Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Slide 10.1 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 CHAPTER 10 MANAJEMEN PERUBAHAN (CHANGE MANAGEMENT)

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "Slide 10.1 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 CHAPTER 10 MANAJEMEN PERUBAHAN (CHANGE MANAGEMENT)"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Slide 10.1 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 CHAPTER 10 MANAJEMEN PERUBAHAN (CHANGE MANAGEMENT)

2 Slide 10.2 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Tugas  Paparkanlah sebuah ide viral marketing yang dapat Anda lakukan untuk e-commerce Anda. TULIS TANGAN Kriteria penilaian: Ide original, penjelasan baik dan dapat dipahami 70-80Ide original, namun penjelasan kurang baik atau penjelasan baik namun ide kurang fresh 40-60Ide dan penjelasan kurang baik 20-30Anda memberi contekan atau menyalin teman Anda

3 Slide 10.3 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Learning outcomes  Identify the different types of change that need to managed for e-commerce  Develop an outline plan for implementing e-commerce change  Describe alternative approaches to organizational structure resulting from organizational change.

4 Slide 10.4 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Management issues  What are the success factors in managing change?  Should we change organizational structure in response to e-business? If so, what are the options?  How do we manage the human aspects of the implementation of organizational change?  How do we share knowledge between staff in the light of high staff turnover and rapid changes in market conditions?

5 Slide 10.5 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Key change management issues  Schedule – what are the suitable stages for introducing change?  Budget – how do we cost e-business?  Resources needed – what type of resources do we need, what are their responsibilities and where do we obtain them?  Organizational structures – do we need to revise organizational structure?  Managing the human impact of change – what is the best way to introduce large-scale e-business change to employees?  Technologies to support e-business change – the role of knowledge management, groupware and intranets are explored.  Risk management approaches to e-business led change.

6 Slide 10.6 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Tantangan Transformasi e-business Faktor sukses perubahan:  Keikutsertaan manajemen  Manajemen proyek yang efektif  Langkah-langkah untuk menarik dan menjaga karyawan yang tepat mencapai perubahan  Kepemilikan perubahan oleh karyawan

7 Figure 10.1 Key factors in achieving change

8 Slide 10.8 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Diskusi  Bayangkan apabila ada perubahan yang diinformasikan oleh CEO pada 4 hal di bawah ini, di mana perusahaan Anda adalah B2C. Apakah yang akan menjadi reaksi Anda dan apa peran Anda apabila Anda adalah:  Marketing Manager  Warehouse Manager  HR Manager  IS Manager  Karyawan Call Center

9 Slide 10.9 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Tantangan untuk Sell Side e-commerce The 7S strategic framework  Strategy: Kontribusi dari e-business dalam mempengaruhi dan mendukung strategi organisasi  Structure: Perubahan struktur organisasi untuk mendukung e-business  Systems: Pengembangan dari proses, prosedur atau sistem informasi untuk mendukung e-business  Staff: masalah perubahan staf disebabkan karena perubahan struktur dan sistem. Contoh isu: outsourcing/insourcing, rekrutmen dan retensi, virtual working  Style: Bagaimana tingkah laku para manajer dalam mencapai tujuan organisasi dan juga bagaimana budaya perusahaan  Skills: Kebutuhan skill set yang berbeda untuk mendukung e-business  Superordinate: Masalah supervisi, persepsi mengenai pentingnya dan efektifitas tim e-commerce di antara manajer dan stafnya, khususnya untuk IT dan marketing.

10 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Tantangan Utama Implementasi e- commerce  Strategi: Kemampuan terbatas untuk mengintegrasikan strategi internet ke dalam strategy inti marketing dan bisnis. Hal ini dapat terlihat pada kesulitan mendapatkan budget yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan implementasi e-commerce  Struktur: Isu proses dan struktur, terindikasikan dengan kesulitan mendapatkan sumberdaya dan kepemilikan proyek dari fungsi marketing dan IT tradisional  Skill & Staff: Terlihat dari kesulitan menemukan staf spesialis atau agen/outsource

11 Figure 10.2 Digital marketing activities that require management as sell-side e commerce Source: E-consultancy (2005)

12 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Key Challenges of e-business marketing  Gaining buy-in and budget  Conflicts of ownership  Coordination with different channels  Managing and integrating customer info.  Achieving a unified reporting  Structuring the specialist digital team  In-sourcing vs. outsourcing online marketing  Staff recruitment and retention

13 Figure 10.3 The main challenges of managing sell-side e-commerce (n = 84) Source: E-consultancy (2005)

14 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Jenis-jenis Perubahan  Incremental – penyesuaian yang relatif kecil  Discontinuous – transformasi besar-besaran (major)  Organizational – termasuk incremental maupun discontinuous  Anticipatory – Perusahaan proaktif untuk berubah sebelum ada kebutuhan yang mendesak untuk berubah  Reactive – Respon langsung terhadap perubahan dari faktor eksternal

15 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Business process management  Peningkatan efisiensi proses dengan bantuan software dengan cara meningkatkan aliran informasi antar manusia pada saat melakukan aktivitas bisnis.  Continuous, incremental change

16 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Business Process Reengineering  Hammer and Champy (1993) defined BPR as: Memikirkan kembali secara fundamental dan mendesain ulang proses bisnis secara radikal untuk mencapai peningkatan dramatis pada pengukuran yang kritis dan kontemporer akan kinerja yaitu biaya, kualitas, layanan dan kecepatan. (cost, quality, service and speed.)  Memikirkan kembali secara fundamental– re-engineering berarti perubahan bisnis proses yang signifikan misalnya customer service, sales order processing or manufacturing.  Mendesain ulang secara radikal– re-engineering tidak berhubungan dengan perubahan minor, incremental change atau otomatisasi cara kerja yang sedang berjalan. Reengineering melibatkan pemikiran ulang secara penuh mengenai cara kerja bisnis proses.  Peningkatan yang dramatis– Target BPR adalah peningkatan dalam puluhan atau bahkan ratusan persen. Sedangkan otomatisasi hanya dapat meningkatkan sebanyak 1 digit saja.  Pengukuran kinerja yang kritis dan kontemporer – pengukuran dari hasil perubahan harus mencakup cost, quality, service and speed.

17 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Emerging of new concepts  BPR often linked to downsizing  New terms emerged:  Business Process Improvement: Optimizing existing processes  Business Process Automation: Automating existing ways of working manually through information technology

18 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Planning Change  E-business projects memerlukan pengelolaan proyek yang baik  Effective project management must includes:  Estimation  Resource allocation  Schedule/plan  Monitoring and control

19 Figure 10.4 Stages in developing an e-business solution

20 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Differences with typical IS  The timescales for delivery of the system are compressed  The e-commerce system may be hosted outside  The focus of project is content and services  Once launched the site is more dynamic

21 Figure 10.5 An example web site development schedule for The B2C Company

22 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Prototyping  Rapid  Simple  Iterative  Incremental  User-centred

23 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Staff retention Hackman and Oldham (1980):  Skill variety  Task identity  Task significance  Autonomy  Feedback from employer

24 Figure 10.6 Typical structure and responsibilities for a large e-commerce team Source: E-consultancy (2005)

25 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Outsourcing  Outside-in  Inside-out

26 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Revising organizational structure Four stages of growth:  Ad hoc activity  Focusing the effort  Formalization  Institutionalizing capability

27 Table 10.4 Advantages and disadvantages of the organizational structures shown in Figure 10.7

28 Figure 10.8 Options for location of control of e-commerce Source: E-consultancy (2005)

29 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Approaches to managing change  Collaborative – widespread participation of employees  Consultative – management take final decisions  Directive – the management team takes the decisions  Coercive – the management team takes the decision with very limited recourse to employees

30 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Knowledge management – Saunders (2000) Every day, knowledge essential to your business walks out of your door, and much of it never comes back. Employees leave, customers come and go and their knowledge leaves with them. This information drain costs you time, money and customers.

31 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Explicit and tacit knowledge  Knowledge Management - Techniques and tools for capturing and disseminating knowledge within an organization.  Explicit – details of processes and procedures. Explicit knowledge can be readily detailed in procedural manuals and databases. Examples include records of meetings between sales representatives and key customers, procedures for dealing with customer service queries and management reporting processes.  Tacit – less tangible than explicit knowledge, this is experience on how to react to a situation when many different variables are involved. It is more difficult to encapsulate this knowledge, which often resides in the heads of employees.

32 Figure 10.9 Knowledge management framework

33 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 KM framework 1. Identify knowledge 2. Create new knowledge 3. Store knowledge 4. Share knowledge 5. Use knowledge

34 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 IDC – Objectives of KM  Improving profit/growing revenue (67 per cent)  Retaining key talent/expertise (54 per cent)  Increasing customer retention and/or satisfaction (52 per cent)  Defending market share against new entrants (44 per cent)  Gaining faster time to market with products (39 per cent)  Penetrating new market segments (39 per cent)  Reducing costs (38 per cent)  Developing new products/services (35 per cent).

35 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Binney – classes of KM applications 1. Transactional. Help desk and customer service applications. 2. Analytical. Data warehousing and data mining for CRM applications. 3. Asset management. Document and content management. 4. Process support. TQM, benchmarketing, BPR, Six Sigma. 5. Developmental. Enhancing staff skills, competencies – training and e-learning. 6. Innovation and creation. Communities, collaboration and virtual teamwork.

36 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Alternative tools for managing knowledge  Knowledge capture tools, e.g. mind maps  Knowledge sharing techniques, e.g. chat  Knowledge delivery tools, e.g.  Knowledge storage, e.g. database  Electronic document management system  Expert systems

37 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Risk management/ Manajemen Resiko 1. Identifikasi resiko, termasuk probabilitas dan dampaknya (impact) 2. Identifikasi solusi untuk resiko-resiko tersebut 3. Terapkan solusi untuk resiko yang memiliki dampak yang paling besar dan yang paling mungkin terjadi. 4. Monitor resiko untuk dapat dipelajari untuk assessment resiko di masa depan.

38 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Activity – identify risks for e-business project RiskProbabilityImpactSolution Insufficient senior management commitment 57Education/training/lobbying by e-business manager to achieve buy-in High staff turnover/key staff leave 65Use monetary incentives and improve working environment Project milestones not met, overrun budget 86Appoint experienced project manager and provide support and resources needed. Manager will perform risk management such as this Problems with new technology delaying implementation (bugs, speed, compatibility) 88Allow sufficient time for volume, performance testing Staff resistance to change44Education, training identification of change facilitators amongst staff Problem with integrating with partner’s systems (e.g. customers or suppliers) 68Tackle these issues early on, identify one contact point/manager for each of partnerships New system fails after changeover (too slow or too many crashes) 9See solution to delayed implementation

39 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Tugas  Anda adalah e-commerce Division Head dari sebuah perusahaan distribusi barang elektronik Bhinneka.co.id. Buat analisa resiko apabila Anda memutuskan untuk insourcing delivery product Anda sendiri, yang tadinya diserahkan kepada JNE.

40 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Summary 1. Change as a result of e-business needs to be managed on two levels. First, the change that needs to be managed as part of projects to introduce e-business. Second, organization-wide change is required for e-business. 2. Sound project management is required to achieve change. Traditional project management activities such as estimation, resource allocation, scheduling, planning and monitoring are all important here. A project manager also needs to facilitate change by communicating the need for change

41 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Summary 3. Traditional lifecycle stages – analysis, design and build – can be used to estimate the tasks required for an e-business implementation. Since most e-business solutions will be based on tailoring off-the-shelf packages, there will be a change in balance between the analysis, design, build and implementation phases in comparison with a bespoke solution. Prototyping is essential to achieve the fast timescales required by e-business 4. Building a team for e-business will require technical, marketing and project management skills. This will be difficult in the face of a competitive marketplace for these scales and high staff turnover. Tactics should be developed to help retain staff in this environment

42 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Summary 5. To implement e-business, a company will need to partner with a variety of companies. The e-business manager will need to decide whether to outsource activities such as strategy, content development and site promotion at the outset of an e-business project and whether it may be necessary to bring these activities back in-house at a later stage 6. Changes to organizational structures are likely to be required to build the e-business. Coordination of e-business- related activities can be achieved through a working party, e-business manager or separate department. Companies may also spin off sell-side e-commerce to a completely separate business

43 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Summary 7. Managing staff responses to change is an important aspect of change. Managers will need to consider how to achieve commitment and action from senior managers and also how to gain staff acceptance of the new system and new working practices. Techniques that may be used are user education, user involvement and achieving support from respected staff. Companies with an outward-looking cultural orientation will be predisposed to e-business-led change while others that have an inward-facing, inflexible cultural orientation may have to consider changes in culture


Download ppt "Slide 10.1 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 CHAPTER 10 MANAJEMEN PERUBAHAN (CHANGE MANAGEMENT)"

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google