Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Chapter Eleven: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "Chapter Eleven: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Chapter Eleven: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed. The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed. Joseph A. DeVito

2 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon After all, my erstwhile dear, My no longer cherished. Need we say it was not love, Just because it perished? Edna St. Vincent Millay

3 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Relationship Theory  Attraction Theory  Social Exchange Theory  Social Penetration Theory  Relationship Dialectics Theory  Rules Theory Microsoft Image

4 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Attraction theory  Developt relationships with those who are similar to you, who are physically close to you, who offer you reinforcement,whom you consider attractive physically and in personality, and who are of a desired socioeconomic and educational level

5 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20075

6 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration  Orang – orang membentuk hubungan berdasarkan daya tarik  Kesukaan pd orang lain, sikap positif & daya tarik karena : kesamaan karakteristik personal (nilai, sikap, keyakinan, status sosial)  Daya tarik penting bagi KAP -  menyukai orang --  melihat sgl sesuatu secara positif  Teori Attraction : apa yg membuat kita tertarik kepada orang tertentu dan tidak kepada yg lain?  Orang akan mengembangkan hubungan dng orang yg sama secara fisik, jasmani, memberi kekuatan  Mempertimabkan daya tarik fisik, kepribadian dan org yg punya tingkat status sosial ekonomi, pendidikan yg diinginkan Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20076

7 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Attraction Theory  Attractiveness  Appearance  Personality  Proximity  Similarity  Matching Hypothesis  Complementarity Microsoft Image

8 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration  Fisik : suka dengan org 2 yg menarik secara fisik  Personality : kepribadin yg menyenangkan  Budaya mempengaruhi daya tarik fisik  Wajah -  daya tarik universal  Proximity : hubungan tergantung pd seberapa dekat kita dengan orang tersebut. Kedekatan fisik penting pada awal interaksi  Similarity ; orang2 menyukai org yg sama  kebangsaan, suku bangsa, kemampuan, daya tarik fisik, kecerdasan, sikap)  Orang2 akan menolong orang yg sama,  Orang2 yg tertarik dng org yg berseberangan/tdk serupa --.pola --. Saling melengkapi  Hipotesis kecocokan : org bergaul dng org2 yg sangat mirip dng mrk dalam hal daya tarik fisik Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20078

9 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Social Exchange Theory Teori Pertukaran Sosial  Profits  Rewards  Costs Microsoft Image

10 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Social Exchange Theory  You develop relationships that will enable you to maximize your profit (Thibaut & Kelley,1986)  A theory based on an economic model of profits and losses and begin with the following equation: Profits = Reward – Costs.  Enter & maintain relationships in which the rewards are greater than the cost. When the costs become greater than the rewards, the reason deteriorates

11 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Dasar : orang memandang hubungan dlm konteks ekonomi & mereka menghitung pengorbanan dan membendingkan dng penghargaan yg didapat. Dorongan utama : kepuasan dari kepentingan pribadi orang yang terlibat Kepentingan pribadi tdk sll dianggap buruk & dpt digunakan meningkatkan hubungan Pertukaran interpersonal dianggap mirip dengan pertukaran ekonomis -  org puas bila menerima imbalans esuai dng pengeluaran pengorbanan : rasa tertekan, ketegangan Reward : kesetiaan, saling pengertian,dll Sudut pandang : individu secara sukarela memasuki hubungan hanya selama hubungan cukup baik dan memuaskan.

12 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Rewards: anything that you would incur costs to obtain  Types of rewards in a love relationships: money, status, love,information,goods (Baron & Byrne,1984)  Cost: things that you normally try to avoid,that you consider unpleasant or difficult  Profit: what results when the costs are subtracted from rewards.

13 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Teori Pertukaran Sosial  John Thibaut & Harold Kelley  Dasar : orang memandang hubungan mereka dalam konteks ekonomi dan mereka menghitung pengorbanan dan membandingkan dengan penghargaan yg didapatkan  Dorongan utama dalam hubungan interpersonal : kepuasan dari kepentingan pribadi orang yg terlibat  Pertukaran interpersonal dianggap mirip dengan pertukaran ekonomis  Pengorbanan/cost: elemen hubungan yg bernilai negatif  Penghargaan: elemen dari hubungan yg bernilai positif.

14 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Teori Pertukaran Sosial  Dorongan utama dalam hubungan interpersonal adalah kepuasan dari kepentingan pribadi dua orang yg terlibat.  Kepentingan pribadi tidak selalu dianggap buruk & dapat digunakan utk meningkatkan hubungan

15 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Comparison Levels  Expectations for Profits in Relationship  Comparison Level for Alternatives  Profits from Another Relationship

16 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Equity Theory  Ratio of Rewards and Costs Equal to Partner’s  Underbenefited, Less Likely to Succeed Microsoft Image

17 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Asumsi : 1. Orang berusaha menciptakan kondisi keadilan 2. Ada kondisi ketidak adilan, timbul ketegangan  memotivasi orang utk mengurangi 3. Makin besar persepsi ketidak adilan, makin besar motivasi utk bertindak utk mengurangi kondisi ketegangan

18 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Equity theory  Develop and maintain relationships in which your ratio of rewards compared to cost is approximately equal to your partner’s  kita mengalami kepuasan dari suatu hubungan bila ada kesetaraan atau pemerataan dalam distribusi imbalan dan biaya diantar kedua belah pihak ( Berscheid & Walster, 1978)  Manfaat yg diperoleh pihak yg berhubungan sebanding dengan biaya yang dikeluarkan  Ketidak puasan timbul bila ada ketidakadilan dalam memikul biaya.

19 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Equity Theory (continued)  Relationship Satisfaction and Equity  Equity, Culture, and Gender Microsoft Image

20 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Teori Penetrasi Sosial Irwin Altman dan Dalmas Taylor Penetrasi Sosial: Proses ikatan yang menggerakkan sebuah hubungan dari yang superficial menjadi lebih intim Hubungan mengikuti trayek : jalan setapak menuju pengembangan Membuka diri, bicara terus terang merupakan strategi hubungan yg penting Copyright © Allyn & Bacon

21 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Asumsi Teori Penetrasi Sosial  Hubungan – hubungan mengalami kemajuan dari yang tidak intim menjadi intim  Perkembangan hubungan sistematis dan dapat diprediksi  Perkembangan hubungan mencakup depenetrasi (penarikan diri) & disolusi  Pembukaan diri adalah inti dari perkembangan hubungan

22 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Analogi Bawang  Orang dapat dibandingkan sebuah bawang dengan lapisan – lapisan dari sebuah bawang yg mewakili aspek dari kepribadian seseorang.  Citra publik: lapisan terluar dari seseorang; apa yg dapat dilihat oleh orang lain.  Resiprositas : keterbukaan balik dari seseorang kepada yg lainnya.

23 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Tahapan Penetrasi sosial Orientasi : Membuka sedikit Ttg diri kita kepada Orang lain Pertukaran Penjajakan Efektif : Munculnya Kepribadian seseorang Pertukaran Afektif : Komunikasi yg spontan; Penggunaan Idiom pribadi Pertukaran stabil : kom yg efisien; Dibangun sistem Komunikasi personal

24 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon RELATIONSHIP RULES THEORY  Assumption: that relationships- friendship and love in particular-are held together by adherhence to certain rules.

25 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon

26 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Friendship Rules  One approach to friendship argues that friendship are maintained by rules (Argyle & Henderson,1984;Argyle 1986)  When these rules are followed, the friendship is strong & mutually satisfying.  When these rules are broken,the friendships suffers and may die.  Strategy for maintaining a friendships, depens on your knowing the rules & having the ability to apply the appropriate interpersonal skill

27 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration  Persahabatan dipelihara oleh aturan  Aturan diikuti-  persahabatan kokoh, kepuasan  Aturan dilanggar --. Persahabatan rusak, berakhir  Aturan menjaga persahabatan : membagi informasi, merasa sukses, dukungan emosi, percaya, memberi bantuan, membuat teman bahagia  Persahabatan dlm masalah : tdk toleran, diskusi rahasis dng pihak ketiga, tidak bs mendukung, percaya dan tdk bisa menjaga rahasia. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon

28 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Romantic Rules  Family Rules

29 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Relationship Dialectics Theory  People in a relationship experience dynamic tensions between pairs of opposing motives or desires ( Baxter & Braithwaite, 2008)  The theory of Relational Dialectics is the intimate communication that takes place in close relationships. Baxter and Montgomery developed this theory in the late 1980's and the early 1990's.  Baxter and Montgomery say, "Contradiction is the central concept of relational dialectics." There are also three more relational dialectics involved in this theory; they are Connectedness-Separateness, Certainty- Uncertainty, and Openness-Closedness.

30 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Teori Dialektika Relasional  Hidup berhubungan dicirikan oleh ketegangan – ketegangan yg berkelanjutan antara impuls – impuls yg kontradiktif.  Hidup hubungan sebagai kemajuan & pergerakan yg konstan  Orang – orang yg terlibat di dalam hubungan terus merasakan dorongan & tarikan dari keinginan-keinginan yg bertolak belakang

31 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Pairs of opposites

32 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Otonomi dan keterikatan : Sebuah ketegangan hubungan yang penting yang menunjukkan keinginan – keinginan kita yg saling berkonflik untuk menjadi dekat dan maupun lebih jauh  Keinginan utk tidak bergantung pada org yg penting bagi kita, dan juga menemukan keintiman dengan mereka

33 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Opennes & Closedness  Ketegangan dalam berhubungan yg penting yg menunjukkan keinginan – keinginan kita yg saling berkonflik untuk mengatakan rahasia kita dan menyimpannya.  Kebutuhan untuk terbuka dan menjadi rentan, membuka semua informasi personal pada pasangan dan bertindak strategis, melindungi diri sendiri dalam komunikasi

34 Chapter 11: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Novelty & predictability  Keinginan dalam berhubungan yg penting yg menunjukkan keinginan – keinginan kita yg saling berkonflik untuk memiliki stabilitas dan perubahan  Melihat interaksi antara kepastian dan ketidak pastian dalam hubungan  Kontradiksi antara rutinitas dan spontanitas.


Download ppt "Chapter Eleven: Interpersonal Relationships: Growth and Deterioration This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google