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Potensi Bahaya (Hazard)

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Presentasi berjudul: "Potensi Bahaya (Hazard)"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Potensi Bahaya (Hazard)
Ricki M Mulia, ST. MSc

2 Unsafe Act Unsafe Condition HAZARD EXPOSURE Higiene Industri Penyakit
Ricki M. Mulia HAZARD EXPOSURE Higiene Industri Kesehatan Kerja Penyakit Akibat kerja RISK Kecelakaan kerja Keselamatan Kerja

3 Ricki M. Mulia

4 HAZARDS (Potensi Bahaya)
Definition : Any existing or potential condition in the workplace which, by itself or by interacting with other variables, can results in deaths, injuries, property damage, and other losses. ( National Safety Council, 1988) A chemical or physical condition that has the potential for causing damage to people, property, or the environment. ( American Institute of Chemical Engineering, 1995) Potensi bahaya (hazard) adalah suatu keadaan yang memungkinkan atau dapat menimbulkan kecelakaan/kerugian berupa cedera, penyakit, kerusakan atau kemampuan melaksanakan fungsi yang telah ditetapkan ( Depnaker RI, 2004)

Ricki M. Mulia Inherent properties of the materials: Toxicity Flammability / Explosion Carcinogenicity Environment : Hot surfaces Electrical equipment condition Existence of reactive substances etc Hazard Deviations from good practice in Operations: major variables (levels, temperatures, etc) time of actions sequences of operations human errors

6 The Incident spectrum Severity (level of harm) Frequency frequent rare
low high Major incidents: Minor incidents: Fire (pools, jets, flash) BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion) Vapor Cloud Explosion (VCE) Dust explosion Toxic gas release Toxic liquid or solid releases Toxic combustion products from fires Slips Falls Minor burns Ricki M. Mulia

7 MAJOR HAZARD Selected Major Incidents – Process Industries Year
Location Chemical Event Death/Injury 1921 Oppau, Germany Amm.nitrate explosion 561d 1944 Cleveland, USA LNG 131 d 1969 Basle, Switzerland Nitro liq. 3d, 28i 1970 Teeside, UK cyclohexana fire 2d, 23i 1974 Flixborough,UK isocyanate 28d, 53i 1984 Bhopal, India Methyl isocyanate toxic 2500d, i 1987 Cairns, Qld LPG BLEVE 1d, 5i Ricki M. Mulia Sources : Safety Engineering ( Ian Cameroon/ P.1-8/ UQ )

8 MAJOR HAZARD Beberapa kecelakaan kerja besar di Indonesia Thn.
Tempat Kejadian Kasus Akibat 1982 PT. Great Giant Pine Apple Co., Lampung Tengah Peledakan tangki karbit 13 orang luka terbakar 1985 PT. Pupuk Kaltim, Bontang Peledakan Bak pendingin 3 orang meninggal 1987 PT. Pupuk Iskandar Muda, Aceh Kebocoran Ammoniak Polusi udara 1990 PT. Popo Chemical, Jakarta Kebakaran Solvent Kerugian material 1992 PT. Gemilang Jaya Motor, Jakarta Kebakaran Produk yang baru dicat PT. Isamu Raya Paint, Tangerang Kebakaran Nitrocellulosa Sources: Manajemen Keselamatan Kerja/ Payaman J. Simanjuntak/ P.7s/d10/ HIPSMI ) Ricki M. Mulia

9 MAJOR EVENTS (S.Eng / p.4-3 / Ian Cameroon / UQ / 1996)
1. Releases of materials Vapour/gases Liquid Solids 2. Fires Flames on pools Flash fires Jet fires (or torch fires) Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosions (BLEVE) Ricki M. Mulia

10 MAJOR EVENTS (S.Eng / p.4-3 / Ian Cameroon / UQ / 1996)
3. Emmissions and Dispersions Toxic gases Flammable substances Products of combustion 4. Explosions Vapour cloud explosions Dust explosions Condensed phase explosions 5. Event Sequences or incidents Ricki M. Mulia

11 MAJOR EFFECTS - Vulnerability Models (S. Eng / p
MAJOR EFFECTS - Vulnerability Models (S.Eng / p.4-10 / Ian Cameroon / UQ / 1996) Damage causing Event Physical Effects Resources affected Type of Damage Flash Fire Thermal radiation People Death within flammable cloud Pool Burning Structures Death, Burn Failure Torch Fire Flame impingement Explosion Blast effects Flying fragments Death, injury, ear/lung damage, fractures, punctures Structural damage, glass breakage Toxicity Toxic vapour concentration dose Biosphers Death, injury, irritation, distress Death, damage Ricki M. Mulia

12 Accident Prevention The different paths of accident for ensuring workplace safety: (Encyclopaedia/p ) Eliminate the hazard or danger so that the injury or damage is no longer possible Provide the separation between the worker (or equipment) and the hazard. Provide shielding, such as fireproofing, protective clothing and respirators to minimize the hazard. Adapt to the hazard by providing mesures such as warning systems, monitoring equipment, information about dangers, motivation for safe behaviour, training and education.

13 Terimakasih… Ricki M. Mulia

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