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1 Bab 13 dicari Upah Determinasi, &Diskriminasi. 2 Dlm Bab ini dipelajari u Upah tergantung dari kekuatan permintaan & penawaran u Pengaruh kekuatan Monopoli.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Bab 13 dicari Upah Determinasi, &Diskriminasi. 2 Dlm Bab ini dipelajari u Upah tergantung dari kekuatan permintaan & penawaran u Pengaruh kekuatan Monopoli."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Bab 13 dicari Upah Determinasi, &Diskriminasi

2 2 Dlm Bab ini dipelajari u Upah tergantung dari kekuatan permintaan & penawaran u Pengaruh kekuatan Monopoli dlm permintaan & penawaran T.Kerja u Pengaruh Upah Minimum u Pengaruh Diskriminasi dlm Pasar T.Kerja

3 3 Topik Bab 13 u T.Kerja, Upah, & Pendapatan u Tkt Upah u Pasar Kompetitif T.Kerja u Model Monopsoni u Tiga Model Union u Model Monopoli Bilateral u Kontroversi Upah minimum u Upah Differensial u Pembayaran utk Kinerja u Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja u Analisis Diskriminasi u Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

4 4 T.Kerja, Upah, & Pendapatan u Upah adalah harga dari T.Kerja –Upah nominal –Upah riil

5 5 Topik Bab 13 3 T.kerja, upah, & pendapatan u Tkt Upah u Pasar Kompetitif T.Kerja u Model Monopsoni u Tiga Model Union u Model Monopoli Bilateral u Kontroversi Upah minimum u Upah Differensial u Pembayaran utk Kinerja u Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja u Analisis Diskriminasi u Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

6 6 Tingkat Upah u Produktivitas –Modal

7 7 Tingkat Upah u Produktivitas –Modal –Akses ke F.Produksi

8 8 Tingkat Upah u Produktivitas –Modal –Akses ke F.Produksi u Teknologi

9 9 Tingkat Upah u Produktivitas –Modal –Akses ke F.Produksi u Teknologi u Kualitas T.kerja

10 10 Tingkat Upah u Produktivitas –Modal –Akses ke F.Produksi u Teknologi u Kualitas T.kerja –Faktor yg tdk kelihatan

11 11 Topik Bab 13 3 T.kerja, upah, & pendapatan 3 Tkt Upah u Pasar Kompetitif T.Kerja u Model Monopsoni u Tiga Model Union u Model Monopoli Bilateral u Kontroversi Upah minimum u Upah Differensial u Pembayaran utk Kinerja u Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja u Analisis Diskriminasi u Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

12 12 Pasar Kopetitif T.Kerja u Banyak Perusahan u Banyak kualifikasi pekerja dgn ketrampilan yg identik u perusahaan & pekerja adalah “wage- takers”

13 Kuantitas t.kerja Pasar D D = MRP (  mrp’s) S WcWc (1000) Penawaran & Permintaan: Pasar persaingan sempurna Tkt upah (dollars) Kuantitas t.kerja Perusahaan WcWc S = MRC ($10) 13. d = mrp (5)

14 Kuantitas T.Kerja Pasar D D = MRP (  mrp’s) S WcWc (1000) Penawaran & Permintaan: Pasar persaingan sempurna Tkt upah (dollars) Kuantitas T.Kerja Perusahaan 14. d = mrp (5) a b c total wage cost Biaya non T.Kerja e WcWc S = MRC ($10)

15 15 Topik Bab 13 3 T.kerja, upah, & pendapatan 3 Tkt Upah 3 Pasar Kompetisi T.KerjaModel Monopsoni u Tiga Model Union u Model Monopoli Bilateral u Kontroversi Upah minimum u Upah Differensial u Pembayaran utk Kinerja u Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja u Analisis Diskriminasi u Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

16 16 Model Monopsoni u Pekerja mempunyai kekuatan membeli –Hanya satu pembeli –Tenaga kerja tdk mobil –Perusahaan adalh “wage maker” u upsloping labour supply to firm –MRC melebihi tkt upah

17 17 Model Monopsoni Unit T.Kerja Tkt Upah Upah bill MRC 0 $ 5 $ 0 166 2714 3824 4936 51050 61166 $ 6 $ 8 $ 10 $ 12 $ 14 $ 16

18 Tkt Upah (dollars) S Kuantitas T.Kerja Model Monopsoni 18

19 Tkt Upah (dollars) S Kuantitas T.Kerja MRC Dlm Monopsoni MRC diatas Kurve supply Model Monopsoni 19

20 Tkt Upah (dollars) MRP S Kuantitas T.Kerja MRP MRC MRP = MRC WmWm QmQm b c Q m unit yg diminta Model Monopsoni 20

21 Tkt Upah (dollars) MRP S Kuantitas T.Kerja MRP MRC Tkt upah hanya W m krn kekuatan W m krn kekuatanmonopsoni WmWm QmQm b c Q m unit yg diminta Model Monopsoni 21

22 Tkt upah (dollars) MRP S WmWm Kuantitas T.Kerja MRP MRC WcWc QmQm QcQc persaingan akan menghasilkan upah yg lebih tinggi upah yg lebih tinggi & lebih banyak pekerja Model Monopsoni 22

23 23 u Contoh –perawat –Atlet professional –guru –Pegawai surat kabar –Pekerja bangunan

24 24 Topik Bab 13 3 T.kerja, upah, & pendapatan 3 Tkt Upah 3 Pasar Kompetisi T.KerjaModel Monopsoni 3 Monopsony ModelTiga Model Union u Model Monopoli Bilateral u Kontroversi Upah minimum u Upah Differensial u Pembayaran utk Kinerja u Diskriminasi Pasar T.Kerja u Analisis Diskriminasi u Kebijakan anti diskriminasi

25 25 Three Union Models u Demand Enhancement Model –raise wage rates by increasing the demand for labour illustrated…

26 Wage Rate (dollars) D1D1 S Quantity of Labour WcWc QcQc WuWu QuQu D2D2....by increasing product demand....by increasing productivity....by increasing the price of other inputs Increasing the demand for labour.... Demand Enhancement Model Figure 15-5 26

27 27 Three Union Models u Exclusive or Craft Union Model –raise wage rates by decreasing the supply of labour illustrated…

28 Wage Rate (dollars) D S1S1 Quantity of Labour Decreasing the supply of labour.... WcWc QcQc.…restrictive membership policies.…occupational licensing WuWu QuQu S2S2 Exclusive or Craft Union Model Figure 15-6 28

29 29 Three Union Models u Inclusive or Industrial Union Model –seek to organize all available workers illustrated…

30 WuWu Wage Rate (dollars) D Quantity of Labour Impose a higher wage rate.... WcWc QcQc S Inclusive or Industrial Union Model Figure 15-7 30

31 WuWu QuQu Wage Rate (dollars) D Quantity of Labour Impose a higher wage rate.... WcWc QcQc....by organizing virtually all workers, thereby controlling the supply curve for labour S Inclusive or Industrial Union Model Figure 15-7 31

32 32 Wage Increases & Unemployment u Union members achieve 10-15% wage advantage u Employment reductions are a consequence u Negative effects may be reduced by –growth –inelasticity of labour demand

33 33 Chapter 15 Topics 3 Labour, Wages, & Earnings 3 General Level of Wages 3 A Purely Competitive Labour Market 3 Monopsony Model 3 Three Union Models u Bilateral Monopoly Model u The Minimum-Wage Controversy u Wage Differentials u Pay for Performance u Labour Market Discrimination u Economic Analysis of Discrimination u Antidiscrimination Policies & Issues

34 34 Bilateral Monopoly Model u strong union in a monopsonistic labour market illustrated…

35 WuWu QuQu Wage Rate (dollars) D Quantity of Labour Wage outcome indeterminate... WcWc QcQc Union seeks W u Union seeks W u Monopsonist seeks W m Monopsonist seeks W m Outcome based on bargaining power Outcome based on bargaining power S MRC WmWm 35 Bilateral Monopoly Model Figure 15-8

36 36 Bilateral Monopoly Model u outcomes may be nearly competitive if monopoly power of union roughly offsets monopsony power of management

37 37 The Minimum-Wage Controversy u Case Against the Minimum Wage –creates unemployment –poorly targeted to reduce poverty u Case For the Minimum Wage –job losses may not occur in monopsonistic labour markets –may increase labour productivity u Evidence & Conclusions

38 38 Wage Differentials Figure 15-9 WW Q Q SaSaSaSa SbSbSbSb DaDaDaDa DbDbDbDb WaWaWaWa WbWbWbWb wage differences between occupations a and b result from differences in labour demand QbQbQbQb QaQaQaQa

39 39 Wage Differentials Figure 15-9 WW QQ ScScScSc SdSdSdSd DcDcDcDc DdDdDdDd WcWcWcWc WdWdWdWd QcQcQcQc QdQdQdQd wage differences between occupations c and d result from differences in labour supply

40 40 Wage Differentials Why do labour demand & supply differ? u marginal revenue productivity u noncompeting groups –ability –education & training u compensating differences

41 41 Wage Differentials Why do labour demand & supply differ? u market imperfections –lack of job information –geographic immobility –unions & government restraints –discrimination

42 42 Labour Market Discrimination u Types of Discrimination –wage discrimination –employment discrimination –occupational discrimination –human capital discrimination u Costs of Discrimination

43 43 Labour Market Discrimination Figure 15-10 D Discrimination results in productive inefficiency Consumer goods Capital goods CdCdCdCd KdKdKdKd X Y Z

44 44 Economic Analysis of Discrimination u Taste-for-Discrimination Model –Discrimination Coefficient –Prejudice & the Market Visible-Minority– White Wage Ratio

45 45 Figure 15-11 Visible minority employment (millions) Wage rate (dollars) 6 8 $9 S D1D1D1D1 an increase in prejudice would decrease the demand for visible minority workers

46 46 Figure 15-11 Visible minority employment (millions) Wage rate (dollars) 6 8 $9 S D2D2D2D2 D1D1D1D1 an increase in prejudice would decrease the demand for visible minority workers

47 47 Figure 15-11 Visible minority employment (millions) Wage rate (dollars) 6 8 $9 S D1D1D1D1 D3D3D3D3 a decrease in prejudice would increase the demand for visible minority workers

48 48 Economic Analysis of Discrimination –Competition & Discrimination u Statistical Discrimination –Basic Idea –Labour Market Example u Taste-for-Discrimination Model –Discrimination Coefficient –Prejudice & the Market Visible-Minority– White Wage Ratio

49 49 Economic Analysis of Discrimination u Profitable, Undesirable, but Not Malicious u Occupational Segregation: The Crowding Model u labour force equally divided u three occupations, X, Y & Z have identical labour demand curves u men & women have same skills/attributes

50 Wage rate Q DXDXDXDX Quantity of labour 3 Q DYDYDYDY Q DZDZDZDZ 3 6 M W Wage rate a) Occupation X b) Occupation Y c) Occupation Z Figure 15-12 women are crowded into Occupation Z, earning a low rate of W, while men earn higher rates of M in Occupations X & Y 50

51 Wage rate Q DXDXDXDX Quantity of labour 3 Q DYDYDYDY Q DZDZDZDZ 3 6 M W Wage rate a) Occupation X b) Occupation Y c) Occupation Z Figure 15-12 51 B 44 elimination of discrimination would equalize wage rates at B 4

52 Wage rate Q DXDXDXDX Quantity of labour 3 Q DYDYDYDY Q DZDZDZDZ 3 6 M W Wage rate a) Occupation X b) Occupation Y c) Occupation Z Figure 15-12 52 B 44 4 loss of output (grey areas minus orange area) as a result of occupational crowding


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