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Peran Media dan Efek Komunikasi Massa dalam Pembentukan Opini Publik

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Presentasi berjudul: "Peran Media dan Efek Komunikasi Massa dalam Pembentukan Opini Publik"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Peran Media dan Efek Komunikasi Massa dalam Pembentukan Opini Publik
Peran Media dan Kekuatannya Beberapa Jenis Media untuk OP Efek2 Kommas untuk OP


3 Mass Media in Public Opinion Formation

4 Mass Media in Public Opinion Formation
Early theorists cast mass communication in the role of telling us about events, things, people and places we could not experience directly ourselves. Walter Lippmann said it best when he wrote about "the world outside and the pictures in our heads." He described a triangular relationship between the scene of action (interpreted to include people, places, actions and the entire range of possible phenomena), perceptions of that scene, and responses based on the perceptions. The last side of the triangle is complete when the responses have impact on the original scene of action. Mass media fit in the model between the scene of action and audience perceptions. Lippmann pointed out that most of us cannot or do not have direct access to much of the world; it is "out of reach, out of sight, out of mind." The mass media help us create a "trustworthy picture" of the world that is beyond our reach and direct experience. His notions of media impact on public perceptions not only set the stage for studying mass communication effects but arguably established the conceptual basis for much of what later became public relations.

5 Opini Publik dan Komunikasi Massa
Opini publik mengenai permasalahan apa saja, seperti berbagai masalah yang ada pada masyarakat, tokoh-tokoh penting yang dibicarakan di suatu negara produk-produk yang dikonsumsi massa, dan lembaga-lembaga negara yang dibicarakan masyarakat, baru berarti jika sudah dimuat, disiarkan, dicetak, dan disebarluaskan oleh media massa. Media adalah alat atau sarana yang digunakan seseorang dalam penyampaian pesan kepada orang lain. Media massa adalah media yang dipakai dalam komunikasi massa, media massa tersebut misalnya televisi, radio, pers (surat kabar/majalah), dan film. Ciri-ciri komunikasi massa, yaitu sebagai berikut. 1. Komunikasi ditujukan kepada massa. 2. Komunikasi dilakukan secara serempak. 3. Komunikatornya suatu organisasi/lembaga. 4. Pesannya bersifat umum. 5. Medianya disebut media massa, yaitu bisa menjangkau orang banyak. 6. Umpan balik tidak langsung atau terlambat. Opini publik yang dimuat, ditayangkan, dan disiarkan media massa karena pengaruhnya yang dapat memperkuat atau mendukung, dan juga melemahkan atau mengancam posisi pemerintah, supaya tidak menimbulkan masalah, keberadaannya perlu diperhatikan pemerintah.

6 The Effect: Spiral of Silence
Teori yang digagas oleh Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann Teori ini menyatakan bahwa seseorang akan enggan menyatakan pendapatnya mengenai suatu topik dikarenakan ia merasa apa yang akan dikatakannya adalah pendapat minoritas, dan untuk itu ia lebih baik diam daripada dikucilkan (terisolasi) oleh mayoritas orang Individuals use what is described as "an innate ability" or quasi-statistical sense to gauge public opinion The Mass Media play a large part in determining what the dominant opinion is, since our direct observation is limited to a small percentage of the population. The mass media have an enormous impact on how public opinion is portrayed, and can dramatically impact an individual's perception about where public opinion lies

7 Crucial Points to The Spiral of Silence Theory
People have a fear of being rejected by those in their social environment, which is called "fear of isolation." People are constantly observing the behaviors of those around them, and seeing which gain approval and disapproval from society. People unconsciously issue their own threats of isolation by showing signals of approval or disapproval. Threats of isolation are avoided by a person's tendency to refrain from making a statement about something they think might attract objections. People are more willing to publicly state things that they believe will be accepted positively. The spiral effect begins because when people speak out confidently, the opposition feels a greater sense of fear of isolation and is further convinced to stay silent, since they are in the minority. The feelings continue to grow in either direction exponentially. A strong moral component is necessary for the issue to activate the spiral. If there is a social consensus, the spiral will not be activated. There must be two opposing forces. The mass media has a strong influence on this process. Fear and threat of isolation are subconscious processes. The spiral of silence only "holds a sway" over the public for a limited time. If a topic activates the spiral of silence, this means that the issue is a great threat to social cohesion.

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