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BAHAN KAJIAN MK. DASAR ILMU TANAH TANAH INCEPTISOLS Inceptisols (from Latin inceptum, "beginning") are soils that exhibit minimal horizon development.

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Presentasi berjudul: "BAHAN KAJIAN MK. DASAR ILMU TANAH TANAH INCEPTISOLS Inceptisols (from Latin inceptum, "beginning") are soils that exhibit minimal horizon development."— Transcript presentasi:

1 BAHAN KAJIAN MK. DASAR ILMU TANAH TANAH INCEPTISOLS Inceptisols (from Latin inceptum, "beginning") are soils that exhibit minimal horizon development. Inceptisols are divided into 7 suborders: Aquepts, Anthrepts, Gelepts, Cryepts, Ustepts, Xerepts, and Udepts.

2 TANAH INCEPTISOLS IKHTISAR: 1.Vegetasi : Tidak spesifik 2.Iklim: Beragam iklim, tidak termasuk arid 3.Soil moisture regime: variety of soil moisture regimes except aridic 4.Ciri penting tanah: Sedikit sifat diagnostik 5.Diagnostic horizons: cambic but no spodic, argillic, kandic, natric, and oxic horizon 6.Epipedon: ochric, umbric, histic, or plaggen (mollic) 7.Proses utama: Pergerakan massa, erosi tanah, deposisi 8.Karakteristik: Kondisi lingkungan menghambat proses pembentukan tanah Inceptisols Tanah-tanah embrionik dnegan sedikit saja sifat pencirinya 1. Glacial deposits 2. Recent deposits in valleys or deltas 3. Most Inceptisols occur on geologically young sediments (e.g. alluvium, colluvium, loess) 4.Bahan induk yang sangat-berkapur atau resisten terhadap pelapukan dapat menghambat perkembangan tanah, tetapi cocok bagi perkembangan Inceptisols Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

3 CoMMON FACTORS 1.Bahan induk resisten 2.Acidic Till (glacial till origin with high acid content) 3.Lereng curam atau depresi 4.Asal-usulnya Recent, seringkali post-glacial. 5.Beragam kondisi iklim 6.May succession and be moving toward a spodosol or ultisol Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

4 TANAH INCEPTISOLS KONDISI LINGKUNGAN IKLIM -Climate: Inceptisols berkembang pada beragam kondisi iklim, kecuali kondisi ARIDIK. Rezim lengas- tanah juga beragam, mulai dari tanah-tanah yg drainagenya buruk hingga tanah-tanah yg drainagenya bagus pada lereng-lereng curam. By definition, Inceptisols cannot have an aridic soil moisture regime. Climate which inhibits soil development such as low temperatures or low precipitation favors the development of Inceptisols. The suborder of Aquepts requires higher soil moisture conditions compared to the other suborders of Inceptisols. Vegetasi Inceptisols ditemukan pada ekosistem hutan, padang rumput dan lahan pertanian. Kebanyaka Inceptisols ditemukan pada kondisi ekosistem hutan. Beberapa Inceptisols (Umbrepts) mungkin berkembang pada vegetasi prairie. Penggunaan tanah pada saat sekarang mungkin dibatasi oleh solum yang tipis (mis. Pada lereng-lereng curam) atau oleh drainage yang buruk (mis. Di daerah depresi). Inceptisols cocok untuk kehutanan atau cagar alam. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

5 TANAH INCEPTISOLS Relief: Kebanyakan Inceptisols berkembang pada lereng-lerang curam, dimana erosi tanah telah mengangkut sebagian topsoil secara kontinyu. Other Inceptisols are formed on convex toeslope areas where slope is level to gently rolling. These Inceptisols develop in deep colluvium where sediment has been / is deposited. BAHAN INDUK - Parent Material: Inceptisols banyak ditemukan di daerah-daerah deposit-glasial atau pada deposit-muda di lembah-lembagh atau delta. Where they occupy upland positions on young geomorphic surfaces, both primary and secondary minerals are present. Most Inceptisols are present on geologically young sediments (e.g. alluvium, colluvium, loess). Bahan induk yang snagat berkapur atau resisten terhadap pelapukan dapat menghambat perkembangan tanah, tetapi kondisi ini cocok bagi perkembangan Inceptisols. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

6 TANAH INCEPTISOLS WAKTU - Time: Kebanyakan Inceptisols berkembang pada lanskap muda (< Holocene), dimana waktu membatasi perkembangan penciri tanah. There are Inceptisols where the solum is permanently altered by loss of soil particles due to erosion or by the deposition of soil particles. These processes might be acting smooth but continuously or sporadically in space and time. Di daerah tropis, laju perkembangan Inceptisols menjadi ordo tanah lainnya, lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan di daerah temperate dan dingin, proses perkembangan tanah ini juga dihambat oleh lambatnya pelapukan batuan resisten. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

7 TANAH INCEPTISOLS PROSES PEMBENTUKAN - GENESIS Virtually many pedogenic processes are active to some extent in Inceptisol profiles but none predominates. The genesis of Inceptisols includes multiple pathways depending on the processes occuring on a given landscape and geographic area. Environmental factors can slow down weathering (e.g. low temperatures, low precipitation, or resistant parent material) and soil development to form other soil orders is retarded or even inhibited. Erosi tanah pada lereng curam dapat mengubah topsoil secara ekstrim. Kalaiu erosi telah meratakan lereng, laju erosi menjadi lambat dan ciri pedogenik lebih tampak seperti horison argilik. Biasanya Inceptisols berkembang pada bahan induk yang ada di bagiamn bawahnya, karena erosi telah mengikis bentang lahan dan mengangkut material tanah. Periode waktu yang panjang dan laju erosi yang intensif diperlukan bagi perkembangan Inceptisol pada lereng yg curam (tanah tipis, horison AC) untuk berkembang lebih lanjut (profil tanah yang dalam, horison ABC). Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

8 TANAH INCEPTISOLS PROSES GENESIS Inceptisols juga berkembang pada material colluvium di bagian bawah dari lereng-lereng yang curam. Proses-proses yang membentuk material koluvium adalah pergerakan massa, soil creep (peregrakan massa tanah), dan deposisi. Karena proses-proses “hillslope” dan pelapukan, ciri-ciri mofologis terbentuk dan rusak secara terus-menerus. Inceptisols may be also found on alluvial deposits where temporary flooding alters the soil profile due to the deposition of soil particles on the soil surface and the soil profile becomes saturated. For example, Inceptisols in the southern Mississippi River Valey are developed on alluvial deposits. Tabel-air yang dekat dengan permukaan mendorong proses-proses reduksi oksida besi dan oksida aluminium. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

9 TANAH INCEPTISOLS PROSES GENESIS Pada zone depresi atau dasar-dasar lembah ditemukan inceptisols yg drainagenya buruk dimana proses gleizasi menghasilkan ciri redoximorphic. Di lokasi-lokasi yang pencucian lebih intensif, tetapi proses lessivage dan perkembangan horison argilik agak terhambat, mungkin karena tanah tidak sering mengalami pengeringan. Di daerah batuan masam, tanah-tanah yg berkembang pada depresi lanskap cenderung lebih tercuci dan kandungan basanya lebih rendah dibandingkan dnegan tanah-tanah di sekitarnya. In landscapes of high base status soils, the associated poorly drained Inceptisols in depression areas usually have higher base status than the surrounding soils. This can be attributed to the enrichment of the low-lying parts of the landscape by lateral processes such as transport of bases attached to soil particles, in surface runoff, or lateral subsurface flow. In some materials saturated with brackish water sulfides may accumulate and sulfuric horizons may be formed. Kalau mengalami oksidasi, biasanya oleh adanya drainage buatan, terbentuklah asam sulfat. Tanah-tanah Inceptisols yang unik ini lazim dikenal sebagai 'cat-clays'. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

10 TANAH INCEPTISOLS PROSES GENESIS Dekomposisi, humifikasi, dan mineralisasi menghasilkan akumulasi bahan organik. Kandungan bahan organik tanah lebih tinggi pada subordo Umbrepts dan Aquepts dibandingkan dengan Ochrepts. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

11 TANAH INCEPTISOLS CIRI-CIRI - Properties Horison pencirinya KAMBIK bawah-permukaan, terdiri atas pasir sangat halus, pasir halus berlempung atau tekstur yg lebih halus, dengan beberapa indikasi lemah horison argilik atau spodik, tetapi belum memenuhi kriteria argilik atau spodik. Typically, these soils have an ochric or umbric epipedon over a cambic horizon. The ochric epipedon is generally a light-colored, low organic matter horizon. The umbric epipedon is similar to the mollic epipedon except for having a base saturation less than 50 %. Some poorly drained Inceptisols have a histic epipedon where organic matter content is high. Soils with mollic epipedons are Inceptisols when base saturation at pH 7 is less than 50 % in some horizon between the mollic epipedon and a depth of 180 cm or a lithic or paralithic contact if shallower. Inceptisols tipis/dangkal, hanya sedikti horison, mis. AC, AR atau ABC. Perkembangan struktur tanah lemah karena adanya erosi. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

12 Inceptisols 1.Bahan induknya bermacam-macam 2.Occur on any slope or land form 3.From flood plains to mountain tops 4.Any soil moisture regime except aridic and torric 5.Any soil temperature regime except permafrost 6.Umurnya beragam, mulai dari muda hingga sangat tua Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

13 INCEPTISOLS 1.Lapisan horisonnya belum berkembang dengan baik 2.Perkembangan horison masih minim 3.Tanah-tanah muda Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013 Inceptisol adalah tanah muda dan mulai berkembang. Profilnya mempunyai horizon yang pembentukannya agak lambat sebagai hasil alterasi bahan induk. Horizon-horizonnya tidak memperlihatkan hasil pelapukan yang intensif. Horizon akumulasi liat dan oksida-oksida besi & aluminium yang jelas tidak ada pada tanah ini. Profil nya lebih berkembang dibandingkan dengan entisol. Tanah-tanah yang dulunya dikelaskan sebagai hutan coklat, andosol dan tanah coklat dapat dimasukkan ke dalam Inceptisol Kebanyakan Inceptisol memiliki kambik. Horizon B yang mengalami proses- proses genesis tanah seperti fisik, biologi, kimia dan proses pelapukan mineral. Perubahan ini menghasilkan struktur kubus atau gumpal bersudut. Diunduh dari: inseptisol/ ………….. 27/2/2013

14 Four major concentration settings 1.Daerah-daerah dingin 2.Daerah-daerah kering (ustik dan terik) 3.Lahan-basah = Wetlands 4.Geographically young surfaces (floodplains, glacial deposits, steep or highly erosive slopes, volcanic deposits) Diunduh dari: inseptisol/ ………….. 27/2/2013 Inceptisol dapat berkembang dari bahan induk batuan beku, sedimen, metamorf. Karena Inceptisol merupakan tanah yang baru berkembang biasanya mempunyai tekstur yang beragam dari kasar hingga halus, dalam hal ini dapat tergantung pada tingkat pelapukan bahan induknya. Bentuk wilayah beragam dari berombak hingga bergunung. Kesuburan tanahnya rendah, jeluk efektifnya beragam dari dari dangkal hingga dalam. Di dataran rendah pada umumnya tebal, sedangkan pada daerah-daerah lereng curam solumnya tipis. Pada tanah berlereng cocok untuk tanaman tahunan atau untuk menjaga kelestarian tanah.

15 TANAH INCEPTISOLS Inceptisols are young soils that are more developed than entisols. These soils are found in arctic tundra environments, glacial deposits, and relatively recent deposits of stream alluvium. Common characteristics of recognition include immature development of eluviation in the A horizon and illuviation in the B horizon. Diunduh dari: of-food-plains ………….. 25/2/2013

16 TANAH INCEPTISOLS Inceptisols: Dicirikan oleh epipedon okhrik dan “incipient” perkembangan horison B (Kambik - Bw) Subordo: Aquepts - menunjukkan ciri-ciri basah Anthrepts – epipedon anthropic atau plaggen Cryepts – rezim suhu tanah cryic Ustepts - rezim lengas tanah USTIK Xerepts - rezim lenga stanah XERIK Udepts - Inceptisols lainnya (mis. Rezim lengas tanah UDIK). Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

17 SUB-ORDO PADA INCEPTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

18 Subordo yang dominan 1.Anthrepts adalah inceptisols yang drainagenya bagus, yang mempunyai epipedon anthropik atau plaggen. 2.Aquepts adalah Inceptisols yang basah. Drainage alamiahnya jelek atau sangat jelek, dan, kalau tanah tidak mengalami drainage buatan, groundwater berada dekat permukaan selama periode tertentu selama setahun, tetapi tidak sepanjang musim. Banyak tanah ini berkembang pada vegetasi hutan, tetapi juga ditemukan pada beragam vegetasi. Aquepts digunakan untuk lahan pertanian, pasture, hutan atau cagar alam. 3.Cryepts are the cold Inceptisols of high mountains or high latitudes. They are mostly in the high mountains of the West as well as southern Alaska. The vegetation is mostly conifers or mixed conifers and hardwoods. Most are used as forest or wildlife habitat. Some of the soils, mostly those in Alaska, are used as cropland. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

19 1.Udepts are mainly freely drained Inceptisols that have a udic or perudic moisture regime. They are most extensive in the Appalachian Mountains, on the Allegheny Plateau, in northeastern Minnesota, and in Oregon. Most of the soils currently support or formerly supported forest vegetation, but some support shrub or grass vegetation. Vegetasinya kebanyakan hutan konifer dan hutan campuran kayu-keras. Kebanyakan tanah ini dikelola sebagai hutan atau telah dibuka untuk lahan pertanian atau pasture. 2.Ustepts adalah inceptisols yang drainagenya bagus mempunyai rezim air-tanah Ustik. Vegetasi alamiahnya biasanya berupa rumput, tetapi beberapa atanah didukung oleh vegetasi pohon. Kebanyakan Ustepts dikelola sebagai lahan pertanian atau pasture. 3.Xerepts are mainly freely drained Inceptisols that have a xeric moisture regime. They are in the western part of the United States, mostly in California, Oregon, and Washington. The native vegetation commonly was coniferous forest on the soils with a frigid or mesic temperature regime and shrubs, grasses, and widely spaced trees on the soils with a thermic temperature regime. Most Xerepts are used as forest, cropland, or pasture. Some are used as rangeland or wildlife habitat. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013 Subordo yang dominan

20 TANAH INCEPTISOLS KLASIFIKASI - Classification Persyaratan untuk memenuhi kriteria Inceptisol adalah: 1.Biasanya ada horison penciri KAMBIK, tetapi tidak ada horison spodic, argillic, kandic, natric, atau oksik. 2.Subsoilnya kurang berkembang, tetapi mempunyai epipedon umbric, histic, atau plaggen 3.Tekstur tanah: tanah-tanah mineral berlempung atau lebih halus 4.They exhibit profile development sufficient to exclude them from Entisols but lack features though to represent mature soil formation 5.Tidak ada ciri-ciri ANDIK dalam lapisan lebih tebal 35 cm di dalam 60 cm zone permukaan. 6.Rezim air-tanah ARIDIK biasanya tidak ada 7.Subordo dalam Inceptisols dibedakan oleh rezim lengas tanah, epipedon, dan rezim suhu tanah. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

21 TANAH INCEPTISOLS Aquepts: They show redoximorphic features and are saturated with water at some period in the year. Aquepts usually have cambic horizons and commonly in the US, they have fragipans. Aquepts are found in the Flood Plains of the Mississippi River Valley, the lacustrine regions in the Midwest, and the lower Coastal Plain along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. Plaggepts: They have dark brown or black plaggen epipedons. Plaggepts were formed by anthropic activity mainly in Europe and are of small extent. Tropepts: Tanah-tanah ini berkembang pada kondisi resim suhu tanah ISOMESIK atau ISO yang lebih hangat. Ochrepts: They have an ochric epipedon or if their soil temperature regime is mesic or warmer they have thin (< 25 cm) mollic or umbric epipedons. Their soil organic matter content is low. Umbrepts: Tanah ini mempunyai epipedon umbric, mollic, atau anthropik. Tanah ini drainagenya bagus, masam, kemerahan gelap atau kecoklatan, dan kaya bahan organik.. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

22 TANAH INCEPTISOLS Ciri tanah, resim suh dan rezim air, membedakan great groups dan subgroups yang ada dalam Inceptisols. Contoh-contoh yang ada pada Ordo Inceptisol adalah: suhu tanah Cryic atau pergelic (mis. Cryaquepts), rezim air-tanah USTIK (mis. Ustochrepts, Ustic Humitropepts), dan rezim air-tanah ARIDIK (mis. Aridic Ustochrepts). A sulfuric horizon is considered on the great group (e.g. Sulfaquepts) and subgroup level (e.g. Sulfic Cryaquepts). The presence of a fragipan (e.g. Fragiaquepts, Fragic Epiaquepts, or Fragic Xerochrepts), a duripan (e.g. Durochrepts), or plinthite (e.g. Plinthaquepts) are considered. Carbonates within the soil profile of Inceptisols or a high base status define the Eutrochrepts. Inceptisols low in bases are common on the great group level (e.g. Dystropepts) and on the subgroup level (e.g. Dystric Eutrochrepts, Dystric Xerochrepts). Shallow soil profiles are found in several subgroups, for instance, Lithic Ustochrepts, Lithic Cryaquepts, and Lithic Endoquepts. Karakteristik VERTIK, seperti retakan dan sifat mengembang dati komponen mineral- tanah mendefinisikan beberapa subgroups dari Inceptisols (mis. Vertic Ustochrepts, Vertic Eutrochrepts, atau Vertic Humitropepts).

23 TANAH INCEPTISOLS Bahan induk Fluvial ditemukan pada beberapa subgroups, misalnya, Fluventic Humitropepts, Fluventic Ustochrepts, atau Fluventic Xerumbrepts. Inceptisols terbentuk pada bahan induk volcanik (mis. volcanic glass) yang tidak memenuhi kriteria Ordo Andisol, dicirikan oleh unsur-formatif 'vitrandic' (mis. Vitrandic Humitropepts, Vitrandic Durochrepts) atau 'andic' kalau fraksi halus mempunyai bobot isi 1.0 g/cm 3 atau kurang (mis. Andic Durochrepts, Andic Fragiochrepts). Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

24 TANAH INCEPTISOLS Karakteristik PENCIRI Inceptisols MELIPUTI TANAH-TANAH YANG mempunyai sedikit perkembangan subsoil, tetapi tidak mempunyai ciri-ciri ordo tanah lainnya. They are excluded from the Aridisol order by soil moisture regime, from the Vertisol order by lack of argillipedoturbative features, and from the Andisol order by andic parent material. Di daerah iklim sedang dan semakin banyak hujan, terbentuklah Mollisols atau Alfisols. Di daerah iklim tropis dan subtropis terbentuklah Ultisols atau Oxisols. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

25 TANAH INCEPTISOLS Inceptisols adalah tanah-tanah di lingkungan semiarid hingga humid yg umumnya menunjukkan derajat pelapukan dan perkembangan tanah yang moderat. Karakteristik tanah ini snagat beragam dan ditemukan pada berbagai kondisi iklim. Inceptisol meliputi sekitar 17% permukaan lahan dunia yang bebas es. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

26 TANAH INCEPTISOLS Diunduh dari: 26/2/2013 Inceptisols mempunyai horison yg telah mengalami perubahan, tetapi tidak cukup lapuk untuk menjadi horison illuvial ( akhiran “ept” berasal dari kata Latin “inceptum” yang artinya “baru mulai”). These are young or in the beginning stage of soil formation. Many are shallow to bedrock, or occur on steeply sloping land. These soils occur in a wide range of temperature and moisture environments. The diagnostic features are the ochric epipedon and cambic horizon. Urutan horison biasanya A, Bw, C.

27 TANAH INCEPTISOLS Diunduh dari: accumulation-of ………………. 26/2/2013 Profil tanah Inceptisol, menunjukkan sedikit bukti akumulasi humus, liat atau minerals untuk menjadi lapisan yang “distinct”. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Soil Survey Staff

28 TANAH INCEPTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………………. 26/2/2013 Profil Inceptisol pada posisi lanskap deposisional yg drainagenya bagus di Republic of China. Horison KAMBIK dnegan struktur gumpal-bersudut yang kuat (kedalaman cm). On level, depositional surfaces the surface of the soil moves upward at such a rate that lessivage transfers of clay to the subsoil fail to deposit sufficient clay within a specific thickness to form an argillic or kandic horizon. Inceptisols di lokasi seperti ini seringkali warnanya gelap tetapi perkembangan struktur blocky cukup baik untuk menjadi horison KAMBIK.

29 TANAH INCEPTISOLS Diunduh dari: 26/2/2013 The central concept of Inceptisols is that of soils of humid and subhumid regions that have altered horizons that have lost bases or iron and aluminum but retain some weatherable minerals. They do not have an illuvial horizon enriched with either silicate clay or with an amorphous mixture of aluminum and organic carbon. Inceptisols mungkin mempunyai banyak macam horison penciri, tetapi tidak ada horison argillic, natric kandic, spodic dan oxic.

30 TANAH INCEPTISOLS Diunduh dari: ……………… Di Michigan, Inceptisols berlokasi terutama di lembah Saginaw dan dua daerah bagian timur dari Upper-Peninsula. Little eluviation or illuviation has taken place, and the soils are characterized by poor drainage and waterlogging. If drained successfully, they can be productive-as in the navy-bean-producing areas of the Saginaw Valley. Tanah ini berwarna kelabu, di bagian bawah tanah, ada indikasi kondisi basah, dan "give- away" bahwa tanah ini adalah Inceptisol.

31 ORIGIN OF INCEPTISOLS 1.Banyak berhubungan dengan datraan banjir dan tatanan deposisional lainnya. 2.Juga berhubungan dnegan lereng-lereng perbukitan 3.Common factor is terrain or history causes Young soils, just beginning to develop soil profiles. 4.Seringkali basah, cocok untuk budidaya padi Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

32 Horison belum berkembang dg baik dan eksistensi bahan induk masih tampak Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

33 TANAH INCEPTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………………. Karakteristik tanah inceptisol adalah : 1.Memiliki solum tanah agak tebal, yaitu 1-2 meter 2.Warnanya hitam atau kelabu hingga coklat tua 3.Teksturnya debu, lempung berdebu, lempung 4.Struktur tanahnya remah, konsistensinya gembur, pH 5,0 – 0,7 5.Kandungan bahan organik cukup tinggi, 10%-30% 6.Kandungan unsur hara : sedang hingga tinggi 7.Produktivitas tanah: sedang hingga tinggi.

34 Sucessional Relationships Inceptisols dapat berkembang menjadi ultisols dan spodosols Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013 Inceptisol adalah tanah – tanah yang memiliki epipedon okhrik dan horison albik seperti yang dimiliki tanah entisol, juga menpunyai sifat penciri lain ( misalnya horison kambik) tetapi belum memenuhi syarat bagi ordo tanah lainnya. Inceptisol adalah tanah yang belum matang (immature), perkembangan profilnya lebih lemah dibandingkan dengan tanah matang, dan masih banyak menyerupai sifat bahan induknya (Hardjowigeno,1993).

35 Contoh: Deskripsi Profil Tanah Inceptisol Taksonomi tanah: Fluventic Ustropepts Lokasi: Desa Jambuwer, Kecamatan Kromengan Kemiringan: 40% Elevasi: 300 m dpl Bentul lahan: Dataran Bahan induk: Fluvent Drainase: Sedang Horison Ap (0-22 cm): Coklat sampai coklat tua (10 YR 4/3) lembab; liat; subangular blocky, sedang, kuat; konsistensi teguh bila lembab; agak lekat dan agak plastis bila basah, keras bila kering; pori mikro, pori meso, dan pori makro banyak; perakaran halus banyak, batas jelas dan nyata. Horison Bw1 (22-70 cm): Coklat (10 YR 4/2) lembab; liat; angular blocky, sedang, kuat; konsistensi sangat teguh bila lembab, sangat lekat; sangat plastis bila basah, sangat keras bila kering; pori mikro banyak, pori meso sedang, pori makro sedikit; batas kontinyu jelas dan sedang. Bw2 ( cm): Coklat tua (10 YR 4/4), lembab; liat; angular blocky, sedang, kuat; konsistensi sangat teguh bila lembab, sangat lekat, sangat plastis bila basah, sangat keras bila kering; pori mikro banyak, pori meso sedang, pori makro sedikit; batas kontinyu jelas dan sedangh. Diunduh dari: AGRITEK 8(4) Nop 2000 ………….. 27/2/2013

36 Hasil analisis contoh Tanah : Fluventic Ustropepts Diunduh dari: AGRITEK 8(4) Nop 2000 ………….. 27/2/2013 Jenis Kedalaman 0-22 cm22-70 cm cm pH H pH KCI N- total (%) C- organik (%) P-Olsen (ppm) K-dd (cmol/kg) Ca-dd (cmol./ kg) Mg-dd (cmol /kg ) Na-dd (cmol/kg) KTK (cmol.kg~l) Kejenuhan Basa (%) Tekstur tanah Pasir (%) Debu (%) Liat (%) Berat Isi (g /cm3) Berat Jenis (g / cm3) KHJ (cm /jam)

37 CONTOH DESKRIPSI PROFIL TANAH Diunduh dari: ………….. 27/2/2013 INFORMASI TENTANG LOKASI : Soil Classification:USDA (1990): Fine, mixed, thermic Family of Vertic Xerochrepts (JDEF) FAO/UNESCO: CMv : Vertic Cambisol Location: W of side sample area 1/6 Coordinates: Geographical : E/ N Elevation: 735 m asl Landform: Position: Lower slope Land System : 18/2(Undulating to rolling dissected limestone plateau on Ajlun/Balqa group) Land Facet: 5 (Vally floor on dissected limestone terrains ) Microrelief : Class: Even (<25 cm) Type: other Slope: Sloping (9%), concave to ESE Land Use : 1.1 Cereals Plant /Crop: Cereals Climate: Mean annual precipitation: Mean annual temperature: Air : 16.4 ° C / Soil (50cm): 19.3° C Soil moisture regime: Xeric Precipitation zone: mm p.a.

38 CONTOH DESKRIPSI PROFIL TANAH Diunduh dari: ………….. 27/2/2013 INFORMASI UMUM TENTANG TANAH: Geology: Unconsolidated alluvium: Limestone [q5 Fluv.deposits, sand, loess (Bender 1968)] Parent Material: Alluvium Drainage: Surface Runoff: Medium Soil Drainage Class: Well Surface Cover: Stones (15 %) Surface Feature: Litter (5 %) Soil Surface Conditions: Dry / Loose Erosion: Slight gully erosion Soil Depth: 200 cm + Diagnostic Horizon or Property: Vertic at 25 cm

39 CONTOH DESKRIPSI PROFIL TANAH Diunduh dari: ………….. 27/2/2013 PROFILE DESCRIPTION: 0-5cm Brown (7.5 YR 4/4) dry and yellowish red (5 YR 4/6) moist; silty clayloam; moderate medium crumb; dry slightly hard; moist very friable; moderately sticky; slightly plastic; comm on very fine (< 0.5 mm) tubular pores; common very fine (<1 mm) fibrous root; 5 % irregular hard lim estone fine gravel (2-5 mm); moderate reaction to HCl; abrupt wavy boundary to: 5-25cm Reddish brown (5 YR 4/4) dry and dark reddish brown (5 YR 3/4) moist; silty clayloam; strong very coarse angular blocky; dry very hard; moist friable; moderately sticky; moderately plastic; few very fine (< 0.5 mm) tubular pores; common fine (1-5 mm) vertical cracks; common very fine (<1 mm) fibrous root; 2 % irregular hard limestone fine gravel (2-5 mm); weak thin clay coating; moderate reaction to HCl; diffuse smooth boundary to: 25-80cm Reddish brown (5 YR 4/4) dry and dark reddish brown (5 YR 3/4) moist; silty clayloam; strong coarse angular blocky breaking to strong coarse platy; dry very hard; moist friable; slightly sticky; moderately plastic; common very fine (< 0.5 mm) tubular pores; common fine (1-5 mm) vertical cracks ; common very fine (<1 mm) fibrous root; 4 % irregular hard limestone fine gravel (2-5 mm); moderately thin clay coating; moderate reaction to HCl; diffuse smooth boundary to: cm Reddish brown (5 YR 4/4) dry and dark reddish brown (5 YR 3/4) moist; silty clay; very strong coarse prismatic; dry very hard; moist friable; moderately sticky; moderately plastic; many fine (1-5 mm) vertical cracks; few very fine (<1 mm) fibrous roots; 10 % irregular hard lime stone fine gravel (2-5 mm); strong thick clay coating; strong reaction to HCl; clear wavy boundary to: cm Brown (7.5 YR 4/4 ) moist; extremely stony clay; moderate medium subangular blocky; dry very hard ; moist friable; moderately sticky; very plastic; common very fine (<1 mm) irregular cracks; few medium (2-5 mm) fibrous and woody roots; 60 % irregular hard limestone stones ( mm); moderate thin CaCO3 coating; violent reaction to HCl.

40 CONTOH DESKRIPSI PROFIL TANAH Diunduh dari: ………….. 27/2/2013 INFORMASI TENTANG LOKASI : Soil Classification: USDA (1990): Fine, mixed, calcareous, hyperthermic Family of Vertic Ustochrepts (JDDC) FAO/UNESCO: VR : Vertisol Location: 4.2km N of Shuna Coordinates: Geographical : E/ N JTM: E/ N Elevation: -200 m asl Landform: Position: Lower slope of plain Land System : 1/3 (Alluvial fans and terraces, piedmont fans) [GIS] Land Facet: 2 (Gently sloping to flat alluvial fan) Microrelief: Class: Even (<25 cm) Type: Slope: Gently sloping (2 % ), rectilinear to SW Land Use : 1.9 Tilled Plant /Crop: Climate:Mean annual precipitation: Mean annual temperature: Air : 22.2 ° C / Soil (50cm): 25.0° C Soil moisture regime: Ustic Precipitation zone: mm p.a.

41 CONTOH DESKRIPSI PROFIL TANAH Diunduh dari: ………….. 27/2/2013 INFORMASI UMUM TENTANG TANAH: Geology: Unconsolidated alluvium [q5 Fluv.deposits,sand,loess( Bender 1968 )] Parent Material: Alluvium Drainage: Surface Runoff: None Soil Drainage Class: Imperfect Surface Cover : Gravel (10 %) Surface Feature : Litter (5 %) Soil Surface Conditions: Wet / Moderately hard Erosion : Nil Soil Depth : 180 cm + Diagnostic Horizon or Property: Cambic at 25 cm and Vertic at 50 cm

42 CONTOH DESKRIPSI PROFIL TANAH Diunduh dari: ………….. 27/2/2013 PROFILE DESCRIPTION: 0-25cmDark brown (7.5YR 3/4) moist; silty clay; moderate medium subangular blocky; dry moderately hard; moist friable; very sticky; very plastic; common very fine (<0.5 mm) tubular pores ; common fine (1-2 mm) fibrous roots; 3 % irregular hard limestone coarse gravel (20-75 mm); strong reaction to HCL; clear smooth boundary to: 25-50cmDark brown (7.5YR 3/4) moist; silty clay; moderate medium subangular blocky; dry moderately hard; moist friable; very sticky; very plastic; few (<2 %) small (<5 mm) distinct mottles (10YR 3/4) ; many very fine (<0.5 mm) tubular pores; common medium (2-5 mm) fibrous and woody roots ; 2 % irregular hard limestone fine gravel (2-5 mm); weak thin organic matter coating of peds; strong reaction to HCL; clear smooth boundary to: 50-93cmDark brown (7.5YR 3/4) moist; silty clayloam; moderate medium subangular blocky breaking to wedges; dry moderately hard; moist friable; very sticky; very plastic; common (2-20 %) medium (5-15 mm) distinct mottles (10YR 3/4); many very fine ( 5 mm) fibrous and woody roots; 2 % fragments; 1 % small (<5 mm) soft calcareous concretions; slickensides; strong reaction to HCL; clear smooth boundary to: cmDark brown (7.5YR 3/4) moist; silty clay; moderate medium subangular blocky breaking to fine wedges; dry moderately hard; moist friable; very sticky; very plastic; common (2-20 %) medium (5-15 mm) distinct mottles (10YR 3/3); many very fine (<0.5 mm) tubular pores; 1 % sub-rounded hard limestone fine gravel (2-5 mm); 1 % small (<5 mm) soft calcareous concretions; slickensides; violent reaction to HCL; clear smooth boundary to: cmDark brown (7.5YR 3/4) moist; silty clay; moderate medium subangular blocky breaking to weak fine wedges; dry moderately hard; moist friable; very sticky; very plastic; common (2-20 % ) small (<5 mm) distinct mottles (10YR 3/3); many very fine (<0.5 mm) tubular pores; 1 % sub-rounded hard limes tone fine gravel (2-5 mm); 1 % small (<5 mm) soft calcareous concretions; slickensides; violent reaction to HCL.

43 Diunduh dari: smno.kampus.ub.nop2012 INCEPTISOLS…..


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