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Bab 13 dicari Upah Determinasi, & Diskriminasi.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Bab 13 dicari Upah Determinasi, & Diskriminasi."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Bab 13 dicari Upah Determinasi, & Diskriminasi

2 Dlm Bab ini dipelajari Upah tergantung dari kekuatan permintaan & penawaran Pengaruh kekuatan Monopoli dlm permintaan & penawaran T .Kerja Pengaruh Upah Minimum Pengaruh Diskriminasi dlm Pasar T.Kerja

3 Topik Bab 13 T.Kerja, Upah , & Pendapatan Tkt Upah
Pasar Kompetitif T.Kerja Model Monopsoni Tiga Model Union Model Monopoli Bilateral Kontroversi Upah minimum Upah Differensial Pembayaran utk Kinerja Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja Analisis Diskriminasi Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

4 T.Kerja, Upah, & Pendapatan
Upah adalah harga dari T.Kerja Upah nominal Upah riil

5 Topik Bab 13 T.kerja, upah, & pendapatan Tkt Upah
Pasar Kompetitif T.Kerja Model Monopsoni Tiga Model Union Model Monopoli Bilateral Kontroversi Upah minimum Upah Differensial Pembayaran utk Kinerja Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja Analisis Diskriminasi Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

6 Tingkat Upah Produktivitas Modal

7 Tingkat Upah Produktivitas Modal Akses ke F.Produksi

8 Tingkat Upah Produktivitas Modal Akses ke F.Produksi Teknologi

9 Tingkat Upah Produktivitas Teknologi Kualitas T.kerja Modal
Akses ke F.Produksi Teknologi Kualitas T.kerja

10 Tingkat Upah Produktivitas Teknologi Kualitas T.kerja Modal
Akses ke F.Produksi Teknologi Kualitas T.kerja Faktor yg tdk kelihatan

11 Topik Bab 13 T.kerja, upah, & pendapatan Tkt Upah
Pasar Kompetitif T.Kerja Model Monopsoni Tiga Model Union Model Monopoli Bilateral Kontroversi Upah minimum Upah Differensial Pembayaran utk Kinerja Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja Analisis Diskriminasi Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

12 Pasar Kopetitif T.Kerja
Banyak Perusahan Banyak kualifikasi pekerja dgn ketrampilan yg identik perusahaan & pekerja adalah “wage-takers”

13 Penawaran & Permintaan: Pasar persaingan sempurna
Wc (1000) D D = MRP (S mrp’s) d = mrp (5) Wc S = MRC ($10) Tkt upah (dollars) Kuantitas t.kerja Kuantitas t.kerja Pasar Perusahaan 13 .

14 Penawaran & Permintaan: Pasar persaingan sempurna
Wc (1000) a D Biaya non T.Kerja Wc S = MRC ($10) Tkt upah (dollars) e b total wage cost D = MRP (S mrp’s) c d = mrp (5) Kuantitas T.Kerja Kuantitas T.Kerja Pasar Perusahaan 14 .

15 Topik Bab 13 T.kerja, upah, & pendapatan Tkt Upah
Pasar Kompetisi T.KerjaModel Monopsoni Tiga Model Union Model Monopoli Bilateral Kontroversi Upah minimum Upah Differensial Pembayaran utk Kinerja Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja Analisis Diskriminasi Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

16 Model Monopsoni Pekerja mempunyai kekuatan membeli
Hanya satu pembeli Tenaga kerja tdk mobil Perusahaan adalh “wage maker” upsloping labour supply to firm MRC melebihi tkt upah

17 Model Monopsoni Unit T.Kerja Tkt Upah Upah bill MRC $ 5 $ 0 1 6 2 7 14
$ 5 $ 0 1 6 2 7 14 3 8 24 4 9 36 5 10 50 11 66 $ 6 $ 8 $ 10 $ 12 $ 14 $ 16

18 Model Monopsoni S Tkt Upah (dollars) Kuantitas T.Kerja 18

19 Model Monopsoni Dlm Monopsoni MRC diatas Kurve supply
Tkt Upah (dollars) Kuantitas T.Kerja 19

20 Model Monopsoni MRP = MRC Qm unit yg diminta Tkt Upah (dollars)
b Tkt Upah (dollars) Wm c MRP Qm unit yg diminta Qm Kuantitas T.Kerja 20

21 Model Monopsoni Qm unit yg diminta Tkt upah hanya Wm krn kekuatan
MRC MRP S Tkt upah hanya Wm krn kekuatan monopsoni b Tkt Upah (dollars) Wm c MRP Qm unit yg diminta Qm Kuantitas T.Kerja 21

22 Model Monopsoni persaingan akan menghasilkan upah yg lebih tinggi
MRC MRP S persaingan akan menghasilkan upah yg lebih tinggi & lebih banyak pekerja Tkt upah (dollars) Wc Wm MRP Qm Qc Kuantitas T.Kerja 22

23 Model Monopsoni Contoh perawat Atlet professional guru
Pegawai surat kabar Pekerja bangunan

24 Topik Bab 13 T.kerja, upah, & pendapatan Tkt Upah
Pasar Kompetisi T.KerjaModel Monopsoni Monopsony ModelTiga Model Union Model Monopoli Bilateral Kontroversi Upah minimum Upah Differensial Pembayaran utk Kinerja Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja Analisis Diskriminasi Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

25 Three Union Models Demand Enhancement Model illustrated…
raise wage rates by increasing the demand for labour illustrated…

26 Demand Enhancement Model Figure 15-5
....by increasing product demand ....by increasing productivity ....by increasing the price of other inputs Increasing the demand for labour.... S Wu Qu D2 Wage Rate (dollars) Wc D1 Qc Quantity of Labour 26

27 Three Union Models Exclusive or Craft Union Model illustrated…
raise wage rates by decreasing the supply of labour illustrated…

28 Exclusive or Craft Union Model Figure 15-6
Decreasing the supply of labour.... .…restrictive membership policies .…occupational licensing Wu Qu S2 S1 Wage Rate (dollars) Wc D Qc Quantity of Labour 28

29 Three Union Models Inclusive or Industrial Union Model illustrated…
seek to organize all available workers illustrated…

30 Inclusive or Industrial Union Model Figure 15-7
Impose a higher wage rate.... S Wage Rate (dollars) Wu Wc D Qc Quantity of Labour 30

31 Inclusive or Industrial Union Model Figure 15-7
Impose a higher wage rate.... ....by organizing virtually all workers, thereby controlling the supply curve for labour S Wage Rate (dollars) Wu Wc D Qu Qc Quantity of Labour 31

32 Wage Increases & Unemployment
Union members achieve 10-15% wage advantage Employment reductions are a consequence Negative effects may be reduced by growth inelasticity of labour demand

33 Chapter 15 Topics Labour, Wages, & Earnings General Level of Wages
A Purely Competitive Labour Market Monopsony Model Three Union Models Bilateral Monopoly Model The Minimum-Wage Controversy Wage Differentials Pay for Performance Labour Market Discrimination Economic Analysis of Discrimination Antidiscrimination Policies & Issues

34 Bilateral Monopoly Model
strong union in a monopsonistic labour market illustrated…

35 Bilateral Monopoly Model Figure 15-8
Wage outcome indeterminate... Union seeks Wu Monopsonist seeks Wm Outcome based on bargaining power MRC S Wage Rate (dollars) Wu Wc Wm D Qu Qc Quantity of Labour 35

36 Bilateral Monopoly Model
outcomes may be nearly competitive if monopoly power of union roughly offsets monopsony power of management

37 The Minimum-Wage Controversy
Case Against the Minimum Wage creates unemployment poorly targeted to reduce poverty Case For the Minimum Wage job losses may not occur in monopsonistic labour markets may increase labour productivity Evidence & Conclusions

38 Wage Differentials Figure 15-9
Sa W Sb Wa Da Wb Db Q Q Qa Qb wage differences between occupations a and b result from differences in labour demand

39 Wage Differentials Figure 15-9
wage differences between occupations c and d result from differences in labour supply W W Sc Wc Sd Wd Dc Dd Q Q Qc Qd

40 Wage Differentials Why do labour demand & supply differ?
marginal revenue productivity noncompeting groups ability education & training compensating differences

41 Wage Differentials Why do labour demand & supply differ?
market imperfections lack of job information geographic immobility unions & government restraints discrimination

42 Labour Market Discrimination
Types of Discrimination wage discrimination employment discrimination occupational discrimination human capital discrimination Costs of Discrimination

43 Labour Market Discrimination Figure 15-10
Discrimination results in productive inefficiency X Capital goods Y D Kd Z Cd Consumer goods

44 Economic Analysis of Discrimination
Taste-for-Discrimination Model Discrimination Coefficient Prejudice & the Market Visible-Minority–White Wage Ratio

45 an increase in prejudice would decrease the demand for visible minority workers
Figure 15-11 S $9 Wage rate (dollars) 8 6 D1 Visible minority employment (millions)

46 an increase in prejudice would decrease the demand for visible minority workers
Figure 15-11 S $9 Wage rate (dollars) 8 6 D1 D2 Visible minority employment (millions)

47 a decrease in prejudice would increase the demand for visible minority workers
Figure 15-11 S $9 Wage rate (dollars) 8 6 D3 D1 Visible minority employment (millions)

48 Economic Analysis of Discrimination
Taste-for-Discrimination Model Discrimination Coefficient Prejudice & the Market Visible-Minority–White Wage Ratio Competition & Discrimination Statistical Discrimination Basic Idea Labour Market Example

49 Economic Analysis of Discrimination
Profitable, Undesirable, but Not Malicious Occupational Segregation: The Crowding Model labour force equally divided three occupations, X, Y & Z have identical labour demand curves men & women have same skills/attributes

50 Figure 15-12 Wage rate Wage rate Wage rate M W DX DY DZ Q Q Q 3 3 6 Quantity of labour Quantity of labour Quantity of labour a) Occupation X b) Occupation Y c) Occupation Z women are crowded into Occupation Z, earning a low rate of W, while men earn higher rates of M in Occupations X & Y 50

51 elimination of discrimination would equalize wage rates at B
Figure 15-12 Wage rate Wage rate Wage rate M B W DX DY DZ Q Q Q 3 4 3 4 4 6 Quantity of labour Quantity of labour Quantity of labour a) Occupation X b) Occupation Y c) Occupation Z elimination of discrimination would equalize wage rates at B 51

52 Figure 15-12 Wage rate Wage rate Wage rate M B W DX DY DZ Q Q Q 3 4 3 4 4 6 Quantity of labour Quantity of labour Quantity of labour a) Occupation X b) Occupation Y c) Occupation Z loss of output (grey areas minus orange area) as a result of occupational crowding 52


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