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Sejarah Ilmu Geografi dan Makna Ruang Triarko Nurlambang Dept. Geografi FMIPA UI.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Sejarah Ilmu Geografi dan Makna Ruang Triarko Nurlambang Dept. Geografi FMIPA UI."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Sejarah Ilmu Geografi dan Makna Ruang Triarko Nurlambang Dept. Geografi FMIPA UI

2 Timeline of Geographic History This is a compilation of key dates in the history of geography and the world. 2300 BCE The first city map was created in stone for Lagash, Mesopotamia 450Herodotus compiled a map of the known world 334Alexander the Great began conquring the Middle East and India 240EratosthenesEratosthenes calculated the circumference of the earth 45Julian calendar established 20 CEStrabo published his 17 volume Geography 77Pliny the Elder wrote his encyclopedia of geography 79Mount Vesuvius erupted and Pompeii was destroyed 150 Ptolmey published his Geography and included a map of the world with places labeled with a coordinate grid systemcoordinate grid system 271The magnetic compass was in use in Chinacompass 326 Helena, Constantine's mother, traveled to the Holy Land to identify places sacred to Christianity 476The Fall of Rome 632Muhammed died and Muslim expansion began 982Eric the Red reached Baffin Island in North America 995Leif Ericson established a colony in Newfoundland 1095The first Crusade began 1154Edrisi's book of world geography was published 1170The letter from Prester John, asking for help against infidels, "arrived" at the PopePrester John 1271Marco PoloMarco Polo headed for China 1325Tenochtitlan founded by Aztecs 1347Bubonic Plague, "Black Death," in Europe, 30 million die 1377ibn-Khaldun completed his history of the world 1405- 1433 China ruled the seas through the seven voyages of Cheng Ho's Treasure FleetCheng Ho's Treasure Fleet 1410A translation of Ptolmey's Geography was published in Europe 1418Prince Henry the NavigatorPrince Henry the Navigator established the Sagres research institute 1455Gutenberg invents the printing press 1492ColumbusColumbus reached the West Indies 1494Treaty of TordesillasTreaty of Tordesillas established Spanish and Portuguese control over new discoveries Karya Al Idrisi-1154 M Karya Fra Mauro 1459 Karya Ptolemy world-map 150 M

3 Cantino Planisphere – 1502 M 1500Cabral discovered Brazil 1505Portugal established trading posts in East Africa 1517Martin Luther begins Protestant Reformation 1519MagellanMagellan began his circumnavigation of the earth 1543Copernicus published his On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres 1569Mercator created his map 1582Gregorian calendar established 1602The Dutch East India company was founded 1620Pilgrims landed in New England 1675The Royal Observatory was established at Greenwich, England 1714 The British government offered a 20,000 pound reward to the person who could accurately determine longitude at sea 1761John Harrison's chronometer was perfected, allowing determination of longitude at sea 1768- 1779 James CookJames Cook explored the earth 1769Alexander von HumboldtAlexander von Humboldt was born 1776British colonies in America declare independence 1779Carl RitterCarl Ritter was born 1788 Hutton's theory of uniformitarianism was introduced ("no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end") 1789French Revolution 1798Thomas Malthus' first essay on population 1803Thomas Jefferson completed the Louisiana Purchase 1804- 1806 Lewis and ClarkLewis and Clark explored the western United States 1817The first volume of Ritter's Die Erkunde was publishedRitter's 1821 Simon Bolivar gains independence for Venezuela, sparking widespread independence in South America 1825Erie CanalErie Canal complete 1830The Royal Geographical Society was formed in London Lyell published his Principles of Geology Timeline of Geographic History This is a compilation of key dates in the history of geography and the world.

4 1831Charles Darwin began his travels 1840The Geological Survey of Canada was established 1845The first volume of von Humboldt's Kosmos was publishedvon Humboldt's 1848Gold was discovered in Calfornia 1850The first use of the camera for mapping takes place in France William Morris DavisWilliam Morris Davis was born 1851The American Geographical Society was formed 1855Maury's The Physical Geography of the Sea was published 1859von Humboldtvon Humboldt and Ritter diedRitter 1864George Perkins Marsh's Man and Nature was published 1867The USGS was established 1869Japan opened to western influence and trade Transcontinental railroadTranscontinental railroad established in United States The Suez Canal openedSuez Canal 1874 The first Department of Geography was established in Germany (the Prussian government established a Chair of Geography in every Prussian university) 1884-1885Berlin ConferenceBerlin Conference divides Africa among European colonial powers 1888The National Geographic Society was formed 1895The first Times Atlas of the World was publishedTimes Atlas of the World 1903University of Chicago established first American Department of Geography 1904The Association of American Geographers was established Mackinder proposed his Heartland Theory 1909Peary reached the North Pole 1911Amundsen reached the South Pole 1912Wegner proposed his theory of continental drift 1913Greenwich is accepted as 0° longitude 1914-1918World War I Timeline of Geographic History This is a compilation of key dates in the history of geography and the world.

5 1914The Panama Canal openedPanama Canal 1922The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established 1923-1957Carl O. Sauer taught at the University of California, Berkeley 1931Commonwealth of NationsCommonwealth of Nations founded 1933Walter Christaller introduces Central Place Theory 1934William Morris DavisWilliam Morris Davis died 1939-1945World War II 1945The United Nations was founded 1946First LevittownLevittown 1949Peoples Republic of ChinaPeoples Republic of China formed 1953Hillary and Norgay reached the top of Mount Everest 1957-1958The International Geophysical Year 1961Antarctic TreatyAntarctic Treaty established 1969Humans land on the moon 1970The first Earth DayEarth Day 1979China established One-Child ruleOne-Child rule 1984Hole in Ozone Layer was first observed 1989Berlin WallBerlin Wall tumbled down 1990Reunification of GermanyGermany 1991The end of the USSR and YugoslaviaUSSR and Yugoslavia Persian Gulf War 1992The end of the Cold WarCold War 1994Channel Tunnel (Chunnel) opened, linking Great Britain to Europe 1997Geography at About.comGeography at site established (formerly called Geography at The Mining Company) Hong Kong returned to China 1999EuroEuro established as currency in 11 European countries Macau returned to China 2000U.S. President Clinton orders GPS Selective Availability turned off, instantly making GPS more accurateGPS Selective Availability turned off 2001New millenium began Southern OceanSouthern Ocean established by the International Hydrographic Organization 2002East Timor gains independence Timeline of Geographic History This is a compilation of key dates in the history of geography and the world.

6 Geografi 1775 - 1975 Filosofi Geografi 1775180018501900195019751925 Immanuel Kant Carl Ritter Alfred Hettner Geografi Fisik Alexander Van Humbolt John Wesley Grove Karl Gilbert William Moore Davis Vladimir Koppen C. Waren Thrornthwaite Geomorfologi Klimatologi Geografi Penduduk Thomas Malthus Friedrich Ratzel Ellsworth Hutington Teori Lokasi JH Von Thunen Ernst Revenstein Alfred Webber Walter Christaller August Losch Walter Issard Torsten Hagerstrand

7 GEOGRAFI 1960 – SAAT INI 1.1965 – 1983: MODERN / PRE-POSTMODERN Era kuantitatif: Brian Berry dll (kelompok Chicago Univ.), Petter Haggett, Leslie J. King Pre-Postmodern: David Harvey, Richard Peet, Reginal G. Colledge, David Ley, Gunnar Olsson, Nigel Thrift 2.1984 – 1989: POSTMODERN GEOGRAPHIES Richard peet, Eric Sheppard, Henri Lefebvre, Edward W. Soja, Michael J. Dear, David Harvey, dll 3.1990 – 2000an: THE ALTERED SPACES OF POSTMODERNITY Julie Graham, Michael Stopper, Martin Dodge (Virtual Geography), Michael Dear, John Pickel, dll SEKARANG DAN AKAN DATANG?

8 Quaternary Studies Climatology Geomorphology EARTH SCIENCES GROUP Environmental Studies Biogeography Natural resources ECOLOGY GROUP Conservation, resource planning Population geography Regional planning Regional economics Regional growth REGIONAL SCIENCE GROUP Regional complexes Ecological Analysis Spatial organization GEOGRAPHY Field methods sampling Quantitative methods Economic geography Political geography Locational theory Asian geography Asian languages Asian history Asian anthropology AREA STUDIES GROUP Spatial optimization Urban geography Urban sociology URBAN STUDIES GROUP Operation research Statistics, probablity Cartography Photogrammetry, remote sensing Sumber: Peter Haggett, 1983 GEOLOGY METEOROLOGY BIOLOGY PLANNING ECONOMICS LINGUISTICS HISTORY ANTHROPOLOGY ECONOMICS SOCIOLOGY ECONOMETRIC MATHEMATICS, COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING LINK BETWEEN GEOGRAPHY AND SUPPORTING FIELDS

9 Ruang dan Kehidupan Kita RUANG: Jenis dan Tipe 1. Tempat (Place) suatu situs terjadinya interaksi dan kegiatan sosial (contoh : sekolah) 2. Ruang (Space) adalah suatu kerangka abstraksi yang menjadi acuan (contoh kawasan pendidikan) 3. Keduanya dapat dikenali sebagai satu ‘teritori’ Beberapa cara mendasar dalam mendefinisikan ruang 1.Pengalaman 2.Fungsi dan tindakan 3.Rasa memiliki / kepemilikan 4.Makna 5.Ukuran 6.Geografis: lokasi, struktur, komponen 7.Kualitas sensori: warna, bentuk, temperatur, dll. Tempat interpersonal Tempat berkumpul/ kerumnan (crowd) - proxemic

10 Lingkungan Hidup Definisi Lingkungan Hidup adalah kesatuan ruang dengan semua benda, daya, keadaan, dan makhluk hidup, termasuk manusia dan perilakunya, yang mempengaruhi kelangsungan perikehidupan dan kesejahteraan manusia serta mahluk hidup lainnya (UU no. 23 tahun 1997 tentang Lingkungan Hidup, Bab 1, pasal 1) Ruang Definisi Ruang adalah wadah yang meliputi ruang darat, ruang laut dan ruang udara, termasuk ruang di dalam bumi sebagai satu kesatuan wilayah, tempat manusia dan mahluk hidup lain, melakukan kegiatan, dan memelihara kelangsungan hidupnya (UU no. 26 tahun 2007, tentang Penataan Ruang, Bab 1, Pasal 1) Hampir semua kegiatan kehidupan dan Pembangunan perlu atau berkaitan dengan tempat/ lokasi/ ruang. Konsep Ruang identik dengan Lingkungan Ruang, Kehidupan Kita dan Pembangunan

11 Information spaces Social spaces Infrastructure CONTOH PENERAPAN KONSEP RUANG DALAM BERBAGAI ASPEK

12 Membangun Persepsi ke-Ruang-an Persepsi Ruang menggambarkan konstruksi pikiran Berbasis pada daya tangkap panca indera yang berbeda satu sama lainnya Dibentuk oleh pengalaman dan proses pembelajaran Dipengaruhi oleh kepribadian, emosional dan faktor kognitif (pengalaman dan pengetahuan)

13 Peta sebagai kerangka ruang/ space (persepsi dalam peta)

14 Declarative component Declarative component : pengetahuan akan makna obyek dan tempatnya Relational and configurational hubungan keruangan (spatial relationship) diantara pengembangan obyek dan tempatnya Procedural knowledge menggambarkan proses perkembangan perubahan obyek dalam konteks keruangan

15 Place B erkaitan dengan lokasi dan integrasi antara masyarakat, budaya dan alam Setiap manusia (normal sense) memiliki sense of place Perkembangan sense of place seseorang: Fisik Jenis kelamin, umur, kesehatan, kemampuan finansial Psikologis Nilai/kepercayaan, keturunan, keperibadian Pengalaman/ pengetahuan Tingkat pendidikan, sosialisasi

16 Spatial Points Set of Spatial Points Spatial universe Spatial Area

17 Daerah Aliran Sungai laut Jaringan jalan (Sistem Grid) Struktur Kota (Pola Konsentrik)

18 t1 t2 t3 Expansion Diffusion t1 t2 t3 Relocation Diffusion Combinataion of Expansion and Relocation

19 TUJUAN (sederhana) SIG SIG merupakan instrumen untuk merepresentasikan dunia nyata dalam bentuk peta dijital 19

20 Symbolic models Analog Models Iconic Models Real World Increasing abstraction Increasing realism


22 Ilustrasi Analisis Spatial Titik : lokasi / tempat layanan Garis: jaringan transportasi (jalan, sungai, garis layanan transporatsi udara  dapat mempengaruhi alokasi tempat layanan atau sebaliknya Area: wilayah layanan jasa/ produk tertentu untuk segmen pasar pada entitas wilayah layanan tersebut Contoh

23 Garis batas awal Kabupaten A Garis batas pemekaran Daerah Kabupaten A1: setelah pemekaran Kabupaten A2: setelah pemekaran Tipikal Konflik: ) Konflik antara pusat dengan daerah (konflik vertikal) Antara Kab A1 dg Kab A2 (konflik horizontal Banyak keterkaitan fungsional pembangunan yang “terpotong” oleh akibat batas admnistrasi baru dan menimbulkan resiko masalah pengambilan keputusan sampai pelaksanaan di lapangan sekolah Contoh

24 Pengang guran Tabungan terbatas Kurang modal Produktifi tas rendah Pendapatan /kapita rendah Daya beli rendah Pertmbhn eko. rendah Keluarga besar Laju kelahiran tinggi Permintaan tenga kerja tinggi Output/ pekerja kurang Pendidikan kurang Kemiskinan Perumahan tak layak Kondisi hidup tak sehat Kesehatan buruk Kurang gizi Diet jelek Ouput pertanian kecil Sedikit input modern REGION “A” Jika menggunakan pendekatan sektoral maka sulit menentukan prioritas Jika menggunakan pendekatan regional / spatial maka akan dilihat lebih holistik /komprehensif dan sistemik; prioritas nya adalah kebutuhan stakeholder Contoh

25 Knowledge Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Creativity Professionalism Level of Year Broad knowledge and understanding of areas of Geography. Fluency in subject vocabulary Problem solving ability. Evidence of understanding. Ability to apply concepts to novel situations. Ability to bring together different facets of material, and to draw appropriate conclusions. Ability to review, assess and criticise one's own work and that of others in a fair and professional manner. Ability to make an original, independent, personal contribution to the understanding of the subject. Ability to act as a practising geographer, to present argument in a skilled and convincing manner and to work alone or in teams 1 Demonstrate a basic understanding of core subject areas, happy with geographical terminology. Demonstrate a knowledge of appropriate supporting analytical techniques (stats., computing, lab and field techniques..) Apply geographical techniques to real situations through class and field examples. Understand that there may be unique or multiple solutions to any issue. Appreciate relative validity of results. Be able to handle material that presents contrasting views on a topic and develop personal conclusions. Draw conclusions from results and identify the relative significance of a series of results. Evaluate the accuracy and reliability of information, results and conclusions. Offer original comment on geographical material. Display or present information in different ways. Be effective in planning time, use of geographical resources including library, computer packages including databases. Present information orally, and written to a high standard. 2 Demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of specific subject areas. Be able to question the accuracy and completeness of information. Appreciate how different parts of the subject inter-relate. Apply geographical theories to individual situations critically examine the results. Understand that it may be appropriate to draw on multi- disciplinary approaches to analyse and solve geographical problems. To locate and comment on diverse material, add personal research observations and integrate literature based information with personal results. Review existing literature and identify gaps, appraise the significance of results and conclusions. Develop original independent research skills, interpret data and offer personal comment. Be able to display information in a variety of ways. Confident use of computer packages for analysis and information presentation. Confident worker in group and collaborative activities. Produce written work to a high professional standard. 3 Demonstrate a deep understanding of a limited number of specialised subject areas and methods. Appreciate the provisional state of knowledge in subject areas. Understand how to solve problems with incomplete information, how to make appropriate assumptions. To develop appropriate research hypotheses. Question and verify results. Appreciate the breadth of information available. To identify and tap into key elements of the material. Produce coherent reports. Critically appraise information, evidence and conclusions from personal and others work. Gather new information through personal research, draw personal conclusions and show where these insights link to the main subject areas. Be able to set objectives, focus on priorities, plan and execute project work to deadlines. Produce structured, well argued reports. Demonstrate fluency in personal presentations and electronic communication. MA MSc Demonstrate a broad, deep understanding of specialised subject areas and methods. Understand where this knowledge dovetails withthe subject in general. Understand the current limits of knowledge. Demonstrate ability to propose solutions to geographical problems involving appreciation of different approaches, gaps and contradictions in knowledge or data. Differentiation of unique and non-unique answers. Appreciation of reliability of a proposal or result given constraints and assumptions involved. Be able to collate material from a wide range of appropriate geographical and non - geographical sources, integrate personal research material and collate the whole in a coherent, thoughtful and professionally appropriate manner. Be able to work to a specified brief. Perform independent critical evaluation of information, evidence and conclusions, including their reliability, validity and significance. Be able to form and justify judgements in the light of contradictory information. Offer insights into the material under discussion that are independent of data immediately available. Propose investigative approaches to geographical problems utilising geographical and non- geographical methods as appropriate. Be able to make effective confident presentations, answer detailed questions thoughtfully and clearly. Produce substantive reports that are well structured, well reasoned, well presented and clear. Work effectively as a team member and team leader Figure 7:2 Skills matrix for geographers, University of Leeds, 1998 Skills matrix for geographers, University of Leeds, 1998

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