worldwide logistics, synchronizing supply with demand and measuring performance globally." Supply chain management is aimed at managing complex and dynamic supply and demand networks. (cf. Wieland/Wallenburg, 2011)

181 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM) Sumber: ………….. diunduh 3/5/2012 Further common and accepted definitions of supply chain management are: Managing upstream and down stream value added flow of materials, final goods and related information among suppliers; company; resellers; final consumers is supply chain management. Supply chain management is the systematic, strategic coordination of the traditional business functions and the tactics across these business functions within a particular company and across businesses within the supply chain, for the purposes of improving the long-term performance of the individual companies and the supply chain as a whole (Mentzer et al., 2001). A customer focused definition is given by Hines (2004:p76) "Supply chain strategies require a total systems view of the linkages in the chain that work together efficiently to create customer satisfaction at the end point of delivery to the consumer. As a consequence costs must be lowered throughout the chain by driving out unnecessary costs and focusing attention on adding value. Throughout efficiency must be increased, bottlenecks removed and performance measurement must focus on total systems efficiency and equitable reward distribution to those in the supply chain adding value. The supply chain system must be responsive to customer requirements.““ Global supply chain forum - supply chain management is the integration of key business processes across the supply chain for the purpose of creating value for customers and stakeholders (Lambert, 2008). According to the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP), supply chain management encompasses the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing, procurement, conversion, and logistics management. It also includes the crucial components of coordination and collaboration with channel partners, which can be suppliers, intermediaries, third- party service providers, and customers. In essence, supply chain management integrates supply and demand management within and across companies. More recently, the loosely coupled, self-organizing network of businesses that cooperate to provide product and service offerings has been called the Extended Enterprise. A supply chain, as opposed to supply chain management, is a set of organizations directly linked by one or more of the upstream and downstream flows of products, services, finances, and information from a source to a customer. Managing a supply chain is 'supply chain management' (Mentzer et al., 2001). Supply chain management software includes tools or modules used to execute supply chain transactions, manage supplier relationships and control associated business processes. Supply chain event management (abbreviated as SCEM) is a consideration of all possible events and factors that can disrupt a supply chain. With SCEM possible scenarios can be created and solutions devised. In many cases the supply chain includes the collection of goods after consumer use for recycling. Including 3PL or other gathering agencies as part of the RM re- patriation process is a way of illustrating the new end-game strategy.

182 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM) Problems addressed by supply chain management Supply chain management must address the following problems: 1.Distribution Network Configuration: number, location and network missions of suppliers, production facilities, distribution centers, warehouses, cross-docks and customers. 2.Distribution Strategy: questions of operating control (centralized, decentralized or shared); delivery scheme, e.g., direct shipment, pool point shipping, cross docking, DSD (direct store delivery), closed loop shipping; mode of transportation, e.g., motor carrier, including truckload, LTL, parcel; railroad; intermodal transport, including TOFC (trailer on flatcar) and COFC (container on flatcar); ocean freight; airfreight; replenishment strategy (e.g., pull, push or hybrid); and transportation control (e.g., owner-operated, private carrier, common carrier, contract carrier, or 3PL). 3.Trade-Offs in Logistical Activities: The above activities must be well coordinated in order to achieve the lowest total logistics cost. Trade-offs may increase the total cost if only one of the activities is optimized. For example, full truckload (FTL) rates are more economical on a cost per pallet basis than less than truckload (LTL) shipments. If, however, a full truckload of a product is ordered to reduce transportation costs, there will be an increase in inventory holding costs which may increase total logistics costs. It is therefore imperative to take a systems approach when planning logistical activities. These trade-offs are key to developing the most efficient and effective Logistics and SCM strategy. 4.Information: Integration of processes through the supply chain to share valuable information, including demand signals, forecasts, inventory, transportation, potential collaboration, etc. 5.Inventory Management: Quantity and location of inventory, including raw materials, work-in-process (WIP) and finished goods. 6.Cash-Flow: Arranging the payment terms and methodologies for exchanging funds across entities within the supply chain. Sumber: ………….. diunduh 3/5/2012

183 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM) Supply chain business process integration Successful SCM requires a change from managing individual functions to integrating activities into key supply chain processes. An example scenario: the purchasing department places orders as requirements become known. The marketing department, responding to customer demand, communicates with several distributors and retailers as it attempts to determine ways to satisfy this demand. Information shared between supply chain partners can only be fully leveraged through process integration.process integration Supply chain business process integration involves collaborative work between buyers and suppliers, joint product development, common systems and shared information. According to Lambert and Cooper (2000), operating an integrated supply chain requires a continuous information flow. However, in many companies, management has reached the conclusion that optimizing the product flows cannot be accomplished without implementing a process approach to the business. The key supply chain processes stated by Lambert (2004) are: 1.Customer relationship management 2.Customer service management 3.Demand management style 4.Order fulfillment 5.Manufacturing flow management 6.Supplier relationship management 7.Product development and commercialization 8.Returns management One could suggest other key critical supply business processes which combine these processes stated by Lambert such as: 1.Customer service management 2.Procurement 3.Product development and commercialization 4.Manufacturing flow management/support 5.Physical distribution 6.Outsourcing/partnerships 7.Performance measurement 8.Warehousing management Sumber: ………….. diunduh 3/5/2012

184 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM) (A). CUSTOMER SERVICE MANAGEMENT PROCESS Customer Relationship Management concerns the relationship between the organization and its customers. Customer service is the source of customer information. It also provides the customer with real-time information on scheduling and product availability through interfaces with the company's production and distribution operations. Successful organizations use the following steps to build customer relationships: 1.Determine mutually satisfying goals for organization and customers 2.Establish and maintain customer rapport 3.Produce positive feelings in the organization and the customers. (B). PROCUREMENT PROCESS Strategic plans are drawn up with suppliers to support the manufacturing flow management process and the development of new products. In firms where operations extend globally, sourcing should be managed on a global basis. The desired outcome is a win-win relationship where both parties benefit, and a reduction in time required for the design cycle and product development. Also, the purchasing function develops rapid communication systems, such as electronic data interchange (EDI) and Internet linkage to convey possible requirements more rapidly. Activities related to obtaining products and materials from outside suppliers involve resource planning, supply sourcing, negotiation, order placement, inbound transportation, storage, handling and quality assurance, many of which include the responsibility to coordinate with suppliers on matters of scheduling, supply continuity, hedging, and research into new sources or programs. Sumber: ………….. diunduh 3/5/2012

185 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM) (C) PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND COMMERCIALIZATION Customers and suppliers must be integrated into the product development process in order to reduce time to market. As product life cycles shorten, the appropriate products must be developed and successfully launched with ever shorter time-schedules to remain competitive. According to Lambert and Cooper (2000), managers of the product development and commercialization process must: 1.Coordinate with customer relationship management to identify customer- articulated needs; 2.Select materials and suppliers in conjunction with procurement, and 3.Develop production technology in manufacturing flow to manufacture and integrate into the best supply chain flow for the product/market combination. (D). MANUFACTURING FLOW MANAGEMENT PROCESS The manufacturing process produces and supplies products to the distribution channels based on past forecasts. Manufacturing processes must be flexible to respond to market changes and must accommodate mass customization. Orders are processes operating on a just-in-time (JIT) basis in minimum lot sizes. Also, changes in the manufacturing flow process lead to shorter cycle times, meaning improved responsiveness and efficiency in meeting customer demand. Activities related to planning, scheduling and supporting manufacturing operations, such as work-in-process storage, handling, transportation, and time phasing of components, inventory at manufacturing sites and maximum flexibility in the coordination of geographic and final assemblies postponement of physical distribution operations. Sumber: ………….. diunduh 3/5/2012

186 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM) (E) PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION This concerns movement of a finished product/service to customers. In physical distribution, the customer is the final destination of a marketing channel, and the availability of the product/service is a vital part of each channel participant's marketing effort. It is also through the physical distribution process that the time and space of customer service become an integral part of marketing, thus it links a marketing channel with its customers (e.g., links manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers). Sumber: ………….. diunduh 3/5/2012 (F). OUTSOURCING/PARTNERSHIPS This is not just outsourcing the procurement of materials and components, but also outsourcing of services that traditionally have been provided in-house. The logic of this trend is that the company will increasingly focus on those activities in the value chain where it has a distinctive advantage, and outsource everything else. This movement has been particularly evident in logistics where the provision of transport, warehousing and inventory control is increasingly subcontracted to specialists or logistics partners. Also, managing and controlling this network of partners and suppliers requires a blend of both central and local involvement. Hence, strategic decisions need to be taken centrally, with the monitoring and control of supplier performance and day-to-day liaison with logistics partners being best managed at a local level.

187 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM) (G). PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT Experts found a strong relationship from the largest arcs of supplier and customer integration to market share and profitability. Taking advantage of supplier capabilities and emphasizing a long-term supply chain perspective in customer relationships can both be correlated with firm performance. As logistics competency becomes a more critical factor in creating and maintaining competitive advantage, logistics measurement becomes increasingly important because the difference between profitable and unprofitable operations becomes more narrow. A.T. Kearney Consultants (1985) noted that firms engaging in comprehensive performance measurement realized improvements in overall productivity. According to experts, internal measures are generally collected and analyzed by the firm including: 1.Cost 2.Customer Service 3.Productivity measures 4.Asset measurement, and 5.Quality. External performance measurement is examined through customer perception measures and "best practice" benchmarking, and includes: (1) customer perception measurement, and (2) best practice benchmarking.best practice (H). WAREHOUSING MANAGEMENT As a case of reducing company cost & expenses, warehousing management is carrying the valuable role against operations. In case of perfect storing & office with all convenient facilities in company level, reducing manpower cost, dispatching authority with on time delivery, loading & unloading facilities with proper area, area for service station, stock management system etc. Components of supply chain management are as follows: 1. Standardization 2. Postponement 3. Customization Sumber: ………….. diunduh 3/5/2012

188 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM) Theories of supply chain management Currently there is a gap in the literature available on supply chain management studies: there is no theoretical support for explaining the existence and the boundaries of supply chain management. A few authors such as Halldorsson, et al. (2003), Ketchen and Hult (2006) and Lavassani, et al. (2009) have tried to provide theoretical foundations for different areas related to supply chain by employing organizational theories. These theories include: 1.Resource-based view (RBV) 2.Transaction Cost Analysis (TCA) 3.Knowledge-Based View (KBV) 4.Strategic Choice Theory (SCT) 5.Agency Theory (AT) 6.Institutional theory (InT) 7.Systems Theory (ST) 8.Network Perspective (NP) 9.Materials Logistics Management (MLM) 10.Just-in-Time (JIT) 11.Material Requirements Planning (MRP) 12.Theory of Constraints (TOC) 13.Performance Information Procurement Systems (PIPS) 14.Performance Information Risk Management System (PIRMS) 15.Total Quality Management (TQM) 16.Agile Manufacturing 17.Time Based Competition (TBC) 18.Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM) 19.Customer Relationship Management (CRM) 20.Requirements Chain Management (RCM) 21.Available-to-promise (ATP) 22.and many more Sumber: ………….. diunduh 3/5/2012

189 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM) Komponen Integrasi SCM The management components of SCM The SCM components are the third element of the four-square circulation framework. The level of integration and management of a business process link is a function of the number and level, ranging from low to high, of components added to the link (Ellram and Cooper, 1990; Houlihan, 1985). Consequently, adding more management components or increasing the level of each component can increase the level of integration of the business process link. The literature on business process re-engineering, buyer-supplier relationships, and SCM suggests various possible components that must receive managerial attention when managing supply relationships. Sumber: ………….. diunduh 3/5/2012 Lambert and Cooper (2000) identified the following components: 1.Planning and control 2.Work structure 3.Organization structure 4.Product flow facility structure 5.Information flow facility structure 6.Management methods 7.Power and leadership structure 8.Risk and reward structure 9.Culture and attitude

190 Comparisons between global warming potential and cost–benefit criteria for optimal planning of a municipal solid waste management system Journal of Cleaner Production Volume 20, Issue 1, (January 2012). Pages 1-13 Ni-Bin Chang, Cheng Qi, Kamrul Islam, Fahim Hossain Sumber: S X00148&_cid=271750&_pubType=J&_auth=y&_acct=C &_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_useri d= &md5= f416c7e0e f065c0 ………….. diunduh 3/5/2012 Most previous optimization analyses for both short-term and long-term planning for solid waste management (SWM) overlooked global warming potential (GWP) impacts. This study integrates GWP and cost–benefit criteria to carry out optimal planning of a typical SWM system – the borough of Lewisburg, Pennsylvania. The GaBi ® software package was used to estimate the possible greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the scenario-based design process. Five managerial scenarios were organized with and without the inclusion of GWP concern within such an optimization analysis for SWM. With the aid of LINGO ® software package, the optimization models were solved sequentially to allocate different waste streams subject to the market demand and possible carbon regulation to maximize net benefit and minimize GWP, simultaneously or independently. The planning scenario with respect to a carbon-regulated environment particularly minimizes the large environmental gap in traditional cost–benefit analyses for SWM. Major finding in this study clearly indicates that simply using traditional cost-effectiveness principle or cost–benefit analysis with no GWP concern cannot compete with alternatives with GWP concerns especially in a carbon- regulated environment. The analysis eventually led to the prioritization of the Material Recovery Facilities (MRF) option before disposing of waste streams at the landfill site. Such a systems engineering approach is transferable to other SWM systems for a better planning, design, and operation in the future.

191 Comparative LCA of the use of biodiesel, diesel and gasoline for transportation Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 20, Issue 1, (January 2012). Pages Evanthia A. Nanaki, Christopher J. Koroneos Sumber: S X00148&_cid=271750&_pubType=J&_auth=y&_acct=C &_version=1&_urlVersion= 0&_userid= &md5= f416c7e0e f065c0 ………….. diunduh 3/5/2012 The energy fuels used for in the Greek transport sector are made up of gasoline consumed by automobiles, diesel oil consumed by taxis, trucks, maritime transport and railroads, and jet fuel used in the aircrafts. All these fuels are hydrocarbons that emit great amounts of CO 2 which has a major impact in the global warming phenomenon. The issues relating to climate change, the soaring energy prices, and the uncertainty of future oil supplies, have created a strong interest in alternative transportation fuels. During the past decade biofuels in the form of blended gasoline and biodiesel have begun to find place in energy economy. The Greek car market shows a remarkably low rate in the penetration of biodiesel compared to the average European Union market. This work compares the environmental impacts of the use of gasoline, diesel and biodiesel in Greece using as a tool for the comparison the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The environmental impacts taken into consideration include: organic respiratory effects, inorganic respiratory effects, fossil fuels, acidification – eutrophication, greenhouse effect, ecotoxicity and carginogenic effects. From the environmental point of view, biodiesel appears attractive since its use results in significant reductions of GHG emissions in comparison to gasoline and diesel. It also has lower well- to-wheel emissions of methane. However, the use of biodiesel as transportation fuel increases emissions of PM10, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides (NO x ) as well as nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous; the latter are the main agents for eutrophication.

192 A taxonomy of ecodesign tools for integrating environmental requirements into the product design process Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 20, Issue 1, (January 2012). Pages M.D. Bovea, V. Pérez-Belis Sumber: S X00148&_cid=271750&_pubType=J&_auth=y&_acct=C &_version=1&_urlVersion= 0&_userid= &md5= f416c7e0e f065c0 ………….. diunduh 3/5/2012 This article reviews and classifies tools that have been developed to evaluate the environmental requirement of products and to facilitate its integration into the product design process. Over the years a wide range of techniques have been developed to evaluate the environmental performance of products. However, they all consider the environmental aspect of a product in an isolated way, without taking into account the remaining requirements that a designer has to consider during the design process. Hence, the integration of environmental aspects into the early stages of the design process together with a multi-criteria approach that makes it possible to balance the environmental requirements against other traditional requirements are two of the key factors for successful sustainable design. With the intention of providing designers with a brief guide to selecting the ecodesign tool that best fits a specific case study, a classification was made according to criteria such as: 1.the method applied for the environmental assessment, 2.the product requirements that need to be integrated in addition to the environmental one (multi-criteria approach), 3.whether the tool has a life cycle perspective (i.e. it considers all the stages of the life cycle of a product), 4.the nature of the results (qualitative or quantitative), 5.the stages of the conceptual design process where the tool can be applied, and 6.the methodology taken as a basis for such integration.


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