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HANDOUT 1 GEOGRAFI TANAH PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN GEOGRAFI FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH SURAKARTA.

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Presentasi berjudul: "HANDOUT 1 GEOGRAFI TANAH PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN GEOGRAFI FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH SURAKARTA."— Transcript presentasi:

1 HANDOUT 1 GEOGRAFI TANAH PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN GEOGRAFI FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH SURAKARTA

2 KLASIFIKASI TANAH (Horison Diagnostik) Siti Azizah Susilawati, S.Si., MP. Program Pendidikan Geografi, FKIP UMS

3 EPIPEDON Horison Epipedon (bhs Yunani, Epi = atas, Pedon = tanah) Ialah horison permukaan (bag.atas) tetapi tidak sinonim dg horizon A (bisa lebih tipis dr A atau bahkan bisa meliputi B).

4 EPIPEDON 1. Molik (mollis = lunak) : b.o > 1%, wrn lembab (value 3,5), tebal 18 cm, KB > 50%. 2. Antropik (anthropik = manusia) : seperti molik, kandg.phosphat tinggi (P2O5 > 250 pp) sebagai akibat pemupukan yg lama. 3. Histik (histos = jaringan) : b.o tinggi, > 20 % 4. Melanik (melas/melan = hitam) : horiz. Berwrn hitam yg tebal & mgd b.o tinggi berasosiaosi dg mineral amorf (komplek alumunium humus). 5. Umbrik (umbra = bayangan/grey/ndekati hitam) : seperti molik ttp KB < 50 %

5 6. Okrik (ochros = pucat) :Horis. wrn terang, b.o < 1 % atau keras-sgt keras dan pejal (masive). 7. Plagen (plaggen = sod/ tanaman sisa2 rumput) : lap.permk.sedalam 50 cm atau lebih dihasilkan dr pemupukan organik yg intensif. EPIPEDON Ialah : horis bwh permukaan

6 1.Agrik (ager=lapangan) : horis berada di bawh lapisan olah,terdapat akumulasi humus, debu & lempung. 2. Albik (albus=putih) : horis.bwrn pucat (horiz A2), dlm keadaan lembab value >5. 3. Argilik (argilla=lempung) : horison illuviasi dan akumulasi silikat. 4. Kalsik (calx, calc=kapur): horiz. Illuviasi yg mgd.kalsium karbonat.

7 5. Kambik (cambiare=berubah) : suatu horis yg berubah2/ganti2 krn gerakan partikel2 tnh frost, akar & hewan yg luas. 6. Duripan (durus=keras, cadas keras) : horis dibwh permurk. Yg tersementasi oleh illuviasi silikat (Sering mengandung semen tambahan berupa oksida besi dan CaCO3 sehingga warna beraneka) 7. Fragipan (fragilis=rapuh;cadas yg rapuh):keras bial kering tp rapuh bila lembab, kerapatan partikel tinggi.

8 8. Natrik (natrium) : horis. Argilik yg byk mengandung natrium. 9. Oksik (oksida) : akumulasi besi oksida dan Al oksida terhidrat, mineral lempung kaolinit. 10. Petrogypsic (petro=batuan): horis.gypsic yg memadas dan tdk terputus-putus. 11. Placic : padas tipis berwarna hitam sampai merah tua (terikat besi).

9 Soil Taxonomy Order Suborder Great group Sub group Family Series 12 19,000 Soil forming processes / diagnostic horizons Genetic similarity: Wetness, climate, vegetation

10 Nama Ordo Akhiran Untuk Kategori Lain Arti Asal Kata AlfisolALFDari Al-Fe AndisolANDAndo, tanah hitam AridisolIDAridus, sangat kering EntisolENTDari Recent GelisolELGelare, membeku HistosolISTHistos, jaringan InceptisolEPTInceptum, permulaan MollisolOLLMollis, lunak OxisolOXOxide, oksida SpodosolODSpodos, abu UltisolULTUltimus, akhir VertisolERTVerto, berubah

11 Ordo Penciri Utama Horison penciriSifat-sifat penciri lain AlfisolHorison argilik Kejenuhan basa ( jumlah kation ) tinggi ( lebih dari 35% ), pada kedalaman 180 cm. Andisol-Mempunyai sifat tanah andik AridisolHorison oksik Regim kelembaban tanah aridik (sangat kering ) Entisol Hanya ada epipedon ochrik, albik atau histik - Gelisol- Mempunyai sifat gelik (membeku sepanjang tahun) HistosolEpipedon histik tebalnya lebih dari 40 cm- InceptisolHorison kambik- MollisolEpipedoin mollik Kejenuhan basah (NH4OA C P H 7) seluruh solum lebih dari 50% OxisolHorison oksik- SpodosolHorison spodik- UltisolHorison argillik Kejenuhan basa ( jumlah kation ) rendah (kurang dari 35%), pada kedalaman 180 cm Vertisol- Bersifat vertik ( musim kering mengerut, tanah pecah-pecah; musim hujan tanah mengembang sangat lekat) lebih dari 30% liat.

12 Wet Dry Moisture Conditions Aquic – poor aeration, reduced iron Udic- dry < 90 total days Ustic - limited but is present Aridic- moist <90 total days Xeric - dry cold Hot Temperature Conditions Cryic – icy cold Frigid – lower than 8 o C Mesic – between 8 and 15 o C Thermic – between 15 and 22 o C Hyperthermic - > 22 o C Order Suborder Great group Sub group Family Series Family Suborder

13 1. Entisols -recent No diagnostic subsurface horizons. Very recent or young soil Little if any profile development Form on resistant P.M., mine spoils, steep slopes, floodplains

14 2. Inceptisols inception (Latin, beginning) Slightly more development than Entisols Young soils but beginning of profile development is evident. Well-defined profile characteristics of mature soils are yet to be developed. May have a cambic/umbric horizon

15 3. Mollisols mollis (Latin, soft) Typically form under grasslands. E.g., Central US Soils with a mollic epipedon: Thick humus-rich surface horizon  High % base saturation throughout profile  Slightly leached  Very fertile soils

16 4. Alfisols pedalfer Do have an argillic horizon About 35% base saturation Develop in humid, temperate regions Vegetation is usually deciduous (forests, savanna) Gray to brown surface horizon Good for grain production

17 5. Spodosols -spodos (Greek, wood ashes) Have a spodic horizon Form in humid, cool climates and occur most often in conifer forests (New England, Mich., Canada) Form in acid, coarse, quartz (sandy) bearing P.M. Low fertility

18 6. Ultisols -ultimate (Latin, last) Have Argillic or Kandic with <35% Base saturation. Common in S.E. US, humid tropical, and subtropical regions Warm and humid environs. Old, highly weathered, high degree of development (ult) Low fertility

19 7. Oxisols -oxide (French, oxide) Have an oxic horizon. Dominated by residual accumulations of Fe and Al oxides and kaolinite Most extensively weathered soils (occur in tropical regions). Intense red or yellow (high in oxidized iron). Low % Base Saturation. extensively leached Low fertility.

20 8. Histosols -histos (Greek, tissue) Organic soils (peats and mucks) Mainly found in cold climates (Alaska, Canada, Finland, Russia) Low-lying swampy areas Virtually all Histosols occur in wetland environments Have very low bulk densities and very high water holding capacity

21 9. Vertisols -invert (Latin, turn) High clay soils (>30% sticky shrink-swell clays). Deep cracks upon drying Materials from soil surface fill cracks and become part of the subsurface when the cracks close (inverted soil)

22 10. Aridisols -arid (Latin, dry) Form in aridic moisture regimes (dry) Dry at least 6 months Low OM Little leaching High base sat. Can be very productive if irrigated

23 11. Andisols -ando (Jap., black soil) Form from P.M. of volcanic origin Soil forms by rapid weathering of volcanic ash to produce poorly crystallized aluminosilicates (allophane & imogolite) Andisols are young soils ( and they have high OM) In dry climates, can be susceptible to wind erosion Can have unusually low bulk densities

24 12. Gelisols -gelid (Greek, cold) Presence of permafrost layer within 100 cm of soil surface defines this soil class Young soils with little profile development Cold temperatures and frozen conditions for much of the year slow the process of soil formation. May show evidence of cryoturbation physical disturbance of soil material caused by freezing and thawing


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