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Information Technology Ethical Challenges

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Presentasi berjudul: "Information Technology Ethical Challenges"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Information Technology Ethical Challenges
Sherri Shade

2 Ethics eth•ic Pronunciation: (eth'ik), [key] —n. 1. the body of moral principles or values governing or distinctive of a particular culture or group: the Christian ethic; the tribal ethic of the Zuni. 2. a complex of moral precepts held or rules of conduct followed by an individual: a personal ethic. Webster’s Dictionary

3 IT and Ethics Who is responsible? Who is affected?
Should IT Professionals be in the ethics business? Training Refer ethical issues to HR Development Implementation Application

4 Ethical Behaviors? Is your 80 gigabyte hard drive full?
Music and videos That sure is a great music where did you get it? Downloading of music from the web Have you given a friend a copy of your Microsoft Project software? Software Piracy Did you read the confidential company file that was accidentally attached to your ? Computer abuse Did you gain access to the network and invade other workers s and files? You formatted your hard drive prior to leaving your company because you were angry about leaving. Destruction of property

5 Information Technology Ethics
Deal with proper use of technology devices, data, services, and software. Prior to Technology it may have been easier to know whether the activity was right or wrong Virtual World Judging behaviors is no longer straight forward Ethical or Unethical? A student downloads a sexually explicit picture from the Internet on a computer in the school library. Other students are able to see the picture A student finds the teacher’s password to the school’s information system and uses it to change his grades and vi the grades of other students. A student uses the copy and paste commands to place large parts of an electronic article into an assigned paper. She turns the paper in as her own work A student makes a copy of a software program borrowed from another student to use on his computer at home. A student downloads a graphic file from the web to place on his own webpage. However, he does provide a link to the author’s site. A student uses another student’s project website as a guideline. A student copies a previous published story in his own handwriting and submits it as his own work. For many of us this is not difficult to figure out that these are not ethical decisions Perhaps even without technology the same or similar activity may have occurred. Because of the implementation of technology these activities are easier execute perhaps don’t seem as bad. Technology is actual the catalyst or the enabler to clouding our understanding and choices

6 Information Technology Ethics
New ethical considerations may be required with technology capabilities spamming Does the fact that the financial burden of unsolicited ads etc. now falls on the recipient not the sender create new rules? Digital photography What obligations does a anyone have to present an undoctored photo, even if the message is not as good as the digitally enhanced photo? Pornography access What security measures need to be put in place by schools, parents, companies and libraries to keep individuals from seeing inappropriate materials? Intellectual property Do we need better/clearer definitions of property? Globalization of the organization What do we need to better understand cultures, language, and behaviors?

7 Information Technology Ethics
Some users view their computing actions as less serious than their actions in the “real world” Examples: Stealing software from a store – no way! …. However, SW piracy costs businesses billions of dollars per year Most of us would not pick a lock to someone’s house However, guessing passwords to gain access to a website, information, or programs is a common Sometimes the technology is not well understood…romance and fear may accompany a new technologies. Movies, books, TV capitalize on this fear and romance and make unethical or illegal actions seem heroic, or necessary

8 The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics
Computer Ethics Institute

9 Challenges: Code of Ethics
No Form of licensing for computer professionals Results in no real way to enforce ethical standards within the computing field There is movement within the industry to create a licensing process but there are many issues to be resolved What will be included on the exam? How often will an IT professional be required to renew the license? Developed by several organizations Adoption Implementation Monitoring Example:

10 Challenges: Web Design
Implementation of features Pop ups Blocking/filters Aliases and redirecting Cookies Privacy policies Security policies Spyware Use of other design features Javascript Graphics - pictures, buttons, logos, icons Content Design layout Accountability/responsibility Outdated material, inaccurate material

11 Challenges: Commerce Fraud Taxation Free Trade Gambling Auctions
Spamming Who were Canter and Siegel? Spamming cell phones? Term papers for sale Atlanta Journal Constitution aritcle

12 Challenges: Workplace
Accessibility Ergonomics Outsourcing Telecommuting Customer relationships – Vendor relationships Should IT professionals be in the ethics business or should other areas of the business handle these issues? Monitoring Should your employer have the right to monitor private messages? What are the two most popular Web sites for American workers? Playboy and ESPN Playboy and ESPN

13 Challenges:Workplace
62% of employers monitor employees' and Internet use. 68% cite legal liability as the primary reason to monitor. 87% of companies that monitor have a written Policy, 83.1% an Internet Policy, 68% a Software Policy. 51% of employers have disciplined or terminated employees for violating ePolicy. 35% of organizations have retention & deletion policies in place. 10% of companies have been ordered by courts to turn over employee related to workplace lawsuits. 8.3% of organizations have battled sexual harassment and/or sexual discrimination claims stemming from employee and/or Internet use. Source: The 2001 Electronic Policies & Practices Survey from The American Management Association, US News & World Report, and The ePolicy Institute-Click Here for Survey Results.

14 Music Downloads Risk of getting caught
Studies have shown that a majority of the people who share music on the Internet are aware that their actions are illegal, said Michael McGuire, a analyst with the Gartner Group. ``But they also know that the chances of getting caught are pretty remote'' Why is “getting caught remote”? There are an estimated 60 million peer-to-peer network subscribers in the United States alone, with tens of millions more in other countries The RIAA is seeking out people who make their music files available for others to download. The networks have features that allow users to block others from downloading their files but allow them to continue to download files

15 Challenges: Speech Net Etiquette Email privacy Free Speech
privacy policy “Flaming” – insulting, argumentative or chastising replies to messages Free Speech Accountability and responsibility for web content Abortion sites Outdated information Accurate information Privacy and security policies Porn Professors pc – filled with porn, found by pc maintenance workers Visa – won’t give permission to be used on offensive or pornographic sites Hate MACHADO CASE Internet Filters Should filters be in schools or libraries, and /or should they be mandated by law? Filters can also be set up to filter out other subjects, would this be an ethical violation? Chain Letters

16 Challenges: Computing Resource Abuse
Computers in the Workplace and the Classroom Use or Abuse Internet Access Instant Messenger Laptop use in the classroom Legal document Can be modified Flaming Access Computer Usage policy policy

17 Challenges: Computing Resource Abuse
Computer Crime Viruses Hackers Theft “These cyber swindles and dot-cons present new challenges to law enforcement” said John Ashcroft US Charges 135 With Net Crimes

18 Challenges: Privacy Privacy issues are at the top of the list in regards to ethical use of information. Loss of control Misuse of information Risk to physical privacy Risk of identity theft (video) Unwanted intrusions into daily life USA Patriot Act (post 9/11) Efforts to detect and deter terrorist activity Datamining corporate data Loss of business and risk of lawsuits due customers being outraged at their loss of data privacy Cookies Privacy policies

19 Challenges: Intellectual Property
Electronic Copyright Licensing Interoperability Cyberlicenses Shrinkwrap Shareware Freeware MP3 RIAA court case against college students University Internet Usage policies Internet Downloads Files Graphics Text

20 Challenges: Intellectual Property
Patent, trade secrets, and copyright law Who owns the program Who owns the algorithm Software Piracy Why shouldn't I use pirated software? Who am I hurting by doing so? Piracy exists in everywhere. Loss of revenue hurts everyone. All software piracy is illegal and Software piracy is unethical. Various studies have found that the software industry loses approximately $12 billion every year . State Industry Study CD-RW

21 Challenges: Other Decision making using Expert Systems
Network Security Software accuracy and reliability who is ethically responsible? Therac-25 Accidents Killer Robots The Hughes Whistleblowing Case

22 Conclusion: Some Ideas to Ponder
Computer ethics today is now a global effort The gap among the rich and poor nations, rich and poor citizens exists. How can it be eliminated or reduced eithically and morally to provide information and services that will move them to into the world of cyberspace? Will the poor be cut off from job opportunities, education, entertainment, medical care, shopping, voting - because they cannot afford a connection to the global information network? Whose laws will apply in cyberspace when hundreds of countries are incorporated into the global network? What happened? Where did our knowing right from wrong go too? Are we missing an opportunity to introduce ethics at an early age in children by not integrating these thoughts and practices in video games? Should more controls and regulations be introduced into the system? Will they actually help to improve our moral and ethical behavior? Unethical behavior continues to permeate industry, what measures, policies, codes of conduct be changed to change this behavior?

23 Works Cited:

24 Etika komputer & Etika Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi
Etika Komputer adalah analisa tentang sifat dan dampak sosial teknologi komputer, serta formulasi dan pengesahan kebijakan untuk menggunakan teknologi komputer secara benar. Etika Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi dapat diartikan sebagai suatu analisa tentang dampak sosial yang ditimbulkan dalam pemanfaatan teknologi informasi, baik itu dampak negatif maupun dampak positif

25 alasan utama minat masyarakat yang tinggi terhadap etika komputer
Logical Malleability (Kelenturan Logika), Merupakan kemampuan memprogram komputer untuk melakukan apa pun yang kita inginkan. Transformation Factors (Faktor Transformasi), Contohnya fasilitas yang bisa sampai tujuan dan dapat dibuka atau dibaca dimanapun kita berada. Invisibility Factors (Faktor Tak Kasat Mata ), Berhubungan dengan segala operasi internal komputer yang tak kelihatan sehingga membuka peluang pada penyalahgunaan yang tidak tampak.

26 Hak-Hak User Dalam Etika Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi
Hak Sosial dan Komputer Hak atas akses komputer : Setiap orang berhak untuk mengoperasikan komputer dengan tidak harus memilikinya. Hak atas keahlian komputer : Dengan keahlian di bidang komputer dapat membuka peluang pekerjaan yang lebih banyak. Hak atas spesialis komputer : Untuk bidang tertentu diperlukan spesialis bidang komputer, karena tidak semua pemakai komputer menguasai. Hak atas pengambilan keputusan komputer : Meskipun masyarakat tidak berpartisipasi dalam pengambilan keputusan mengenai bagaimana komputer diterapkan, namun masyarakat memiliki hak tersebut.

27 Hak-Hak User Dalam Etika Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi
Hak atas Informasi Hak atas Privasi : Sebuah informasi yang sifatnya pribadi baik secara individu maupu dalam suatu organisasi mendapatkan perlindungan atas hukum tentang kerahasiannya. Hak atas Akurasi : Komputer dipercaya dapat mencapai tingkat akurasi yang tidak bisa dicapai oleh sistem nonkomputer. Hak atas Kepemilikan : Umumnya dalam bentuk program-program komputer yang dengan mudahnya dilakukan penggandaan atau disalin secara ilegal. Hak atas Akses : Informasi memiliki nilai, jadi setiap kali kita akan mengaksesnya harus melakukan account atau izin pada pihak yang memiliki informasi tersebut.

28 Implikasi Etis Dari Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi
Implikasi etis terhadap pemanfaatan teknologi informasi meliputi : Moral  Sama dengan tradisi kepercayaan mengenai perilaku benar atau salah. Etika  Sama dengan satu set kepercayaan, standar/pemikiran yang mengisi suatu individu, kelompok, masyarakat. Hukum  Sama dengan peraturan perilaku formal yang dipaksakan oleh otoritas berdaulat seperti pemerintah kepada rakyat atau warga negaranya.

29 Penerapan budaya etika
Corporate credo: Merupakan pernyataan ringkas mengenai nilai-nilai yang ditegakkan perusahaan. Program etika: Merupakan suatu system yang terdiri dari berbagai aktivitas yang dirancang untuk mengarahkan pegawai dalam melaksanakan corporate credo. Kode Etik Khusus Perusahaan: Banyak perusahaan merancang kode etik khusus untuk perusahaannya.

30 Tindakan untuk pencapaian operasi Komputer yang etis
Formulasikan suatu kode perilaku. Tetapkan aturan yang berkaitan dengan masalah-masalah IT. Jelaskan sanksi yang akan diambil. Kenali perilaku etis. Fokuskan perhatian pada etika melalui program. Promosikan undang-undang kejahatan komputer.

31 RUU pemanfaatan teknologi informasi
Adanya RUU mengenai pemanfaatan teknologi informasi dan juga RUU yang mengatur transaksi elektronik dan tanda tangan elektronik (digital), termasuk naskah-naskah lainnya mengenai undang-undang dunia cyber. Seperti halnya RUU tentang Informasi Elektronik dan Transaksi Elektronik (RUU-IETE) dan juga RUU tentang Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi (RUU-TPTI). Nantinya kedua RUU ini dapat saling melengkapi, ataupun dilebur menjadi satu, yang sebelumnya disempurnakan dengan mendengar usulan atau tanggapan dari beberapa kalangan seperti akademisi, profesional IT ataupun perusahaan IT.

32 Perlindungan Hukum terhadap Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi
Perlindungan pemanfaatan teknologi digital. Perlindungan atas data dan informasi beserta hak aksesnya. Perlindungan atas hak kekayaan intelektual. Perlindungan terhadap konsumen internet banking. Perlindungan terhadap anak-anak sebagai obyek yang bertentangan dengan hukum dan etika moral. Pencegahan pornografi di dunia internet.

33 pembentukan hukum teknologi informasi & penegakan hukum
Ada beberapa hal yang menjadi asas dalam pembentukan hukum perundang-undangan mengenai teknologi informasi. Asas tersebut adalah Legalitas, Itikad Baik, Etika, dan Moral. Proses penegakan hukum dan undang-undang yang meliputi pemanfaatan teknologi informasi sudah dimulai dan masih akan berjalan panjang bersama dengan penyempurnaan dan penyesuaian. Dengan peran serta semua pihak yang terkait, lambat laun negara kita akan memiliki suatu produk hukum yang dapat mengatur kehidupan dan pemanfaatan teknologi informasi, sehingga akhirnya masyarakat menyadari bahwa aktifitas apapun yang berhubungan dengan pemanfaatan teknologi informasi memiliki perlindungan hukum dan juga akibat hukum.

34 Dampak Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi yang kurang tepat
Rasa takut. Keterasingan. Golongan miskin informasi dan minoritas. Pentingnya individu. Tingkat kompleksitas serta kecepatan yang sudah tidak dapat ditangani. Makin rentannya organisasi. Dilanggarnya privasi. Pengangguran dan pemindahan kerja. Kurangnya tanggung jawab profesi. Kaburnya citra manusia.

35 Langkah-Langkah Untuk Menghadapi Dampak Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi yang kurang tepat
Desain yang berpusat pada manusia. Dukungan organisasi. Perencanaan pekerjaan. Pendidikan. Umpan balik dan imbalan. Meningkatkan kesadaran publik. Perangkat hukum. Riset yang maju.

36 Kesimpulan Etika dalam pemanfaatan teknologi informasi merupakan suatu hal yang sangat penting dan krusial. Sebab, bila kegiatan pemanfaatan teknologi informasi dilakukan tanpa disertai dengan etika dapat menimbulkan berbagai dampak negatif.

37 Saran Sosialisasikan mengenai aturan dan tata cara beretika dan penegakan aturan dalam hukum harus dilakukan dengan tegas dan konsisten. Hal ini dilakukan untuk mencegah berbagai dampak negatif yang timbul akibat penyalahgunaan teknologi informasi.

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