Presentasi berjudul: "PERUBAHAN IKLIM GLOBAL"— Transcript presentasi:
1PERUBAHAN IKLIM GLOBAL AGROFORESTRY -EKONOMI HIJAU –PERUBAHAN IKLIM GLOBALFOTO: smno.kampus.ub.jan2013
2What is the Green Economy? The “green economy” refers to economic sectors that are focused on environmental sustainability.The green economy seeks to address the interdependence of human economic development with the health of the natural ecosystem.
3MANUSIA KHALIFAH DI MUKA BUMI ''Ingatlah ketika Tuhanmu berfirman kepada para Malaikat:''Sesungguhnya Aku hendak menjadikan seorang khalifah di muka bumi.''Mereka berkata: ''Mengapa Engkau hendak menjadikan (khalifah) di bumi itu orang yang akan membuat kerusakan padanya dan menumpahkan darah, padahal kami senantiasa bertasbih dengan memuji Engkau dan mensucikan Engkau?''.Tuhan berfirman: ''Sesungguhnya Aku mengetahui apa yang tidak kamu ketahui'‘(Al-Baqarah:30)
5EKONOMI HIJAU vs. EKONOMI HITAM ‘The Black economy’:pembangunan ekonomi yang bertumpu pd bahan bakar fosil seperti batubara, minyak bumi dan gas alam.“The green economy”bertumpu pd pengetahuan ekologi-ekonomi dengan tujuan menyelaraskan hubungan ekonomi-manusia dengan ekosistem- alam serta MINIMUM dampak negatif akibat kegiatan ekonomi terhadap lingkungan
6Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that aims to address : the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems over time and space
7ANALISIS EKOLOGI-EKONOMI Fokus issue:Intergenerational equity,Irreversibility of environmental change,Uncertainty of long-term outcomes,Sustainable development
8Nilai ekonomi dari natural-capital dan ecosystem-services sangat penting dalam ecological- economics.Ecological economists may begin by estimating how to maintain a stable environment before assessing the cost in dollar terms.
9Tujuan utama Ecological-Economics (EE) : Mengimplementasikan pemikiran dan praktek ekonomike dlm realita biofisik, seperti hukum termodinamika dan sistem biologis.
10Sumbangan Agroforestry bagi kesejahteraan manusia : the planetary endowment of scarce matter and energy,the complex and biologically diverse ecosystems that provide goods and services directly to human communities:micro- and macro-climate regulation,water recycling,water purification,storm water regulation,waste absorption,food and medicine production,pollination,protection from solar and cosmic radiation,the view of a starry night sky, etc.
12AGROFORESTRY adalah: ……………… … intensive land management that optimizes the benefits(physical, biological, ecological, economic, social) arising from ………..biophysical interactions created when trees and/or shrubs are deliberately combined with crops and/or livestock.
13Empat Kategori Jasa-jasa Sistem Agroforestry: 1. Provisioning services• food (including seafood and game), crops, wild foods, and spices• water• pharmaceuticals, biochemicals, and industrial products• energy (hydropower, biomass fuels)2. Regulating services• carbon sequestration and climate regulation• waste decomposition and detoxification• purification of water and• crop pollination • pest and disease control3. Supporting services• nutrient dispersal and cycling• seed dispersal • Primary production4. Cultural services• cultural, intellectual and spiritual inspiration• recreational experiences (including ecotourism)• scientific discovery
14Enam Metode Utama dalam Valuasi Jasa-jasa Sistem Agroforestry: Avoided costServices allow society to avoid costs that would have been incurred in the absence of those services (e.g. waste treatment by AGF habitats avoids health costs)Replacement costServices could be replaced with man-made systems (e.g. restoration of the Catchmenrt Watershed cost less than the construction of a water purification plant)Factor incomeServices provide for the enhancement of incomes (e.g. improved water quality increases the commercial take of a fishery and improves the income of fishers)Travel costService demand may require travel, whose costs can reflect the implied value of the service (e.g. value of ecotourism experience is at least what a visitor is willing to pay to get there)Hedonic pricingService demand may be reflected in the prices people will pay for associated goods (e.g. coastal housing prices exceed that of inland homes)Contingent valuationService demand may be elicited by posing hypothetical scenarios that involve some valuation of alternatives (e.g. visitors willing to pay for increased access to national parks)
15HASIL – HASIL AGROFORESTRY Produces salable productsProvides value-added opportunitiesDiversifies riskIncreases property valuesIncreases crop yields & livestock productionEligible for cost-share & land rental payments
16JASA-JASA AGROFORESTRY: Improves water quality … SWM- Sustainable Water ManagementImproves wildlife habitatIncreases recreational and hunting opportunitiesReduces noise, dust, & odorsMore beautiful and pleasant place to work
17Sustainable Water Management: SWM SWM is based upon the principles , namely:Freshwater is a finite and valuable resource that is essential to sustain life, the environment and development.2. The development and management of our water resources be based on a participatory approach, involving users, and policy makers at all levels.Women play a central role in the provision, management and of water resources.Water has an economic value and should therefore be seen as an economic good.
18Water's vital role for the environment and humans is linked to five main functions : 1. Maintaining human health : clean water is essential for maintaining human health;2. Maintaining environmental health: the health of aquatic ecosystems is essential for fish/seafood supply, is a major determinant of biodiversity, and provides for many other vital goods and services;3. Supporting two production functions : a) biomass production, necessary for the supply of food, fuel wood and timber; and b) economic production, since industrial development has traditionally been "lubricated" by easy access to water;4. Supporting two carrier functions : a) water plays an active role in diluting and transpiration wastes; and b) in the natural erosion and land processes of the global water cycle;5. Psychological function, which makes water bodies, water views, fountains and so on fundamental components of human preferences and desires. Water also plays a role in many religions and cultural activities.
19SUMBER AIR : HUJAN"Dan Yang menurunkan air dari langit menurut kadar (yang diperlukan) lalu Kami hidupkan dengan air itu negeri yang mati, seperti itulah kamu akan dikeluarkan (dari dalam kubur)."(Al Qur'an, 43:11)Diperkirakan dalam satu detik, sekitar 16 juta ton air menguap dari bumi.Angka ini menghasilkan 513 trilyun ton air per tahun. Angka ini ternyata sama dengan jumlah hujan yang jatuh ke bumi dalam satu tahun.
20RAIN WATER Al A’raaf : 57. Al Furqoon : 50. Dan Dialah yang meniupkan angin sebagai pembawa berita gembira sebelum kedatangan rahmat-Nya (hujan); hingga apabila angin itu telah membawa awan mendung, Kami halau ke suatu daerah yang tandus, lalu Kami turunkan hujan di daerah itu, maka Kami keluarkan dengan sebab hujan itu pelbagai macam buah-buahan. Seperti itulah Kami membangkitkan orang-orang yang telah mati, mudah-mudahan kamu mengambil pelajaran. Al Furqoon : 50.Dan sesungguhnya Kami telah mempergilirkan hujan itu diantara manusia supaya mereka mengambil pelajaran (dari padanya); maka kebanyakan manusia itu tidak mau kecuali mengingkari (nikmat).
21Green water is a very important resource for global food production. Pengelolaan Air HijauGreen water is a very important resource for global food production.About 60% of the world staple food production relies on … green water. The entire meat production from grazing relies on green water, and so does the production of wood from forestry.In drylands almost the entire food production depends on green water (the relative importance of irrigation is minor) and most of the industrial products, such as cotton, tobacco, wood, etc.
24Green water is ignored … by engineers because they can't pipe or pump it,by economists because they can't price it, andby governments because they can't tax it.
25KREDIT AIR HIJAUGreen water credits, however, are an opportunity to address this disparity while enhancing ecosystem services for both farmers and downstream stakeholders.The International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC) is pioneering green water credits, which it describes as:A mechanism for direct payment to people in rural areas in return for water management activities which are presently un-recognized and unrewarded. Benefits to poor people drive this initiative which, at the same time, safeguards water resources and food security for everyone.With funding from the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), ISRIC is developing a proof-of-concept project that creates financial incentives for farmers in the developing world to better manage green water.
26KREDIT AIR HIJAUISRIC is taking three steps to implement green water credits:1. Quantification of the resource and how it can be optimized by land use and management;2.Valuation of its various uses and the costs of floods, sedimentation, and the diseases caused by a lack of clean water – enabling benefit cost analysis;3. An agreed mechanism to:Specify optimum management and its water benefits; b. Negotiate a fair price; c. Establish that the work is done; d. Collect and pay credits.
27MEMANEN HUJANRainwater harvesting is the gathering, or accumulating and storing, of rainwater.Rainwater harvesting has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, water for irrigation or to refill aquifers in a process called groundwater recharge.Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses, tents and local institutions, or from specially prepared areas of ground, can make an important contribution to drinking water.
28Here, you do this.It involves trees!Here, you do this!It involvesagriculture!ForestryAgricultureAgroforestry incorporates technology from agriculture and forestry. Both areas of expertise are needed, neither can be ignored if an agroforestry system is to provide the desired benefits.
29We group agroforestry practices in five categories: Alley cropping,Silvopasture,Forest farming,Riparian forest buffers, andWindbreaks.
31Alley CroppingAlley cropping systems provide a way to lower risk by diversifying production.In alley cropping an agricultural crop is grown simultaneously with a long-term tree crop to provide annual income while the tree crop matures.Fine quality hardwoods like walnut, pecan, and oak are preferred species, and can produce high-value lumber or veneer logs. When nut-bearing trees are used they can provide an intermediate product for sale.In addition to improving annual cash flow, these systems also protect annual crops, reduce soil erosion, and provide wildlife habitat.Most row crops and grains have been shown to grow well in an alley cropping system.
32MANFAAT ALLEY CROPPING Diversify farm enterpriseReduce erosionImprove water qualityProtect cropsImprove utilization of nutrientsEnhance wildlife habitatImprove aestheticsStore carbon
33WaNuLCAS WaNuLCAS merupakan singkatan dari: “Water, Nutrient and Light Captured in Agroforestry Systems”,…… model yang mensimulasikan penggunaan air, hara dan cahaya dalam sistem agroforestri.
34Diagram model WaNuLCAS yang tersusun atas 3 komponen yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tanaman yaitu air, hara dan cahaya dalam sistem agroforestri.
37Menguji peranan akar pohon sebagai ‘jaring penyelamat hara’ Pengaruh total panjang akar terhadap efisiensi pohon dalam mengurangi pencucian N(fungsi jaring penyelamat hara) pada berbagai jumlah curah hujan.
38Proses yang terjadi dalam sistem agroforestri Hasil simulasi WaNuLCAS untuk sistem budidaya pagar, (1) pencucian N (g m -2), (2)pertumbuhan perakaran (total panjang akar) jagung di tanah lapisan atas (cm cm -3), (3) kebutuhanN jagung, dan (4) kebutuhan N pohon.
39Produksi tanaman semusim dan hasil pangkasan pada sistim budidaya pagar
40b = kompetisi akan air dan hara; c = daun gugur (seresah). Interaksi antara tanaman tahunan dengan tanaman semusim pada sistem agroforestri(a = naungan;b = kompetisi akan air dan hara;c = daun gugur (seresah).Pohon berguna dalam menambah Ctanah dan hara lainnya serta sebagai "jaring penyelamat" hara yang tercuci ke lapisan bawah(d = pohonberperakaran dalam).
41Bentuk–bentuk kompetisi antar tanaman: (A) spesies A secara langsung menghambat pertumbuhanspesies B atau sebaliknya,(B) interaksi tidak langsung yaitu denganmerubah lingkungan pertumbuhan,(C) interaksi tidak langsung yaitu denganmenstimulir pertumbuhan musuh(hama+penyakit) bagi tanaman
43AKAR POHON SEBAGAI PAKU BUMI Pemandangan di dalam tanahyang meununjukkan peranan penting liangyang terbentuk dari akar pohon yang telahmati.
44Jenis Pohon yang cocok dengan Tanah Kapur Acacia auriculiformis Albizia falcatariaAlbizia lebbekAnacardium occidentaleArtocarpus communisArtocarpus heterophyllusCassia siameaCeiba petandraDalbergia latifoliaGmelina arboreaMangifera indicaMelaleuca sppParkia speciosaPeronema canescensPithecellobium lobatumSterculia foetidaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia mahagoni
45PRODUCTIVITY OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT OF AGROFORESTRYSYSTEMS FOR RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCYAND CROP PRODUCTIVITYPRODUCTIVITY OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS1. Tree fallows2. Alley cropping3. Agro-silvo-pastoral4. Shade trees5. WindbreaksRESOURCE USE EFFICIENCYWaterCarbonNitrogenSoil pH, Ca, Mg, K and P
46NERACA AIR DALAM SISTEM AGROFORESTRI Pg = Curah Hujan TotalRs = Aliran Air LateralIt, = Intersepsi Pohon Ic = Intersepsi Tanaman SemusimPt, = Hujan Lolos Tajuk PohonPc = Hujan Lolos Tajuk Tanaman SemusimFt, = Kecepatan Infiltrasi di bawah PohonFc, = Kecepatan Infiltrasi di bawah Tanaman SemusimRt = Limpasan Permukaan di bawah PohonRc = Limpasan Permukaan di bawah Tanaman SemusimEt = Evaporasi Tanah (dari bawah pohon )Ec = Evaporasi Tanah (dari bawah tanaman semusim)qt, = Kadar Air Tanah (dibawah pohon) qc = Kadar Air Tanah (dibawah tanaman semusim)Tt = Transpirasi PohonTc = Transpirasi Tanaman SemusimDt = Drainasi dibawah PohonDc = Drainasi dibawah Tanaman Semusim
47Neraca air dalam model WaNuLCAS Infiltrasi, (2,3,4) Redistribusi air dan larutan dalam profil tanah, pengisian kembali air tanah (2) dan drainasi atau pencucian kelebihan air dari dasar profil tanah,(5) Evaporasi tanah,(6) Penyerapan air oleh akar pohon dan tanamansemusim,(7) Kesetimbangan hydraulik melalui akar pohon,(8). Tanda (signal) kekeringan yangmempengaruhi pembagian air ke batang/akar,(9) Aliran larutan lewat jalan pintas (bypass flow)
48Model Serapan air dari tanah Siklus harian hitungan serapan air.Dalam sistem agroforestry
49Sustainable AgroForest Management : SAM AgroForest management is the branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal, and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects, especially silviculture, protection, and forest regulation.This includes management for aesthetics, fish, recreation, urban values, water, wilderness, wildlife, wood products, agroforest genetic resources and other agroforest resource values .Management can be based on conservation, economics, or a mixture of the two.Techniques include timber extraction, planting and replanting of various species, cutting roads and pathways through agroforests, and preventing fire.
50Pengelolaan Agrohutani Lestari: Yakni agrohutan yang sehat secara EKOLOGI serta produktif secara ekonomi.Sustainable Agroforest management (SAM) is the management of agroforests according to the principles of sustainable development.Sustainable agroforest management uses very broad social, economic and environmental goals.Sustainable Agroforest management as:The stewardship and use of agroforests and agroforest lands in a way, and at a rate, that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfill, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at local, national, and global levels, and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems.
51Seven key elements of sustainable agroforest management are: Extent of agroforest resourcesBiological diversityAgroForest health and vitalityProductive functions and agroforest resourcesProtective functions of agroforest resourcesSocio-economic functionsLegal, policy and institutional framework.
52Sustainable Agriculture Management (SAgM) Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals: environmental stewardship, farm profitability, and prosperous farming communities.Sustainable agriculture refers to agricultural production that can be maintained without harming the environment.
53Sustainable Agriculture Management (SAgM) It has been defined as follows:“the term sustainable agriculture means an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long term:Satisfy human food and fiber needsEnhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy dependsMake the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controlsSustain the economic viability of farm operationsEnhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.”
54Forest Farm Management Forest farming is an agroforestry practice characterized by the four "I's"- Intentional, Integrated, Intensive and Interactive management of an existing forested ecosystem wherein forest health is of paramount concern. It is neither forestry nor farming in the traditional sense.Forest farm management principles constitute an ecological approach to forest management through efforts to find a balance between conservation of native biodiversity and wildlife habitat within the forest and limited, judicious utilization of the forest's varied resources.
55Sustainable griculture and Farming systems: A sustainable farming system is a system in which natural resources are managed so that crop yields do not decline over time.A sustainable farming system is a system in which natural resources are managed so that the stock of natural resources do not decline over time.A sustainable farming system is one that satisfies minimum conditions of ecosystem stability and resilience over time.A concept related to sustainable farming systems is HNV farming systems, which are likely to be of importance from a nature-conservation point of view.Sustainable agriculture is organized so that the necessary support services (credit, extension, and input supply) are guaranteed.Sustainable agriculture is a system guaranteeing equality, i.e. distributional and welfare aspects are given due attention through institutions that make farmer participation possible, that are concerned about the poor and that are administered with a bottom-up approach.A sustainable farming system is not unduly constrained by the socio-cultural environment or the policy-institutional environment.
56DELAPAN CIRI SISTEM USAHATANI LESTARI: Productivity - Land - SoilsProfitabilityStabilityDiversityFlexibilityTime-dispersionSustainabilityComplementarity and environmental compatibility
57Best Management Practices PENGELOLAAN LAHAN LESTARISoil quality is defined as “the capacity of a soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental health, and promote plant and animal health”Suitability Evalutionof Land & SoilsConstraints & Limiting FactorsBest Management Practices
58Principles of Sustainable Land Management: SLM Land management should reflect the principles of sustainable development.Land management should:Safeguard the primary environmental resources of air, soils and water;Contribute to long term robust and adaptable rural economies;Maintain and enhance landscapes, countryside character, biodiversity, historic and cultural values;Support rural communities - especially the people whose livelihoods depend on it, directly or indirectly. Principle 2. Sustainability:land should be managed to deliver a wide range of benefits beyond food and fibre production.These include: wildlife and distinctive landscape character; opportunities for public access; and flood protection and water management.Principle 1. Multi-functionality:
59Principles of Sustainable Land Management: SLM Land management must be integrated with rural development.Land management underpins other parts of the rural economy, for example by supplying products directly and indirectly (by maintaining the landscape) upon which rural tourism is based. Businesses based on land management provide business for other rural firms.a framework which can reflect regional and local needs and aspirations.People should have a greater voice in shaping land management to deliver public benefits - while still reflecting the fact that most land will remain in private ownership.These four principles of sustainable land management guide and inform our work.Principle 4. Subsidiarity:Principle 3.Integration: