1PEMISAHAN BERDASAR KONTAK KESEIMBANGAN Dr. Ir. Meika Syahbana Rusli, MSc
2Suatu kelompok operasi pemisahan, yang dipergunakan di dalam pengolahan produk pertanian, dapat disebut pemisahan secara kontak keseimbangan.Proses pemisahan berdasarkan kontak keseimbangan mensyaratkan terjadi perubahan fasa dari komponen-komponen campuran.Peralatan yang berdasarkan pada kontak keseimbangan antara lain adalah peralatan untuk proses absorbsi atau desorbsi gas, distilasi, ekstraksi, crystalisasi dan pengeringan.
31. Absorbsi atau desorbsi gas Kontak antara aliran gas dan aliran bahan caircontoh :Hidrogenasi minyak, yaitu gas hidrogen digelembungkan menembus minyak yang kemudian bereaksi. Hidrogen diserap oleh minyak, bereaksi dengan ikatan tidak jenuh di dalam minyak untuk mengeraskan lemak tersebutKarbonasi minuman. CO2 dibawah tekanan, dilarutkan dalam bahan cair minuman sehingga apabila tekanan dilepaskan perlahan-lahan pada sat tutup botol dibuka akan terbentuk busa
42. EkstraksiBahan cair dipergunakan untuk melakukan pemisahan suatu komponen dari bahan padat/cairContoh :Ekstraksi minyak dari bahan mentah alamiah seperti kacang tanah, kacang kedelai dan biji-bijianEkstraksi bahan cair-bahan cair dipergunakan di dalam pemurnian lemak hewanEkstraksi pada industri gula, yaitu ketika sukrosa yang larut dipindahkan oleh air ekstraksi dari tebu atau bit
53. DistilasiSuatu proses dimana salah satu bagian bahan diuapkan. Komponen yang berbeda, berbeda pula daya penguapannya.Contoh :Pemisahan minyak atsiriPemisahan bau dan aroma yang tidak dikehendakiPemisahan anggur dan spiritus
64. Crystalisasi 5. Pengeringan Komponen yang larut dapat dipindahkan dari larutan dengan menyesuaikan kondisi sedemikian rupa sehingga larutan menjadi lewat jenuh dan menyebabkan terbentuknya kristalisasi.Contoh :Pemurnian gula dan garam5. PengeringanPemisahan air dari bahan yang tertinggal di dalam bahan pangan.
8In operation, the dirty gas rises up through the multiple spray zones ( number depending on service ) where the larger dust particles drop out by gravity or by impinging on the spray droplets. High mass and heat transfer take place as the gas passes through the spray and mixes with liquor droplets. After passing through the spray zone the gas enters the entrainment eliminator where entrained liquor droplets are removed.Typical Application :Coarse particle removal and gaseous absorption in industrial and power boilers, and in chlorine, ammonia, aluminum and fertilizer plants. -General gas cooling.
9Spray TowerThis is mainly used for cooling down of gas, gas pre-absorption, and dust pre-collecting. In order to adjust your installation conditions, we are able to propose either horizontal or vertical type.
10Supercritical Fluid Extraction EKSTRAKSISupercritical Fluid ExtractionLaboratory Scale SFE (100mL up to 10L Systems)
11har is the world leader in design, development, and manufacture of solvent-free pilot / lab-scale supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) systems. Supercritical fluid extraction is widely used in natural products, foods and flavors, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, polymers, chemicals, and parts cleaning industries. SFE, utilizing CO2 instead of solvent-based or other existing technologies, has several advantages. The laboratory SFE scale models from Thar starts from 100mL up to 10L. Models can include co-solvent pump, fractionation and recycling.
12SFE applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries: Decaffination of coffee and teaExtraction of essential oils (vegetable and fish oils)Extraction of flavors from natural resources (nutraceuticals)Extraction of ingredients from spices and red peppersExtraction of fat from food productsFractionation of polymeric materialsExtraction from natural productsPhoto-resist cleaningPrecision part cleaning
14Pilot scale requirements differ greatly from application to application and from company to company. Since the pilot stage is designed to be a stepping-stone to production levels, Thar emphasizes flexibility and cost effectiveness in the design and development of its pilot scale systems. The modular design of Thar's systems enables quick and easy testing and optimization of processing parameters.For companies who need additional support at the pilot stage, Thar offers a complete line of process and application services and toll processing. Additionally, Thar has its own multi-purpose pilot scale systems in-house that can be utilized for a wide range of experimental programs.
16har's family of process scale systems includes both multi-purpose and application specific systems. Standardized configurations based on our 200 plus years of combined experience, process development expertise and patented and patent-pending technology range up to 1500L volume in a single vessel and 6000L in total volume. Beyond standard systems, Thar offers the option of custom configurations to best suit your application(s), including innovative packages to increase energy efficency.This expertise has been proven across multiple continents and includes packages designed to GMP specifications. Emphasizing continuing product R&D, Thar designs and develops components and entire systems. Thar's pumps, vessels and all other components that go into complete systems are specifically optimized for carbon dioxide and designed for manufacturability to reduce manufacturing costs, providing a cost savings that get passed to you.
17Distilasi Steam Distillation Essential oils are used in perfumes, handmade soaps, bath salts, lotions and other natural bath and body products. These volatile oils can be used individually or blended to create a special bouquet. One of the ways essential oils are extracted from plant material is through steam distillation. The following diagram provides an overview of the steam distillation process.
191. Fresh or dried botanicals are placed in the retort or still. 2. Pressurized steam is introduced into a lower chamber of the retort and passed through the botanical ingredients to vaporize the volatile oils in the plant material.3. The steam and oil vapor mixture is then passed through a condenser.4. The essential oil is then extracted from the floral water or hydrolat in the separator.
20Distillation Expertise Distillation Applications - Solvent recovery systems - Product purification - Solvent dryingOperation Types - Continuous, batch, vacuum, pressureDistillation Types - Ideal and non-ideal systems - Binary and multi-component separations - Special distillation techniques - Azeotropic - Extractive - Reactive - Pressure Swing
21Distillation Column Types - Sieve and valve tray - High performance valves - Structured packings - Dumped packingsMaterials of Construction - SS, CS - Nickel alloys - Chloride resistant alloys - AL6XN, Alloy 2205 - Glass lined steel - Teflon lined steel - Other exotic alloys
26It is much like a simple forced circulation evaporator, but it includes specific features to allow correct crystallization, namelyan "active volume", designed case by case, to get both required an "active volume", designed case by case, to get both required residence time for crystal growth and mother liquor desupersaturation.a given agitation (recirculation rate) rated to control the extent of supersaturation arising from the evaporation, and to keep the temperature difference in the heat exchanger within reasonable limits.a special design of the liquid-vapor separation area to minimize the carry over losses and avoid the formation of an excessive amount of fines, which is highly detrimental to crystal growth.
27Depending upon specific process requirements, additional devices can be provided. They are:internal baffles, used mainly for excess mother liquor overflow and /or withdrawal of fines when crystal growth is slow or disturbed by impurities build-up (see Figure 2),elutriation leg, to improve product purity and to deliver a narrow crystal size distribution ,an internal scrubbing section to reduce to very low value the carry over losses, or even to provide stripping or absorption devices when a volatile compound must be recovered.Typical products are:NaCl (food or technical grade), KNO3, Na2, SO4, K2 SO4NH4Cl, Na2CO3H2O and Citric acid
28Oslo Type Crystallizer Close Type Oslo type crystallizer also called classified-suspension crystallizer is the oldest design developed for the production of large, coarse crystals.
29The basic design criteria are twofold: desupersaturation of the mother liquor by contact with the largest crystals present in the crystallization chamberkeeping most of the crystals in suspension without contact by a stirring device, thus enabling the production of large crystals of narrow size distributionTypical products are:(NH4)2 SO4Na2SO4AgNO3hydrated mono sodium glutamatemono ammonium phosphate (MAP)
30The classifying crystallization chamber is the lower part of the unit The classifying crystallization chamber is the lower part of the unit. The upper part is the liquor-vapor separation area where supersaturation is developed by the removal of the solvent (water for most applications). The slightly supersaturated liquor flows down through a central pipe and the supersaturation is relieved by contact with the fluidized bed of crystals. The desupersaturation occurs progressively as the circulating mother liquor moves upwards through the classifying bed before being collected in the top part of the chamber. Then it leaves via the circulating pipe and after addition of the fresh feed, it passes through the heat exchanger where heat make-up is provided. It is then recycled to the upper part.
31Oslo Type Crystallizer Open Type is worth to be considered when very large settling areas are required or when the vessel must be fabricated out of high cost alloys or metals.