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1 Bab 13 dicari Upah Determinasi, &Diskriminasi. 2 Dlm Bab ini dipelajari u Upah tergantung dari kekuatan permintaan & penawaran u Pengaruh kekuatan Monopoli.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Bab 13 dicari Upah Determinasi, &Diskriminasi. 2 Dlm Bab ini dipelajari u Upah tergantung dari kekuatan permintaan & penawaran u Pengaruh kekuatan Monopoli."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Bab 13 dicari Upah Determinasi, &Diskriminasi

2 2 Dlm Bab ini dipelajari u Upah tergantung dari kekuatan permintaan & penawaran u Pengaruh kekuatan Monopoli dlm permintaan & penawaran T.Kerja u Pengaruh Upah Minimum u Pengaruh Diskriminasi dlm Pasar T.Kerja

3 3 Topik Bab 13 u T.Kerja, Upah, & Pendapatan u Tkt Upah u Pasar Kompetitif T.Kerja u Model Monopsoni u Tiga Model Union u Model Monopoli Bilateral u Kontroversi Upah minimum u Upah Differensial u Pembayaran utk Kinerja u Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja u Analisis Diskriminasi u Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

4 4 T.Kerja, Upah, & Pendapatan u Upah adalah harga dari T.Kerja –Upah nominal –Upah riil

5 5 Topik Bab 13 3 T.kerja, upah, & pendapatan u Tkt Upah u Pasar Kompetitif T.Kerja u Model Monopsoni u Tiga Model Union u Model Monopoli Bilateral u Kontroversi Upah minimum u Upah Differensial u Pembayaran utk Kinerja u Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja u Analisis Diskriminasi u Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

6 6 Tingkat Upah u Produktivitas –Modal

7 7 Tingkat Upah u Produktivitas –Modal –Akses ke F.Produksi

8 8 Tingkat Upah u Produktivitas –Modal –Akses ke F.Produksi u Teknologi

9 9 Tingkat Upah u Produktivitas –Modal –Akses ke F.Produksi u Teknologi u Kualitas T.kerja

10 10 Tingkat Upah u Produktivitas –Modal –Akses ke F.Produksi u Teknologi u Kualitas T.kerja –Faktor yg tdk kelihatan

11 11 Topik Bab 13 3 T.kerja, upah, & pendapatan 3 Tkt Upah u Pasar Kompetitif T.Kerja u Model Monopsoni u Tiga Model Union u Model Monopoli Bilateral u Kontroversi Upah minimum u Upah Differensial u Pembayaran utk Kinerja u Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja u Analisis Diskriminasi u Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

12 12 Pasar Kopetitif T.Kerja u Banyak Perusahan u Banyak kualifikasi pekerja dgn ketrampilan yg identik u perusahaan & pekerja adalah “wage- takers”

13 Kuantitas t.kerja Pasar D D = MRP (  mrp’s) S WcWc (1000) Penawaran & Permintaan: Pasar persaingan sempurna Tkt upah (dollars) Kuantitas t.kerja Perusahaan WcWc S = MRC ($10) 13. d = mrp (5)

14 Kuantitas T.Kerja Pasar D D = MRP (  mrp’s) S WcWc (1000) Penawaran & Permintaan: Pasar persaingan sempurna Tkt upah (dollars) Kuantitas T.Kerja Perusahaan 14. d = mrp (5) a b c total wage cost Biaya non T.Kerja e WcWc S = MRC ($10)

15 15 Topik Bab 13 3 T.kerja, upah, & pendapatan 3 Tkt Upah 3 Pasar Kompetisi T.KerjaModel Monopsoni u Tiga Model Union u Model Monopoli Bilateral u Kontroversi Upah minimum u Upah Differensial u Pembayaran utk Kinerja u Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja u Analisis Diskriminasi u Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

16 16 Model Monopsoni u Pekerja mempunyai kekuatan membeli –Hanya satu pembeli –Tenaga kerja tdk mobil –Perusahaan adalh “wage maker” u upsloping labour supply to firm –MRC melebihi tkt upah

17 17 Model Monopsoni Unit T.Kerja Tkt Upah Upah bill MRC 0 $ 5 $ $ 6 $ 8 $ 10 $ 12 $ 14 $ 16

18 Tkt Upah (dollars) S Kuantitas T.Kerja Model Monopsoni 18

19 Tkt Upah (dollars) S Kuantitas T.Kerja MRC Dlm Monopsoni MRC diatas Kurve supply Model Monopsoni 19

20 Tkt Upah (dollars) MRP S Kuantitas T.Kerja MRP MRC MRP = MRC WmWm QmQm b c Q m unit yg diminta Model Monopsoni 20

21 Tkt Upah (dollars) MRP S Kuantitas T.Kerja MRP MRC Tkt upah hanya W m krn kekuatan W m krn kekuatanmonopsoni WmWm QmQm b c Q m unit yg diminta Model Monopsoni 21

22 Tkt upah (dollars) MRP S WmWm Kuantitas T.Kerja MRP MRC WcWc QmQm QcQc persaingan akan menghasilkan upah yg lebih tinggi upah yg lebih tinggi & lebih banyak pekerja Model Monopsoni 22

23 23 u Contoh –perawat –Atlet professional –guru –Pegawai surat kabar –Pekerja bangunan

24 24 Topik Bab 13 3 T.kerja, upah, & pendapatan 3 Tkt Upah 3 Pasar Kompetisi T.KerjaModel Monopsoni 3 Monopsony ModelTiga Model Union u Model Monopoli Bilateral u Kontroversi Upah minimum u Upah Differensial u Pembayaran utk Kinerja u Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja u Analisis Diskriminasi u Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

25 25 Three Union Models u Demand Enhancement Model –raise wage rates by increasing the demand for labour illustrated…

26 Wage Rate (dollars) D1D1 S Quantity of Labour WcWc QcQc WuWu QuQu D2D2....by increasing product demand....by increasing productivity....by increasing the price of other inputs Increasing the demand for labour.... Demand Enhancement Model Figure

27 27 Three Union Models u Exclusive or Craft Union Model –raise wage rates by decreasing the supply of labour illustrated…

28 Wage Rate (dollars) D S1S1 Quantity of Labour Decreasing the supply of labour.... WcWc QcQc.…restrictive membership policies.…occupational licensing WuWu QuQu S2S2 Exclusive or Craft Union Model Figure

29 29 Three Union Models u Inclusive or Industrial Union Model –seek to organize all available workers illustrated…

30 WuWu Wage Rate (dollars) D Quantity of Labour Impose a higher wage rate.... WcWc QcQc S Inclusive or Industrial Union Model Figure

31 WuWu QuQu Wage Rate (dollars) D Quantity of Labour Impose a higher wage rate.... WcWc QcQc....by organizing virtually all workers, thereby controlling the supply curve for labour S Inclusive or Industrial Union Model Figure

32 32 Wage Increases & Unemployment u Union members achieve 10-15% wage advantage u Employment reductions are a consequence u Negative effects may be reduced by –growth –inelasticity of labour demand

33 33 Chapter 15 Topics 3 Labour, Wages, & Earnings 3 General Level of Wages 3 A Purely Competitive Labour Market 3 Monopsony Model 3 Three Union Models u Bilateral Monopoly Model u The Minimum-Wage Controversy u Wage Differentials u Pay for Performance u Labour Market Discrimination u Economic Analysis of Discrimination u Antidiscrimination Policies & Issues

34 34 Bilateral Monopoly Model u strong union in a monopsonistic labour market illustrated…

35 WuWu QuQu Wage Rate (dollars) D Quantity of Labour Wage outcome indeterminate... WcWc QcQc Union seeks W u Union seeks W u Monopsonist seeks W m Monopsonist seeks W m Outcome based on bargaining power Outcome based on bargaining power S MRC WmWm 35 Bilateral Monopoly Model Figure 15-8

36 36 Bilateral Monopoly Model u outcomes may be nearly competitive if monopoly power of union roughly offsets monopsony power of management

37 37 The Minimum-Wage Controversy u Case Against the Minimum Wage –creates unemployment –poorly targeted to reduce poverty u Case For the Minimum Wage –job losses may not occur in monopsonistic labour markets –may increase labour productivity u Evidence & Conclusions

38 38 Wage Differentials Figure 15-9 WW Q Q SaSaSaSa SbSbSbSb DaDaDaDa DbDbDbDb WaWaWaWa WbWbWbWb wage differences between occupations a and b result from differences in labour demand QbQbQbQb QaQaQaQa

39 39 Wage Differentials Figure 15-9 WW QQ ScScScSc SdSdSdSd DcDcDcDc DdDdDdDd WcWcWcWc WdWdWdWd QcQcQcQc QdQdQdQd wage differences between occupations c and d result from differences in labour supply

40 40 Wage Differentials Why do labour demand & supply differ? u marginal revenue productivity u noncompeting groups –ability –education & training u compensating differences

41 41 Wage Differentials Why do labour demand & supply differ? u market imperfections –lack of job information –geographic immobility –unions & government restraints –discrimination

42 42 Labour Market Discrimination u Types of Discrimination –wage discrimination –employment discrimination –occupational discrimination –human capital discrimination u Costs of Discrimination

43 43 Labour Market Discrimination Figure D Discrimination results in productive inefficiency Consumer goods Capital goods CdCdCdCd KdKdKdKd X Y Z

44 44 Economic Analysis of Discrimination u Taste-for-Discrimination Model –Discrimination Coefficient –Prejudice & the Market Visible-Minority– White Wage Ratio

45 45 Figure Visible minority employment (millions) Wage rate (dollars) 6 8 $9 S D1D1D1D1 an increase in prejudice would decrease the demand for visible minority workers

46 46 Figure Visible minority employment (millions) Wage rate (dollars) 6 8 $9 S D2D2D2D2 D1D1D1D1 an increase in prejudice would decrease the demand for visible minority workers

47 47 Figure Visible minority employment (millions) Wage rate (dollars) 6 8 $9 S D1D1D1D1 D3D3D3D3 a decrease in prejudice would increase the demand for visible minority workers

48 48 Economic Analysis of Discrimination –Competition & Discrimination u Statistical Discrimination –Basic Idea –Labour Market Example u Taste-for-Discrimination Model –Discrimination Coefficient –Prejudice & the Market Visible-Minority– White Wage Ratio

49 49 Economic Analysis of Discrimination u Profitable, Undesirable, but Not Malicious u Occupational Segregation: The Crowding Model u labour force equally divided u three occupations, X, Y & Z have identical labour demand curves u men & women have same skills/attributes

50 Wage rate Q DXDXDXDX Quantity of labour 3 Q DYDYDYDY Q DZDZDZDZ 3 6 M W Wage rate a) Occupation X b) Occupation Y c) Occupation Z Figure women are crowded into Occupation Z, earning a low rate of W, while men earn higher rates of M in Occupations X & Y 50

51 Wage rate Q DXDXDXDX Quantity of labour 3 Q DYDYDYDY Q DZDZDZDZ 3 6 M W Wage rate a) Occupation X b) Occupation Y c) Occupation Z Figure B 44 elimination of discrimination would equalize wage rates at B 4

52 Wage rate Q DXDXDXDX Quantity of labour 3 Q DYDYDYDY Q DZDZDZDZ 3 6 M W Wage rate a) Occupation X b) Occupation Y c) Occupation Z Figure B 44 4 loss of output (grey areas minus orange area) as a result of occupational crowding


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