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Perspective on biodiversity and community participation in Indonesia Rhett A. Butler mongabay.com.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Perspective on biodiversity and community participation in Indonesia Rhett A. Butler mongabay.com."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Perspective on biodiversity and community participation in Indonesia Rhett A. Butler mongabay.com

2 Biodiversity: What is it? Keanekaragaman Hayati: Apa itu?

3 mongabay.comINDONESIAUSA North Sumatra California

4 mongabay.comINDONESIAUSA Mammals / Mamalia Birds / Burung: Reptiles / Reptil: Plants / Tanaman: 30,000 20,000 30,000 20,000 Mammals / Mamalia Birds / Burung: Reptiles / Reptil: Plants / Tanaman: 30,000 20,000 30,000 20,000

5 Biodiversity: Why is it important? Keanekaragaman Hayati: Mengapa penting? -Ecosystem services -Food, fiber, fuel -Medicine (Calanolide A) -Jasa ekosistem -Makanan, serat, bahan bakar -Kedokteran (Calanolide A) mongabay.com Bali

6 Indonesian examples -Indonesia peatlands store 55 billion tons of carbon -Ecotourism: orangutans, Komodo dragons, and coral reefs -Oil palm is a rainforest species Indonesia: -Lahan gambut Indonesia menyimpan 55 miliar ton karbon -Ekowisata: orangutan, komodo, dan terumbu karang -Kelapa sawit adalah spesies hutan hujan mongabay.com North Sumatra Biodiversity: Why is it important? Keanekaragaman Hayati: Mengapa penting?

7 mongabay.com Trends in Biodiversity Tren Keanekaragaman Hayati Central Kalimantan

8 Trends in Biodiversity - Global mongabay.com Peru Deforestasi: 9,3 juta hektar / tahun , termasuk 40 ha m dari hutan primer

9 Trends in Biodiversity - Global 8 of 10 warmest years since 1880 have occurred since dari 10 tahun terpanas sejak 1880 telah terjadi sejak tahun 1998 mongabay.com

10 Trends in Biodiversity – Wildlife mongabay.com Mammals Primates in Asia Mamalia Primata di Asia ICUN Red List - percent threatened ICUN Red List - persen terancam

11 Trends in Biodiversity – Wildlife mongabay.com Amphibians Reptiles ICUN Red List - percent threatened

12 Trends in Biodiversity – Wildlife mongabay.com Corals Birds ICUN Red List - percent threatened

13 Tren Keanekaragaman Hayati - Global Hutan Hujan Tropis Amazon: Dua musim kemarau terbesar terjadi dalam kurun lima tahun terakhir mongabay.com

14 Trends in Biodiversity - Indonesia Wildlife -147 mammal species, 114 birds threatened -Bali and Java tigers extinct, Sumatran critically endangered -Javan and Sumatran rhinos critically endangered mongabay.com

15 Trends in Biodiversity - Indonesia Annual deforestation in Sumatra and Kalimantan, (1000 ha) Tahunan deforestasi di Sumatera dan Kalimantan, mongabay.com Data: Broich 2011

16 Why is Indonesia’s biodiversity declining? Mengapa keanekaragaman hayati Indonesia menurun? -Population -Corruption, land-grabbing, and unclear land rights -Shift toward Western development model over past century mongabay.com Jambi

17 Tradeoffs: At what cost? Pengorbanan: Pada apa biaya? -Industrialization: -New opportunities -Economic growth … but also -Environmental degradation -Cultural loss -Loss of self- reliance mongabay.com Sabah, Malaysia Industrialisasi: -Peluang baru -Pertumbuhan ekonomi... tetapi juga -Degradasi lingkungan -Budaya rugi -Kehilangan kemandirian

18 Are tradeoffs avoidable? Apakah pengorbanan dihindari? -Big country with lots of forest, biodiversity, cultural diversity -Agriculture, forestry, and mining are important economic sectors -Increased emphasis on sustainability -Deforestation reduced 80% since 2004, per capita GDP up 37% -Growing interest in ecosystem services markets ($30B/yr by 2030?) mongabay.com -Besar negara dengan banyak hutan, keanekaragaman hayati, keanekaragaman budaya -Pertanian, kehutanan, dan pertambangan merupakan sektor ekonomi yang penting -Meningkatnya penekanan pada keberlanjutan -Deforestasi berkurang 80% sejak tahun 2004, PDB per kapita naik 37% -Tumbuh bunga di pasar jasa ekosistem ($ 30B/yr pada tahun 2030?) Brazil’s model / Brasil Model:

19 Forum Amazon Berkelanjutan (Brazil) -Proses pemegang saham -Kalangan pebisnis di Brazil memperlihatkan kepemimpinan -Memaksa para politikus mengambil sikap tegas dalam masalah perubahan iklim dan penebangan hutan -Brazil sekarang ini mempunyai target yang ambisius untuk mengurangi penebangan hutan dan emisi mongabay.com

20 Biodiversity Protecting Biodiversity Melindungi Keanekaragaman Hayati North Sulawesi

21 Protected areas -Traditional approach -11% of Indonesia, including 16% of forests (on paper) -But not enough -Park approach doesn’t directly deliver benefits to many people -Paper parks mongabay.com West Papua

22 Protecting biodiversity outside parks Melindungi keanekaragaman hayati di luar taman -Reduce environmental impact of commercial operations -Community resource management mongabay.com Sumatra

23 Community resource management Pengelolaan sumber daya masyarakat Community-scale management can have lower impact than industrial-scale management Agroforestry: more biodiversity than plantations, less pollution, more ecosystem services Community forestry instead of illegal logging More livelihoods per hectare Potentially compatible with REDD+ Often consistent with land rights and culture, self-reliance mongabay.com Central Kalimantan

24 Keys to community participation Kunci untuk partisipasi masyarakat -Community mapping -Secure rights to land/resources -Receive compensation/block damaging projects -Establish basis for understanding resource use -Plan for future use: how much is enough? Is use consistent with needs, value, and culture? -Government level -Policy reform -Transparency -Engagement with companies -FPIC -Stakeholder involvement in planning process -Grievance and conflict resolution process -Monitoring and evaluation mongabay.com Torajaland, Sulawesi

25 Lack of community participation -Corruption -Loss of customary knowledge and culture -Relationship with land changes -Ecosystem perceived as less valuable as culture dies -Knowledge of value of forest disappears -Inter-community conflict -Money, status, land, development -Conflict with companies, government -Risk for companies that source from conflict areas mongabay.com Papua

26 Sago forestry in Tebing Tinggi Sagu kehutanan di Tebing Tinggi -Community of Sungai Tohor on the island of Tebing Tinggi -Sago palm grown in peat forests -Grow taller when protected by forest trees; industrial cultivation results in lower yields -Sago starch exported to Java and Malaysia mongabay.com Tebing Tinggi. Courtesy of Lafcadio Cortesi

27 US: Ecotrust ecological forestry -U.S. forestry can’t compete in low value market; instead target high value market -Sustainable forest management approach with 100-year concessions -Revenue from timber, secondary forest products, ecosystem services (carbon), sales of conservation easements -“Triple bottom line”: communities, environment, profit mongabay.com California

28 mongabay.com North Sulawesi

29 Benefits of Biodiversity -Direct benefits -Ecosystem services -Option value -New markets -Manfaat langsung -Jasa ekosistem -Nilai Opsi -Pasar baru mongabay.com California (USA)

30 Ecosystem services / Jasa ekosistem Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) initiative: -99 million Indonesians dependent on ecosystem services -Ecosystem services account for 21% of Indonesia’s GDP -Ecosystem services account of 75% of GDP of Indonesia’s rural poor -99 juta tergantung pada jasa ekosistem Indonesia -Jasa ekosistem account untuk 21% dari PDB Indonesia -Jasa ekosistem rekening 75% dari PDB di Indonesia miskin pedesaan mongabay.com North Sumatra

31 Reduce environmental problems Mengurangi masalah lingkungan -Protecting forests and peatlands fights haze -Healthy forests help cut water and air pollution -Forests help regulate water flows, reducing the incidence of flooding and drought -Mangroves buffer coastlines from erosion mongabay.com

32 Option value / Nilai Opsi -Oil palm is valuable, but it is not unique -Brazil’s 5M ha of certified sustainable palm oil -What’s the next oil palm? -Indonesia’s biodiversity is unique and irreplaceable -Once a species is lost it cannot be replaced -Gastric brooding toad mongabay.com

33 New markets / Pasar Baru -REDD + -Lain-pembayaran untuk jasa ekosistem (air, pengendalian erosi, penyerbukan, keanekaragaman hayati) -Kepemimpinan peluang bagi Indonesia -Ekosistem Indonesia telah banyak karbon dan keanekaragaman hayati mongabay.com North Sulawesi

34 Trends / Tren -Peraturan (pemerintah) -Lacey Act (USA) -FLEG-T (Eropa) -Biofuels standar (E.U. dan California) -Pasar (perusahaan) -Gambar keprihatinan -CSR -Membeli praktek / rantai suplai mongabay.com North Sumatra

35 Trends -Regulation (governments) -Lacey Act (U.S.) -FLEG-T (Europe) -Biofuels standards (E.U. and California) -Markets (companies) -Image concerns -CSR programs -Buying practices / supply chains mongabay.com

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37 Consumer-facing companies / Perusahaan -Europe, U.S., Brazil -Concerned about market perception -Don’t want controversy over deforestation, social conflict -Chain of custody control as risk mitigation strategy -Melamine scandal -Beef recalls -Litigation very expensive mongabay.com North Sumatra

38 Big companies making big changes Perusahaan besar membuat perubahan besar -Walmart -100% RSPO palm oil by Global cattle tracking system -Packaging reduction mandate -CO2 emissions tracking -Unilever, Nestle, Kraft, Carrefour -RSPO targets -The Body Shop -Canceled palm oil contract with RSPO-certified supplier over social conflict (Oct 2010) mongabay.com West Papua

39 Soy in the Amazon / Kedelai di Amazon -Major contributor to deforestation -Rapid expansion (1M ha in 1990, 7M ha in 2005) Greenpeace report linked Amazon soy to McDonald’s -McDonald’s gave suppliers an ultimatum: clean up or lose our business -Moratorium on deforestation for soy since 2006 mongabay.com Brazil

40 Is palm oil next? / Apakah kelapa sawit selanjutnya? -Pressure from markets: -Unilever, Walmart, Carrefour, Nestle -Dutch government -E.U. biofuels regulations -Pressure from competitors (Brazil) -Industry action: -Golden Agri Resources (Feb 2011) -RSPO / ISPO -REDD+ Moratorium -Degraded lands opportunity -Satellite imagery = transparency? mongabay.com Sabah, Malaysia

41 What are progressive companies seeking? Apa adalah perusahaan progresif cari? -From Indonesian companies: -Credible supply chains (traceability) -Low or no deforestation, biodiversity loss -Good community relations including FPIC and no conflict -From Indonesian government: -Policies that include recognition of rights and climate, biodiversity, and social safeguards (risk mitigation) -Reduced corruption -Obama’s enforcement of Foreign Corrupt Practices Act mongabay.com North Sulawesi

42 Capitalizing on the sustainability shift Memanfaatkan pergeseran keberlanjutan -Indonesian companies that demonstrate stewardship, good community relations are well- positioned to benefit -Rich biodiversity and global concern about climate change provide an opportunity for Indonesian companies and Indonesia to lead -Indonesia’s opportunity to leap- frog dirty development and achieve low carbon development mongabay.com West Papua

43 Don’t lose the good things Tidak kehilangan hal-hal yang baik -Economic development brings benefits, but don’t forget what makes Indonesia unique: -culture and biodiversity -neither can be replaced -Economic development can occur without abandoning culture. -U.S.: a lot of materialism, but shift toward embracing ‘lost’ culture -Focus on communities -Walmart’s local sourcing program -Political movements (Tea party) emphasize core values -Indonesia is special. There’s no reason why it can’t become a world power while maintaining what makes it special mongabay.com North Sulawesi

44 -Economic development brings a lot of good things, but also bad things -Don’t lose what makes Indonesia unique: culture and biodiversity. Neither can be replaced. -Don’t need to abandon culture. -Many cities in the U.S. have no personality -Trend in U.S. is shift back toward roots and core beliefs, communitiies -Political movements: Tea party -Big companies: Walmart’s local sourcing -Indonesia is special. There’s no reason why it can’t become a world power while maintaining what makes it special mongabay.com

45 Facebook:mongabayWeb:indonesia.mongabay.com mongabay-indonesia (Bahasa)(Bahasa (Bahasa + (Bahasa) Rhett Butler -- mongabay.com

46 Sustainable Amazon Forum (Brazil) -Multi-stakeholder process -Brazilian business show leadership -Force politicians to take strong stance on climate change and deforestation -Brazil now has ambitious targets for reducing deforestation and emissions mongabay.com North Sulawesi

47 Cattle in the Amazon -Biggest single driver of deforestation -Hundreds of thousands of farmers -No governance; corruption -Summer 2009: transformation -Led by municipalities and companies (not central government) -Zero deforestation mandate from Walmart, Nike, others mongabay.com Brazil

48 Bolsa Floresta (Brazil) model -Amazonas, Brazil -Direct payments (Rp 280,000/mo/family) to communities for “making no smoke” -Families attend environmental awareness training -Children enrolled in school -Incentives and training for bee keeping, fish farming, sustainable forest management mongabay.com Brazil

49 Community participation and REDD Partisipasi masyarakat dan REDD Studi: emisi yang lebih rendah di hutan- hutan masyarakat yang dikelola -Partisipasi masyarakat memberikan masyarakat saham dalam REDD -Partisipasi masyarakat merupakan 'bonus' untuk pasar mongabay.com Sabah, Malaysia


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