Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

G M O Genetically Modified Organisms. Protein adalah bahan kimia super-kompleks dimana perbedaan muatan listrik sedikit saja, atau perubahan pH,

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "G M O Genetically Modified Organisms. Protein adalah bahan kimia super-kompleks dimana perbedaan muatan listrik sedikit saja, atau perubahan pH,"— Transcript presentasi:

1 G M O Genetically Modified Organisms

2

3

4

5 Protein adalah bahan kimia super-kompleks dimana perbedaan muatan listrik sedikit saja, atau perubahan pH, bisa memutar posisi atom C atau H sehingga jadilah bahan yang lain sama sekali

6 The Genome Project | The Human Genome Project = Pemetaan Gene Manusia

7

8 Perjalanan Ilmiah 1.To observe –ada chromosome x dan y –ada sifat yang sex-linked –ada protein DNA yang salah urut 2.To describe –urutan abnormal pada rantai X menyebabkan (misalnya) phenylketonuria

9 Perjalanan Ilmiah 3.To understand –kejadian phenylketonuria tidak ada pada ras yang chromosome P-23xx nya lengkap 4.To predict –genetic mapping pada fetus, kehamilan diteruskan atau abortus 5.To control –merubah DNA agar tercipta mahluk sempurna

10 Tujuan semula Kasihan pada pasien penyakit sukar –Hemofilia, Sickle Cell Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Leukemia dll –Diabetes 10% populasi = milyaran pasien yang menderita Produksi makanan yang kurang –banyak orang Afrika mati kelaparan Wabah penyakit virus ganas, parasit, vektor yang sukar diberantas

11

12

13

14 Memproduksi “mahluk baru” sesuai pesanan Penemuan DNA dan gene Deskripsi peran masing-masing gene Genetic engineering –Manipulasi dan intervensi pemotongan dan penggantian gene dan DNA –Menciptakan mahluk “baru” Cloning

15 Apa salahnya menciptakan mahluk baru ?

16 The question Apakah mahluk ciptaan manusia ini persis membawa sifat yang kita rencanakan ? Apakah mahluk ini tidak membawa sifat yang tidak kita rencanakan ? Apakah mahluk ini tidak melahirkan sifat dahsyat akibat interaksinya dengan alam sekitar / mahluk lain yang sudah ada ?

17 The answer We don’t know For God’s sake we don’t know But it is promising financially 91% GMO di dunia buatan Monsanto, USA Bibitnya tidak dapat disemaikan ulang Seluruh dunia tergantung pada beli bibit dari USA dan tergantung planning tanam negara adi kuasa

18 Creatures great and small Thousands of different GM mice have been created, to "model" human diseases Sheep, cows, mice, pigs, rabbits and cats cloned Dumber farm animals less sensitive to stress and pain making easier for farmers to handle. GM chickens whose eggs contain medicines, Spider goats to produce spider's web in their milk, to make body armour. Killer moths created to pass deadly gene to their wild offspring, which feed on cotton plants.

19 Murphy’s law: If anything can go wrong, it will go wrong

20 Biopharming : genetic tinkering can turn an ordinary- looking corn field into a potential drug factory, producing insulin, chemotherapy drugs, and other products cheaper than it costs to set up factory plant

21 Ini padi. Tetapi apakah padi ini hanya menghasilkan beras ? Atau antibiotika dalam skala raksasa ? Ini jagung. Apakah cuma jadi makanan sapi ? Atau menghasilkan racun yang akan membuat ganas E.coli dalam usus orang yang memakannya ?

22 Ke jagung lain Ke rumput & gumma Ke hewan pemakan Gene transfer

23 Monsanto and Ciba-Geigy produce herbicides Monsanto and Ciba-Geigy modify genes that make RR soybeans and Max corn resistant to herbicides they produced Those genes could transfer to weeds, making those weeds resistant to herbicides. Such resistance has already been observed in Denmark, where rapeseed, a native European plant used to make vegetable oil, was genetically altered to resist a pesticide. That resistance then jumped from the rapeseed plant to neighboring weeds Genes can destroy native plants permanently

24 GM genes found in human gut John Vidal, The Guardian July 17, 2002 The Guardian British scientific researchers in Newcastle University have demonstrated that genetically modified DNA material from crops is finding its way into human gut bacteria, raising potentially serious health questions. People's resistance to widely used antibiotics could be compromised.

25 GM genes found in human gut Seven human volunteers had their lower intestine removed in the past and now use colostomy bags. After being fed a meal of a burger containing GM soya and a milkshake, the researchers compared their stools with 12 people with normal stomachs. "a relatively large proportion of genetically modified DNA survived the passage through the small bowel".

26 GM DNA might be transferred via bacteria to the intestine Cultivated bacteria from stools in the colostomy bags showed in three of the seven samples that it had taken up the herbicide-resistant gene from the GM food at a very low level. Michael Antonio, a senior lecturer in molecular genetics at King's College Medical School, London, said "To my knowledge they have demonstrated clearly that you can get GM plant DNA in the gut bacteria”

27 European scientists are worried about a bacterium gene in Ciba-Geigy's corn that conveys resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin. The gene could be passed to the cattle who eat the corn then spread to people who eat the cattle. Both animals and humans would then become resistant to ampicillin

28 Monsanto Artificial bovine growth hormone (rBGH) 1994 : –the drug increased milk production –but the resultant health problems in cattle outweighed the benefits from the extra milk produced. Sales drop 55% in 2 years. Flavr Savr tomato is genetically engineered to taste like a homegrown tomato yet be sturdy enough to ship across country. Bollgard, genetically engineered cotton, produce a natural pesticide to three insects that eat cotton. –Bollgard failed to perform as expected during a heavy bollworm infestation. Monsanto began telling farmers that spraying might be necessary to save their crops.

29 Monsanto, Abbott dll In theory, Bollgard cotton works because it has been genetically engineered to contain genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which is harmless to humans but in high enough doses kills insects. The long-term implications are frightening. Bt, a natural substance. Making this natural pesticide an integral part of cotton and soybeans and corn, will hasten the evolution of Bt-resistant insects. Abbott Laboratories marketed DiPel insecticide, a blend of five or more toxins as the solution for growers who planted Monsanto's Bollgard.

30 Monsanto, Ciba-Geigy Ciba-Geigy has similar plans for Maximizer, a corn hybrid loaded with three altered genes. Like Monsanto's cotton, Ciba-Geigy's corn contains a Bt gene that makes the corn toxic to pests, in this case the corn-borer larvae. Like Roundup Ready, Maximizer is also built to resist one of Ciba- Geigy's herbicides, glufosinate

31 The EPA announced that Pioneer Hi-Bred Int, Inc. (Des Moines, Iowa), had paid a $72,000 fine. The penalty was imposed after the company had failed to promptly report test data showing that a gene engineered to protect against corn rootworm had contaminated other experimental plants in an adjacent field at the company's research facility in Kauai, Hawaii.

32 Bagaimana jika gene ini masuk ke sel manusia dan masuk ke DNA nya ? Pada orang sakit berat dengan terapi recombinant products ? Pada bayi dan anak tumbuh kembang dengan diet susu atau makanan tambahan Genetic Modified ?

33 10 processed foods that will soon contain Roundup Ready soybeans and Maximizer corn Coca-Cola, Fritos corn chips, Kraft salad dressings, Similac infant formula McDonald's french fries.

34 Mutasi yang sejauh ini kita kenal Cystic fibrosis –80% memiliki orang tua sehat Hemofilia –30% memiliki orang tua sehat –1 - 8 / 10,000 penduduk Multiple Sclerosis ? Schizophrenia ?

35 Beranikah negara kita menolak GMO / GMF ?

36 sheep milk contains medicine

37

38 Cloning | penggandaan mahluk hidup tanpa reproduksi seksual Apakah ini bisa berhasil ?

39 Pigs farming for organs (xeno-transplant)

40 Skenario B Bagaimana jika hewan clone mati kena penyakit baru ? Bagaimana jika hewan clone menyebarkan penyakit baru ? Bagaimana jika rekayasa genetika membuat perang kuman dan virus baru ?

41 Kronologi wabah besar di dunia : wabah pes, jutaan mati 1950 : wabah polio dan flu, ribuan mati : wabah HIV, jutaan mati : wabah CJE, puluhan mati : Ebola, meningitis dll SARS, ratusan mati

42 Recombinant technology E coli dibuat agar memproduksi erythropoeitin, insulin, growth hormones Adenovirus dimuati gene agar merubah sel- sel mucosa pasien cystic fibrosis berhenti hipersekresi Rotavirus dimuati gene agar merubah sel mucosa usus berhenti jadi colitis ulcerosa

43 Adults and children estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS as of end 1998 Western Europe North Africa & Middle East sub-Saharan Africa 22.5 million Eastern Europe & Central Asia South & South-East Asia 6.7 million Australia & New Zealand North America Caribbean Latin America 1.4 million Total: 33.4 million 2001: 36.1 million 2001: 36.1 million E-1 – 15 December 1998 East Asia & Pacific

44 Proportional increase in country HIV prevalence rates between 1994 and 1997 Over 100% (27) 10% to 100% (47) 0.01% to 10% (18) No growth (44) No 1997 data (36) E-15 – 15 July 1998

45 Apakah HIV bukan strain virus rekayasa kita yang keluar jalur ? Experimental biology gone beserk ?

46 Are we all doomed? Can our planet survive? Nuclear terrorism Engineered viruses Rogue machines ? Technology is throwing up all kinds of new apocalyptic threats. Astronomer Royal, Sir Martin Rees, 30 April 2003

47 Apakah SARS bukan strain virus rekayasa kita yang keluar jalur ?

48 The answer We don’t know

49 Dan (Syu’aib) berkata : “Hai kaumku, cukupkanlah sukatan dan timbangan dengan adil dan janganlah kamu kurangi sedikitpun hak-hak manusia, dan janganlah kamu berbuat bencana di muka bumi sebagai orang-orang perusak. (Surat Huud : 85)


Download ppt "G M O Genetically Modified Organisms. Protein adalah bahan kimia super-kompleks dimana perbedaan muatan listrik sedikit saja, atau perubahan pH,"

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google