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Sejarah Ilmu Geografi dan Makna Ruang

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Presentasi berjudul: "Sejarah Ilmu Geografi dan Makna Ruang"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Sejarah Ilmu Geografi dan Makna Ruang
Triarko Nurlambang Dept. Geografi FMIPA UI

2 Timeline of Geographic History
Karya Al Idrisi-1154 M Timeline of Geographic History This is a compilation of key dates in the history of geography and the world. 2300 BCE The first city map was created in stone for Lagash, Mesopotamia 450 Herodotus compiled a map of the known world 334 Alexander the Great began conquring the Middle East and India 240 Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the earth 45 Julian calendar established 20 CE Strabo published his 17 volume Geography 77 Pliny the Elder wrote his encyclopedia of geography 79 Mount Vesuvius erupted and Pompeii was destroyed 150 Ptolmey published his Geography and included a map of the world with places labeled with a coordinate grid system 271 The magnetic compass was in use in China 326 Helena, Constantine's mother, traveled to the Holy Land to identify places sacred to Christianity 476 The Fall of Rome 632 Muhammed died and Muslim expansion began 982 Eric the Red reached Baffin Island in North America 995 Leif Ericson established a colony in Newfoundland 1095 The first Crusade began 1154 Edrisi's book of world geography was published 1170 The letter from Prester John, asking for help against infidels, "arrived" at the Pope 1271 Marco Polo headed for China 1325 Tenochtitlan founded by Aztecs 1347 Bubonic Plague, "Black Death," in Europe, 30 million die 1377 ibn-Khaldun completed his history of the world China ruled the seas through the seven voyages of Cheng Ho's Treasure Fleet 1410 A translation of Ptolmey's Geography was published in Europe 1418 Prince Henry the Navigator established the Sagres research institute 1455 Gutenberg invents the printing press 1492 Columbus reached the West Indies 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas established Spanish and Portuguese control over new discoveries Karya Fra Mauro 1459 Karya Ptolemy world-map 150 M

3 Timeline of Geographic History
This is a compilation of key dates in the history of geography and the world. Cantino Planisphere – 1502 M 1500 Cabral discovered Brazil 1505 Portugal established trading posts in East Africa 1517 Martin Luther begins Protestant Reformation 1519 Magellan began his circumnavigation of the earth 1543 Copernicus published his On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres 1569 Mercator created his map 1582 Gregorian calendar established 1602 The Dutch East India company was founded 1620 Pilgrims landed in New England 1675 The Royal Observatory was established at Greenwich, England 1714 The British government offered a 20,000 pound reward to the person who could accurately determine longitude at sea 1761 John Harrison's chronometer was perfected, allowing determination of longitude at sea James Cook explored the earth 1769 Alexander von Humboldt was born 1776 British colonies in America declare independence 1779 Carl Ritter was born 1788 Hutton's theory of uniformitarianism was introduced ("no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end") 1789 French Revolution 1798 Thomas Malthus' first essay on population 1803 Thomas Jefferson completed the Louisiana Purchase Lewis and Clark explored the western United States 1817 The first volume of Ritter's Die Erkunde was published 1821 Simon Bolivar gains independence for Venezuela, sparking widespread independence in South America 1825 Erie Canal complete 1830 The Royal Geographical Society was formed in London Lyell published his Principles of Geology

4 Timeline of Geographic History
This is a compilation of key dates in the history of geography and the world. 1831 Charles Darwin began his travels 1840 The Geological Survey of Canada was established 1845 The first volume of von Humboldt's Kosmos was published 1848 Gold was discovered in Calfornia 1850 The first use of the camera for mapping takes place in France William Morris Davis was born 1851 The American Geographical Society was formed 1855 Maury's The Physical Geography of the Sea was published 1859 von Humboldt and Ritter died 1864 George Perkins Marsh's Man and Nature was published 1867 The USGS was established 1869 Japan opened to western influence and trade Transcontinental railroad established in United States The Suez Canal opened 1874 The first Department of Geography was established in Germany (the Prussian government established a Chair of Geography in every Prussian university) Berlin Conference divides Africa among European colonial powers 1888 The National Geographic Society was formed 1895 The first Times Atlas of the World was published 1903 University of Chicago established first American Department of Geography 1904 The Association of American Geographers was established Mackinder proposed his Heartland Theory 1909 Peary reached the North Pole 1911 Amundsen reached the South Pole 1912 Wegner proposed his theory of continental drift 1913 Greenwich is accepted as 0° longitude World War I

5 Timeline of Geographic History
This is a compilation of key dates in the history of geography and the world. 1914 The Panama Canal opened 1922 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established Carl O. Sauer taught at the University of California, Berkeley 1931 Commonwealth of Nations founded 1933 Walter Christaller introduces Central Place Theory 1934 William Morris Davis died World War II 1945 The United Nations was founded 1946 First Levittown 1949 Peoples Republic of China formed 1953 Hillary and Norgay reached the top of Mount Everest The International Geophysical Year 1961 Antarctic Treaty established 1969 Humans land on the moon 1970 The first Earth Day 1979 China established One-Child rule 1984 Hole in Ozone Layer was first observed 1989 Berlin Wall tumbled down 1990 Reunification of Germany 1991 The end of the USSR and Yugoslavia Persian Gulf War 1992 The end of the Cold War 1994 Channel Tunnel (Chunnel) opened, linking Great Britain to Europe 1997 Geography at site established (formerly called Geography at The Mining Company) Hong Kong returned to China 1999 Euro established as currency in 11 European countries Macau returned to China 2000 U.S. President Clinton orders GPS Selective Availability turned off, instantly making GPS more accurate 2001 New millenium began Southern Ocean established by the International Hydrographic Organization 2002 East Timor gains independence

6 Geografi 1775 - 1975 Filosofi Geografi Geografi Fisik
1800 1850 1900 1925 1950 1975 Filosofi Geografi Immanuel Kant Carl Ritter Alfred Hettner Geografi Fisik Alexander Van Humbolt John Wesley Geomorfologi Grove Karl Gilbert William Moore Davis Vladimir Koppen Klimatologi C. Waren Thrornthwaite Geografi Penduduk Thomas Malthus Friedrich Ratzel Teori Lokasi Ellsworth Hutington JH Von Thunen Ernst Revenstein Alfred Webber Walter Christaller August Losch Walter Issard Torsten Hagerstrand

Era kuantitatif: Brian Berry dll (kelompok Chicago Univ.), Petter Haggett, Leslie J. King Pre-Postmodern: David Harvey, Richard Peet, Reginal G. Colledge, David Ley, Gunnar Olsson, Nigel Thrift 1984 – 1989: POSTMODERN GEOGRAPHIES Richard peet, Eric Sheppard, Henri Lefebvre, Edward W. Soja, Michael J. Dear, David Harvey, dll 1990 – 2000an: THE ALTERED SPACES OF POSTMODERNITY Julie Graham, Michael Stopper, Martin Dodge (Virtual Geography), Michael Dear, John Pickel, dll SEKARANG DAN AKAN DATANG?

LINK BETWEEN GEOGRAPHY AND SUPPORTING FIELDS GEOLOGY METEOROLOGY BIOLOGY Quaternary Studies ENGINEERING Climatology EARTH SCIENCES GROUP Biogeography Photogrammetry, remote sensing ECOLOGY GROUP Geomorphology Natural resources Conservation, resource planning Cartography Environmental Studies MATHEMATICS, COMPUTER SCIENCE Field methods sampling PLANNING Statistics, probablity Ecological Analysis Population geography Quantitative methods Regional planning ECONOMETRIC GEOGRAPHY REGIONAL SCIENCE GROUP ECONOMICS Operation research Spatial organization Regional complexes Regional economics Regional growth Spatial optimization Economic geography Political geography Urban sociology Asian geography Urban geography Locational theory Asian languages LINGUISTICS URBAN STUDIES GROUP Asian anthropology AREA STUDIES GROUP ECONOMICS Asian history SOCIOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGY HISTORY Sumber: Peter Haggett, 1983

9 Ruang dan Kehidupan Kita
RUANG: Jenis dan Tipe 1. Tempat (Place) suatu situs terjadinya interaksi dan kegiatan sosial (contoh : sekolah) 2. Ruang (Space) adalah suatu kerangka abstraksi yang menjadi acuan (contoh kawasan pendidikan) 3. Keduanya dapat dikenali sebagai satu ‘teritori’ Beberapa cara mendasar dalam mendefinisikan ruang Pengalaman Fungsi dan tindakan Rasa memiliki / kepemilikan Makna Ukuran Geografis: lokasi, struktur, komponen Kualitas sensori: warna, bentuk, temperatur, dll. Tempat interpersonal Tempat berkumpul/ kerumnan (crowd) - proxemic

10 Ruang, Kehidupan Kita dan Pembangunan
Lingkungan Hidup Definisi Lingkungan Hidup adalah kesatuan ruang dengan semua benda, daya, keadaan, dan makhluk hidup, termasuk manusia dan perilakunya, yang mempengaruhi kelangsungan perikehidupan dan kesejahteraan manusia serta mahluk hidup lainnya (UU no. 23 tahun 1997 tentang Lingkungan Hidup, Bab 1, pasal 1) Ruang Definisi Ruang adalah wadah yang meliputi ruang darat, ruang laut dan ruang udara, termasuk ruang di dalam bumi sebagai satu kesatuan wilayah, tempat manusia dan mahluk hidup lain, melakukan kegiatan, dan memelihara kelangsungan hidupnya (UU no. 26 tahun 2007, tentang Penataan Ruang, Bab 1 , Pasal 1) Hampir semua kegiatan kehidupan dan Pembangunan perlu atau berkaitan dengan tempat/ lokasi/ ruang. Konsep Ruang identik dengan Lingkungan

Social spaces Information spaces CONTOH PENERAPAN KONSEP RUANG DALAM BERBAGAI ASPEK Infrastructure

12 Membangun Persepsi ke-Ruang-an
Persepsi Ruang menggambarkan konstruksi pikiran Berbasis pada daya tangkap panca indera yang berbeda satu sama lainnya Dibentuk oleh pengalaman dan proses pembelajaran Dipengaruhi oleh kepribadian, emosional dan faktor kognitif (pengalaman dan pengetahuan)

13 Peta sebagai kerangka ruang/ space (persepsi dalam peta)

14 The Nature of Spatial Knowledge
Declarative component: pengetahuan akan makna obyek dan tempatnya Relational and configurational hubungan keruangan (spatial relationship) diantara pengembangan obyek dan tempatnya Procedural knowledge menggambarkan proses perkembangan perubahan obyek dalam konteks keruangan

15 Sense of Place Setiap manusia (normal sense) memiliki sense of place Perkembangan sense of place seseorang: Jenis kelamin, umur, kesehatan, kemampuan finansial Place Berkaitan dengan lokasi dan integrasi antara masyarakat, budaya dan alam Fisik Nilai/kepercayaan, keturunan, keperibadian Psikologis Pengalaman/ pengetahuan Tingkat pendidikan, sosialisasi

16 Titik dan Spasial Spatial Points Set of Spatial Points
Spatial universe Spatial Area

17 Garis dan Spasial Jaringan jalan Daerah Aliran Sungai (Sistem Grid)
laut Struktur Kota (Pola Konsentrik)

18 Combinataion of Expansion and Relocation
Perubahan Pola Bentuk Spasial (contoh spatial diffusion) t3 t3 t2 t2 t1 t1 Expansion Diffusion Relocation Diffusion Combinataion of Expansion and Relocation

19 TUJUAN (sederhana) SIG
SIG merupakan instrumen untuk merepresentasikan dunia nyata dalam bentuk peta dijital

20 Increasing abstraction
From Idea to Real World Problems Symbolic models Analog Models Increasing realism Increasing abstraction Iconic Models Real World


22 Ilustrasi Analisis Spatial
Contoh Titik : lokasi / tempat layanan Garis: jaringan transportasi (jalan, sungai, garis layanan transporatsi udara  dapat mempengaruhi alokasi tempat layanan atau sebaliknya Area: wilayah layanan jasa/ produk tertentu untuk segmen pasar pada entitas wilayah layanan tersebut

23 Contoh Garis batas pemekaran Daerah Garis batas awal Kabupaten A
Kabupaten A1: setelah pemekaran sekolah sekolah Tipikal Konflik: ) Konflik antara pusat dengan daerah (konflik vertikal) Antara Kab A1 dg Kab A2 (konflik horizontal Kabupaten A2: setelah pemekaran Banyak keterkaitan fungsional pembangunan yang “terpotong” oleh akibat batas admnistrasi baru dan menimbulkan resiko masalah pengambilan keputusan sampai pelaksanaan di lapangan

24 "Lingkaran Setan" Pembangunan
Kita Menghadapi "Lingkaran Setan" Pembangunan Contoh Jika menggunakan pendekatan regional / spatial maka akan dilihat lebih holistik /komprehensif dan sistemik; prioritas nya adalah kebutuhan stakeholder Jika menggunakan pendekatan sektoral maka sulit menentukan prioritas Pengangguran REGION “A” Pertmbhn eko. rendah Tabungan terbatas Sedikit input modern Ouput pertanian kecil Kurang modal Daya beli rendah Keluarga besar Laju kelahiran tinggi Produktifitas rendah Diet jelek Pendapatan/kapita rendah Permintaan tenga kerja tinggi Kesehatan buruk Kurang gizi Kemiskinan Kondisi hidup tak sehat Output/ pekerja kurang Pendidikan kurang Perumahan tak layak

25 Figure 7:2 Skills matrix for geographers, University of Leeds, 1998
 Knowledge  Analysis  Synthesis  Evaluation  Creativity  Professionalism  Level of Year Broad knowledge and understanding of areas of Geography. Fluency in subject vocabulary Problem solving ability. Evidence of understanding. Ability to apply concepts to novel situations. Ability to bring together different facets of material, and to draw appropriate conclusions. Ability to review, assess and criticise one's own work and that of others in a fair and professional manner. Ability to make an original, independent, personal contribution to the understanding of the subject. Ability to act as a practising geographer, to present argument in a skilled and convincing manner and to work alone or in teams  1 Demonstrate a basic understanding of core subject areas, happy with geographical terminology. Demonstrate a knowledge of appropriate supporting analytical techniques (stats., computing, lab and field techniques ..) Apply geographical techniques to real situations through class and field examples. Understand that there may be unique or multiple solutions to any issue. Appreciate relative validity of results. Be able to handle material that presents contrasting views on a topic and develop personal conclusions. Draw conclusions from results and identify the relative significance of a series of results. Evaluate the accuracy and reliability of information, results and conclusions. Offer original comment on geographical material. Display or present information in different ways. Be effective in planning time, use of geographical resources including library, computer packages including databases. Present information orally, and written to a high standard.  2 Demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of specific subject areas. Be able to question the accuracy and completeness of information. Appreciate how different parts of the subject inter-relate. Apply geographical theories to individual situations critically examine the results. Understand that it may be appropriate to draw on multi- disciplinary approaches to analyse and solve geographical problems. To locate and comment on diverse material, add personal research observations and integrate literature based information with personal results. Review existing literature and identify gaps, appraise the significance of results and conclusions. Develop original independent research skills, interpret data and offer personal comment. Be able to display information in a variety of ways. Confident use of computer packages for analysis and information presentation. Confident worker in group and collaborative activities. Produce written work to a high professional standard.  3 Demonstrate a deep understanding of a limited number of specialised subject areas and methods. Appreciate the provisional state of knowledge in subject areas. Understand how to solve problems with incomplete information, how to make appropriate assumptions. To develop appropriate research hypotheses. Question and verify results. Appreciate the breadth of information available. To identify and tap into key elements of the material. Produce coherent reports. Critically appraise information, evidence and conclusions from personal and others work. Gather new information through personal research, draw personal conclusions and show where these insights link to the main subject areas. Be able to set objectives, focus on priorities, plan and execute project work to deadlines. Produce structured, well argued reports. Demonstrate fluency in personal presentations and electronic communication. MA MSc Demonstrate a broad, deep understanding of specialised subject areas and methods. Understand where this knowledge dovetails withthe subject in general. Understand the current limits of knowledge. Demonstrate ability to propose solutions to geographical problems involving appreciation of different approaches, gaps and contradictions in knowledge or data. Differentiation of unique and non-unique answers. Appreciation of reliability of a proposal or result given constraints and assumptions involved. Be able to collate material from a wide range of appropriate geographical and non - geographical sources, integrate personal research material and collate the whole in a coherent, thoughtful and professionally appropriate manner. Be able to work to a specified brief. Perform independent critical evaluation of information, evidence and conclusions, including their reliability, validity and significance. Be able to form and justify judgements in the light of contradictory information. Offer insights into the material under discussion that are independent of data immediately available. Propose investigative approaches to geographical problems utilising geographical and non-geographical methods as appropriate. Be able to make effective confident presentations, answer detailed questions thoughtfully and clearly. Produce substantive reports that are well structured, well reasoned, well presented and clear. Work effectively as a team member and team leader Skills matrix for geographers, University of Leeds, 1998 Figure 7:2 Skills matrix for geographers, University of Leeds, 1998

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