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Mapping the Territory (Griffin, 2003 ; 22 – 34). Seven traditions in the field of communication theory Robert Craig menyatakan bahwa teori komunikasi.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Mapping the Territory (Griffin, 2003 ; 22 – 34). Seven traditions in the field of communication theory Robert Craig menyatakan bahwa teori komunikasi."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Mapping the Territory (Griffin, 2003 ; 22 – 34)

2 Seven traditions in the field of communication theory Robert Craig menyatakan bahwa teori komunikasi akan koheren (melekat) ketika kita memahami komunikasi sebagai disiplin praktis Dia meyakinkan bahwa mencari perbedaan tipe dari teori seharusnya berakar pada pergulatan nyata seseorang dengan masalah – masalah sehari – hari dan praktek komunikasi.

3 The socio-psychological tradition Communication as Interpersonal Influence Mereka mencari penyebab dan efek relasi, yang akan memprediksi kapan perilaku komunikasi akan berhasil dan kapan akan gagal. Psychologist Carl Hovland was one of the “founding fathers” of experimental research on the effects of communication. Dalam tradisi ini, menguji berarti merancang dan menjalankan serangkaian eksperimen secara terkontrol

4 The socio-psychological tradition Hovland meletakkan dasar “proposisi empiris mengenai hubungan antara stimuli komunikasi, kecenderungan audiens, dan perubahan opini, serta menyediakan kerangka kerja awal untuk membangun teori berikutnya. Working within a framework of “who says what to whom and with what effect”. - Who ; source of the message (expertise, trustworthiness) - What ; content of the message (fear appeals, order of arguments) - Whom ; audience characteristics (personality, susceptibility to influence)

5 The Cybernetic Tradition Communication as Information Processing Concept of feedback anchored the cybernetic tradition that regards communication as the link connecting the separate parts of any system, such as a computer system, a family system, an organizational system, or a media system. Ide ini dikemukakan oleh Claude Shanon yang mengembangkan teori matematika dari transmisi sinyal.

6 The rhetorical tradition Communication as Artful Public Address Greco-Roman rhetoric was the main source of wisdom about communication well into the twentieth century. Martin Luther King, Jr, menggunakan “ilmu” gaya bahasa sebagai gambaran visual, repetisi, dan metafora.

7 Beberapa ciri yang berpengaruh pada komunikasi retoris Speech membedakan manusia dari binatang Mengani publik dalam forum yang demokratis adalah cara yang efektif untuk memecahkan masalah politis daripada hukum atau paksaan Menekankan pada keindahan dan kekuatan bahasa untuk menggerakkan orang secara emosional dan “mengaduk” mereka untuk bergerak. Retorika lebih merujuk pada art daripada science Pembicara mencoba mempengaruhi audiens melalui wacana persuasif secara eksplisit

8 Pelatihan pidato sebagai basic bagi pendidikan pemimpin. Seorang pembicara belajar untuk mengembangkan argumen yang kuat dan suara yang kuat agar mampu hadir di tengan kerumunan massa tanpa alat bantu elektronik Oral public persuasion sebagai wilayah laki – laki. Sampai 1800an, perempuan hampir tidak punya kesempatan untuk mengemukakan suara mereka. Jadi kunci dari gerakan perempuan di Amerika adalah memperjuangkan hak – haknya untuk berbicara di depan publik.

9 The semiotic tradition Communication as the process of sharing meaning through signs Semiotics is study of signs A sign is anything that can stand for something else Ex ; high body temperature is a sign of infection. Birds flying south signal the coming of winter

10 The socio-cultural tradition Communication as the creation and enactment of social reality The socio-cultural tradition is based on the premise that as people talk, they produce and reproduce culture. Our view of reality is strongly shaped by the language we have used since we were infants

11 The critical tradition Communication as a reflective challenge of unjust discourse The term critical theory comes from the work of a group of German scholars known as the “Frankfurt School” because they were part of the independent Institute for Social Research at Frankfrut University. Max Horkheimer, Theodore Adorno, and Herbert Marcuse, were convinced that “all previous history has been characterized by an unjust distribution of sufferring”.

12 They spotted this same pattern of inequality in modern western democracies where the “have” continued to exploit the “have nots”. Frankfurt school researchers offered thoughtful analyses of discrepancies between the liberal values of freedom and equality that leaders proclaimed and the unjust concentrations and abuses of power that made those values a myth.

13 3 Ciri masyarakat kontemporer dalam teori kritis : Kontrol bahasa untuk mengabadikan ketidakseimbangan kekuasaan Peran media massa dalam menumpulkan kepekaan terhadap penindasan. Marcuse claimed that hope for change insociety comes from “the outcasts and outsiders, the exploited and persecuted of other races and other colors, the unemployed and the unemployable. Tidak tergantung pada metode ilmiah tertentu

14 The phenomenological tradition Communication as the experience of self and others through dialogue. Although phenomenology is an imposing philosophical term, it basically refers to the intentional analysis of everyday life from the standpoint of the person who is living it. Phenomenological tradition places great emphasis on the people’s perception and interpretation of their own subjective experience. For the phenomenologist, an individual’s story is more important – and – more authoritative – than any research hypothesis or communication axiom.

15 The ethical tradition Communication as people of character interacting in just and beneficial ways. More than most academic disciplines, the field of communication has been concerned with ethical responsibility. Contemporary discussion of morality are increasingly beleaguered by the rise of ethical relativism.

16 Like most attempts to deal with communication ethics, it starts with the issue of honesty versus lying. There are three of the creed’s nine principles in order to illustrate the major streams of thought within the ethical tradition: 1. We advocate truthfulness, accuracy, honesty, and reason as essential to the integrity of communication - Prinsip ini berpusat pada kebenaran / kesalahan tindakan komunikasi, terlepas dari apakah manfaatnya bagi orang yang terlibat. Merujuk pada pertanyaan tentang kewajiban kita.

17 2. We accept responsibility for the short – and long – term consequences of our own communication and expect the same of others. - Prinsip ini berpusat pada hasil yang baik atau buruk, dari kata – kata yang kita ucapkan. Ini memunculkan pertanyaan tentang hasil. (ex ; do our words benefit or harm people ? Can a lie promote well-being or prevent injury ?) 3. We strive to understand and respect other communicators before evaluating and responding to their messages. - Prinsip ini memfokuskan pada karakter dari komunikator, daripada tindakan komunikasinya.


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