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Potensi Bahaya (Hazard) Ricki M Mulia, ST. MSc. Unsafe Act Unsafe Condition HAZARD EXPOSURE Penyakit Akibat kerja RISK Kecelakaan kerja Higiene Industri.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Potensi Bahaya (Hazard) Ricki M Mulia, ST. MSc. Unsafe Act Unsafe Condition HAZARD EXPOSURE Penyakit Akibat kerja RISK Kecelakaan kerja Higiene Industri."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Potensi Bahaya (Hazard) Ricki M Mulia, ST. MSc

2 Unsafe Act Unsafe Condition HAZARD EXPOSURE Penyakit Akibat kerja RISK Kecelakaan kerja Higiene Industri Kesehatan Kerja Keselamatan Kerja Ricki M. Mulia

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4 HAZARDS (Potensi Bahaya) Definition : Any existing or potential condition in the workplace which, by itself or by interacting with other variables, can results in deaths, injuries, property damage, and other losses. ( National Safety Council, 1988) A chemical or physical condition that has the potential for causing damage to people, property, or the environment. ( American Institute of Chemical Engineering, 1995) Potensi bahaya (hazard) adalah suatu keadaan yang memungkinkan atau dapat menimbulkan kecelakaan/kerugian berupa cedera, penyakit, kerusakan atau kemampuan melaksanakan fungsi yang telah ditetapkan ( Depnaker RI, 2004)

5 CONTRIBUTING FACTOR TO HAZARDS Ricki M. Mulia Hazard Inherent properties of the materials: Toxicity Flammability / Explosion Carcinogenicity Deviations from good practice in Operations: -major variables (levels, temperatures, etc) - time of actions - sequences of operations - human errors Environment : Hot surfaces Electrical equipment condition Existence of reactive substances etc

6 The Incident spectrum Ricki M. Mulia Severity (level of harm) Frequency frequent rare low high Minor incidents: -Slips -Falls -Minor burns Major incidents: -Fire (pools, jets, flash) -BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion) -Vapor Cloud Explosion (VCE) -Dust explosion -Toxic gas release -Toxic liquid or solid releases -Toxic combustion products from fires

7 MAJOR HAZARD Ricki M. Mulia Selected Major Incidents – Process Industries YearLocationChemicalEventDeath/Injury 1921Oppau, GermanyAmm.nitrateexplosion561d 1944Cleveland, USALNGexplosion131 d 1969Basle, SwitzerlandNitro liq.explosion3d, 28i 1970Teeside, UKcyclohexanafire2d, 23i 1974Flixborough,UKisocyanateexplosion28d, 53i 1984Bhopal, IndiaMethyl isocyanate toxic2500d, i 1987Cairns, QldLPGBLEVE 1d, 5i Sources : Safety Engineering ( Ian Cameroon/ P.1-8/ UQ )

8 MAJOR HAZARD Ricki M. Mulia Thn.Tempat KejadianKasusAkibat 1982PT. Great Giant Pine Apple Co., Lampung Tengah Peledakan tangki karbit 13 orang luka terbakar 1985PT. Pupuk Kaltim, BontangPeledakan Bak pendingin 3 orang meninggal 1987PT. Pupuk Iskandar Muda, Aceh Kebocoran Ammoniak Polusi udara 1990PT. Popo Chemical, JakartaKebakaran SolventKerugian material 1992PT. Gemilang Jaya Motor, Jakarta Kebakaran Produk yang baru dicat Kerugian material 1992PT. Isamu Raya Paint, Tangerang Kebakaran Nitrocellulosa Kerugian material Sources: Manajemen Keselamatan Kerja/ Payaman J. Simanjuntak/ P.7s/d10/ HIPSMI ) Beberapa kecelakaan kerja besar di Indonesia

9 MAJOR EVENTS ( S.Eng / p.4-3 / Ian Cameroon / UQ / 1996) Ricki M. Mulia 1. Releases of materials Vapour/gases Liquid Solids 2. Fires Flames on pools Flash fires Jet fires (or torch fires) Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosions (BLEVE)

10 MAJOR EVENTS ( S.Eng / p.4-3 / Ian Cameroon / UQ / 1996) Ricki M. Mulia 3. Emmissions and Dispersions Toxic gases Flammable substances Products of combustion 4. Explosions Vapour cloud explosions Dust explosions Condensed phase explosions 5. Event Sequences or incidents

11 Ricki M. Mulia MAJOR EFFECTS - Vulnerability Models ( S.Eng / p.4-10 / Ian Cameroon / UQ / 1996) Damage causing Event Physical EffectsResources affected Type of Damage Flash FireThermal radiationPeopleDeath within flammable cloud Pool BurningThermal radiationPeople Structures Death, Burn Failure Torch FireFlame impingementStructuresFailure ExplosionBlast effects Flying fragments People Structures Death, injury, ear/lung damage, fractures, punctures Structural damage, glass breakage ToxicityToxic vapour concentration dose People Biosphers Death, injury, irritation, distress Death, damage

12 Accident Prevention The different paths of accident for ensuring workplace safety: (Encyclopaedia/p ) 1.Eliminate the hazard or danger so that the injury or damage is no longer possible 2.Provide the separation between the worker (or equipment) and the hazard. 3.Provide shielding, such as fireproofing, protective clothing and respirators to minimize the hazard. 4.Adapt to the hazard by providing mesures such as warning systems, monitoring equipment, information about dangers, motivation for safe behaviour, training and education.

13 Ricki M. Mulia Terimakasih…


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