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Pelaporan dan Akuntansi Keuangan

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Presentasi berjudul: "Pelaporan dan Akuntansi Keuangan"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Pelaporan dan Akuntansi Keuangan

2 Assets Probable future economic benefits obtained and controlled by a particular entity as a result of past transactions or events

3 Cash, Receivables, and Financial Instruments

4 Financial Instruments
Any contract that gives rise to both a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity Financial asset and financial liability Financial asset  example: cash, receivables Financial liability  example: long-term debt

5 Cash Cash: cash on hand and demand deposits with banks or other financial institutions Cash equivalents: short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subjects to an insignificant risk of changes in value

6 Receivables Trade receivables: amounts due from customers for goods sold or services performed in the normal course of business Notes receivable  written promissory notes

7 Bad Debt Expense Proper matching if bad debt expense is recorded in the same fiscal period as the revenues to which they are related Estimation techniques: Percentage-of-sales method Aging method

8 Pledging, Assigning, and Factoring
Pledging: an agreement whereby accounts receivable are used as collateral for loans  Disclosure Assignment: more formalized transfer of the asset to the lending institution Factoring: outright sale of receivables to a financing institution known as factor Transfers of receivables with recourse

9 Anjak Piutang Jenis pembiayaan dalam bentuk pembelian dan/atau pengalihan piutang atau tagihan jangka pendek suatu perusahaan yang berasal dari transaksi usaha

10 Anjak Piutang Tanpa Recourse
Penjualan piutang atas dasar notifikasi Factor menanggung penuh risiko penagihan dan hak menerima pembayaran dari klien apabila terjadi kerugian atas piutang alihan yang tidak tertagih Diperlakukan sebagai penjualan piutang

11 Anjak Piutang Dengan Recourse
Klien mempunyai kewajiban membayar seluruh atau sebagian dana yang diperoleh dari piutang alihan, atau membeli kembali piutang alihan, dalam hal nasabah tidak membayar piutang alihan tersebut kepada factor pada saat jatuh tempo Diakui sebagai kewajiban anjak piutang sebesar nilai piutang yang dialihkan

12 Inventory

13 Inventory Inventory: items that are held for sale in the ordinary course of business; in the process of production for such sale; or in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services

14 Two Types of Entities Merchandising entity  merchandise inventory
Manufacturer: Raw materials Work in process Finished goods

15 Inventory Basis for valuation: the lower of cost and net realizable value Cost flow assumptions: FIFO Weighted-average

16 Ownership of Goods 4 matters that may cause confusion about proper ownership Goods in transit Consignment sales Product financing arrangements Sales made with the buyer having generous or unusual right of return

17 Goods in Transit Goods are included in the inventory of the firm financially responsible for transportation costs FOB destination: part of seller’s inventory while in transit FOB shipping: part of buyer’s inventory while in transit

18 Consignment Sales Goods out on consignment are properly included in the inventory of the consignor and excluded from the inventory of consignee

19 Product Financing Arrangements
A transaction in which an entity sells and agrees to repurchase inventory with repurchase price equal to the original sales price plus the carrying and financing costs The substance is a borrowing

20 Right to Return Purchases
The sale is to be recorded if the future amount of the returns can be reasonably estimated

21 Accounting for Inventories
Two systems: Periodic inventory system The inventory quantity is determined periodically by a physical count Perpetual inventory system Keeps a running total of the quantity of inventory on hand by recording all sales and purchases as they occur

22 Valuation of Inventories
The primary basis of accounting for inventories is cost Cost is defined as the sum of all costs of purchase, costs of conversion, and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition

23 Methods of Inventory Costing
Specific Identification First-In, First-Out (FIFO) Weighted-Average

24 Methods of Inventory Costing
Net realizable value: The estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale If cost exceeds NRV  a loss is recognized

25 Rumus Biaya Identifikasi khusus FIFI Rata-rata tertimbang LIFO
ED PSAK No. 14 (Revisi 2008): LIFO dihilangkan

26 Property, Plant, and Equipment

27 Definisi Aset berwujud yang:
Dimiliki untuk digunakan dalam produksi atau penyediaan barang atau jasa, untuk direntalkan kepada pihak lain, atau untuk tujuan administratif; dan Diharapkan untuk digunakan selama lebih dari satu periode

28 Initial Measurement All costs required to bring an asset into working condition should be recorded as part of the cost of the asset Exclude administrative costs Interest cost during construction of certain assets Decommissioning costs is included

29 Cost Subsequent to Purchase or Self-Construction
To qualify for capitalization, costs must be associated with incremental benefits Extend useful life Increase capacity Improve quality of outputs or permits a reduction in other cost inputs

30 Depreciation Systematic and rational allocation of the depreciable amount of the asset over the asset’s expected useful life Requires a component approach for depreciation Each material component of a composite asset with different useful lives or different patterns of depreciation is accounted for separately

31 Depreciation Methods Straight-line Accelerated methods
Diminishing balance Sum-of-the years’ digits Units of production

32 Measurement Subsequent to Initial Recognition
Cost model  carried at its cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses Revaluation model  fair value

33 Revaluation Fair value: the amount for which the asset could be exchanged between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s-length transaction Could use depreciated replacement cost approach Revaluation adjustments are to be recognized in other comprehensive income If a revalued asset is subsequently found to be impaired, the impairment provision is first offset against the revaluation surplus, and only when that has been exhausted is it expensed

34 Illustration

35 Illustration

36 Revaluation The depreciation should be based on the new valuation over the number of remaining years of the asset’s useful life at the time of the latest valuation

37 Illustration

38 Impairment At each financial reporting date the reporting entity should determine whether there are conditions that would indicate that impairments may have occurred Impairment is the excess of carrying value over recoverable amount Recoverable amount: net selling price and value in use (greater of these two amounts)

39 Accounting for Impairments
Historical cost Recognized as charges against current period profit Revaluation Treated as the partial reversal of a previous upward revaluation Any excess impairment should be charged to expense

40 Illustration

41 Impairment Reversing an impairment loss
The increased carrying amount of an asset other than goodwill shall not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of amortisation or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss for an asset other than goodwill shall be recognised immediately in profit or loss, unless the asset is carried at revalued amount

42 Retirements and Other Disposal
Both the asset and accumulated depreciation should be eliminated Assets that have been identified for disposal  classified as “held for sale” Measured at the lower of the carrying value or fair value less cost to sale No longer subject to systematic depreciation

43 Nonmonetary Transaction
The cost of an item of PPE acquired in exchange for a similar asset is to be measured at fair value

44 Capitalization of Borrowing Costs
Borrowing costs eligible for capitalization, directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset, are those borrowing costs that would have been avoided if the expenditure on this asset has not been made Actual borrowing costs less any investment income on the temporary investment of those borrowing

45 Capitalization of Borrowing Costs
Qualifying assets are those that normally take an extended period of time to prepare for their intended uses 3 conditions must be made before the capitalization period should begin: Expenditures for the asset are being incurred Borrowing costs are being incurred Activities that are necessary to prepare the asset for its intended use are in progress

46 Perolehan Secara Gabungan
Perolehan tanah dan prasarana-sarana secara gabungan, dialokasikan kepada aset tetap tanah secara proporsional berdasarkan perbandingan nilai wajar aset tetap tanah dan aset non tanah Apabila harga tanah amat handal  harga tanah ditentukan lebih dahulu, lalu sisanya menjadi harga perolehan prasarana dan sarana

47 Tanah Sumbangan Dicatat berdasarkan nilai wajar lokasi setempat dan diakui sebagai Modal Berasal dari Sumbangan

48 Properti Investasi Properti Investasi adalah properti (tanah atau bangunan atau bagian dari suatu bangunan atau kedua-duanya) yang dikuasai (oleh pemilik atau lessee/penyewa melalui sewa pembiayaan) untuk menghasilkan rental atau untuk kenaikan nilai atau kedua-duanya, dan tidak untuk: Digunakan dalam produksi atau penyediaan barang atau jasa untuk tujuan administratif; atau Dijual dalam kegiatan usaha sehari-hari

49 Pengukuran Setelah Perolehan Awal
Model nilai wajar Seluruh properti investasi dinilai berdasarkan nilai wajar Laba atau rugi yang timbul dari perubahan nilai wajar atas properti investasi harus diakui dalam laporan laba rugi pada periode terjadinya Model biaya Sesuai PSAK No. 16

50 Intangible Assets

51 Definisi Aset nonmoneter yang dapat diidentifikasi dan tidak mempunyai wujud fisik serta dimiliki untuk digunakan dalam menghasilkan atau menyerahkan barang atau jasa, disewakan kepada pihak lainnya, atau untuk tujuan administratif

52 Recognition Criteria Whether the intangibles asset can be identified separately from other aspects of the business enterprise Whether the use of the intangible asset is controlled by the enterprise as a result of its past actions and events Whether future economic benefits can be expected to flow to the enterprise Whether the cost of the asset can be measured reliably

53 Measurement of the Cost of Intangibles
Acquired separately  analogous to that for PPE Acquired as part of business combination  fair value as at the date of acquisition

54 Internally Generated Intangibles
Goodwill  not recognized as an intangibles Other than goodwill  research activity or development activity: Research  expensed immediately Development  capitalized if meets the recognition criteria

55 Internally Generated Computer Software Costs
Software-developing company  the cost incurred in the development of software programs are research and development costs Software internally developed for in-house use  may need to be expensed Purchased software: Software purchase for sale  inventory Held for licensing or rental to others  intangible asset Purchased for own use and which is integral to the hardware part of the cost of the hardware

56 Subsequent Incurred Costs
Should be recognized as an expense when they incurred unless: It is probable that those costs will enable the asset to generate specifically attributable future economic benefits on excess of its assessed standard of performance immediately prior to the incremental expenditure; and Those costs can be measured reliably and attributed to the asset reliably

57 Measurement Subsequent to Initial Recognition
Cost model  carried at its cost less any accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment losses Revaluation model  only for freely tradable intangible assets

58 Useful Life The accounting for an intangible asset is based on its useful life. An intangible asset with a finite useful life is amortised and an intangible asset with an indefinite useful life is not

59 Useful Life The useful life of an intangible asset that arises from contractual or other legal rights shall not exceed the period of the contractual or other legal rights, but may be shorter depending on the period over which the entity expects to use the asset.

60 Periode Amortisasi Umumnya tidak akan melebihi 20 tahun

61 Amortisation Amortisation methods include the straight-line method, the diminishing balance method and the unit of production method. If it is not possible to identify the pattern in which the economic benefits are expected to be utilised by the entity, then the straight-line method should be used.

62 Impairment An entity is required to test an intangible asset with an indefinite useful life for impairment

63 Impairment Reversing an impairment loss
The increased carrying amount of an asset other than goodwill shall not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of amortisation or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss for an asset other than goodwill shall be recognised immediately in profit or loss, unless the asset is carried at revalued amount

64 Impairment An impairment loss recognised for goodwill shall not be reversed in a subsequent period.

65 Web Site Development and Operating Costs
Represent an internally generated intangible asset Have been likened to “development phase” costs

66 Sewa

67 Definisi Sewa adalah suatu perjanjian dimana lessor memberikan hak kepada lessee untuk menggunakan suatu aset selama periode waktu yang disepakati

68 Klasifikasi Sewa Suatu sewa diklasifikasikan sebagai sewa pembiayaan jika sewa tersebut mengalihkan secara substansial seluruh risiko dan manfaat yang terkait dengan kepemilikan aset Suatu sewa diklasifikasikan sebagai sewa operasi jika sewa tidak mengalihkan secara substansial seluruh risiko dan manfaat yang terkait dengan kepemilikan aset

69 Sewa Pembiayaan Lessee mengakui sewa pembiayaan sebagai aset dan kewajiban sebesar nilai wajar aset sewaan atau sebesar nilai kini dari pembayaran sewa minimum, jika nilai kini lebihrendah dari nilai wajar

70 Penyusutan Kebijakan penyusutan untuk aset sewaan harus konsisten dengan aset yang dimiliki sendiri Jika terdapat kepastian yang memadai bahwa lessee akan mendapatkan hak kepemilikan pada akhir masa sewa  penyusutan selama umur masa manfaat aset tersebut Jika tidak terdapat kepastian yang memadai bahwa lessee akan mendapatkan hak kepemilikan pada akhir masa sewa  disusutkan selama periode yang lebih pendek antara masa sewa dan umur manfaat aset sewaan

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