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1 KOMPENDIUM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN DAN PEMBANGUNAN GREEN TRANSPORTATION Dikoleksi oleh Soemarno PDKLP PPSUB APRIL 2012.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 KOMPENDIUM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN DAN PEMBANGUNAN GREEN TRANSPORTATION Dikoleksi oleh Soemarno PDKLP PPSUB APRIL 2012."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 KOMPENDIUM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN DAN PEMBANGUNAN GREEN TRANSPORTATION Dikoleksi oleh Soemarno PDKLP PPSUB APRIL 2012

2 GREEN TRANSPORT Sustainable transport (or green transport) refers to any means of transport with low impact on the environment, and includes non-motorised transport, i.e. walking and cycling, transit oriented development, green vehicles, CarSharing, and building or protecting urban transport systems that are fuel-efficient, space-saving and promote healthy lifestyles. Sustainable transport systems make a positive contribution to the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the communities they serve. Transport systems exist to provide social and economic connections, and people quickly take up the opportunities offered by increased mobility. The advantages of increased mobility need to be weighed against the environmental, social and economic costs that transport systems pose. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Transport systems have significant impacts on the environment, accounting for between 20% and 25% of world energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions from transport are increasing at a faster rate than any other energy using sector. Road transport is also a major contributor to local air pollution and smog. The social costs of transport include road crashes, air pollution, physical inactivity, time taken away from the family while commuting and vulnerability to fuel price increases. Many of these negative impacts fall disproportionately on those social groups who are also least likely to own and drive cars. Traffic congestion imposes economic costs by wasting people's time and by slowing the delivery of goods and services. Traditional transport planning aims to improve mobility, especially for vehicles, and may fail to adequately consider wider impacts. But the real purpose of transport is access - to work, education, goods and services, friends and family - and there are proven techniques to improve access while simultaneously reducing environmental and social impacts, and managing traffic congestion. Communities which are successfully improving the sustainability of their transport networks are doing so as part of a wider programme of creating more vibrant, livable, sustainable cities.

3 SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT The term sustainable transport came into use as a logical follow-on from sustainable development, and is used to describe modes of transport, and systems of transport planning, which are consistent with wider concerns of sustainability. There are many definitions of the sustainable transport, and of the related terms sustainable transportation and sustainable mobility. One such definition, from the European Union Council of Ministers of Transport, defines a sustainable transportation system as one that: Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Allows the basic access and development needs of individuals, companies and society to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health, and promotes equity within and between successive generations. Is Affordable, operates fairly and efficiently, offers a choice of transport mode, and supports a competitive economy, as well as balanced regional development. Limits emissions and waste within the planet’s ability to absorb them, uses renewable resources at or below their rates of generation, and uses non-renewable resources at or below the rates of development of renewable substitutes, while minimizing the impact on the use of land and the generation of noise.

4 ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT Sumber: Diunduh 15/4/2012 Transport systems are major emitters of greenhouse gases, responsible for 23% of world energy-related GHG emissions in 2004, with about three quarters coming from road vehicles. Currently 95% of transport energy comes from petroleum. Energy is consumed in the manufacture as well as the use of vehicles, and is embodied in transport infrastructure including roads, bridges and railways.embodied The environmental impacts of transport can be reduced by improving the walking and cycling environment in cities, and by enhancing the role of public transport, especially electric rail. Green vehiclesGreen vehicles are intended to have less environmental impact than equivalent standard vehicles, although when the environmental impact of a vehicle is assessed over the whole of its life cycle this may not be the case.life cycle In practice there is a sliding scale of green transport depending on the sustainability of the option. Green vehicles are more fuel-efficient, but only in comparison with standard vehicles, and they still contribute to traffic congestion and road crashes. Well-patronised public transport networks based on traditional diesel buses use less fuel per passenger than private vehicles, and are generally safer and use less road space than private vehicles. Green public transport vehicles including electric trains, trams and electric buses combine the advantages of green vehicles with those of sustainable transport choices. Other transport choices with very low environmental impact are cycling and other human-powered vehicles, and animal powered transport. The most common green transport choice, with the least environmental impact is walking.

5 MANAJEMEN LALU LINTAS / TRANSPORTASI HIJAU Transportasi hijau atau bisa juga disebut dalam bahasa Inggrisnya disebut sebagai Green Transport merupakan perangkat transportasi yang berwawasan lingkungan. Merupakan pendekatan yang digunakan untuk menciptakan transportasi yang sedikit atau tidak menghasilkan gas rumah kaca. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 18/4/2012 Gas rumah kaca di tengarai sebagai pemicu terjadi pemanasan suhu dunia (Global Warming). Sedangkan pangsa gas rumah kaca yang diakibatkan Transportasi berada pada kisaran 15 sampai 20 persen, sehingga cukup nyata langkah yang bisa dilakukan dalam sistem transport untuk mengurangi emisi gas rumah kaca tersebut. Pendekatan yang paling mudah dalam menciptakan transportasi hijau adalah dengan menggunakan angkutan umum ketimbang menggunakan kendaraan pribadi, walaupun tidak senyaman menggunakan kendaraan pribadi. Bagaimana menciptakan transportasi hijau Ada berbagai cara yang bisa dilakukan untuk menciptakan transportasi yang berwawasan hijau, yang dapat mengurangi ketergantungan kita terhadap bahan bakar fosil.

6 BAHAN BAKAR HIJAU Bahan bakar hijau yang bisa digunakan dalam transportasi meliputi: Sumber: Diunduh 15/4/2012 Listrik, merupakan bahan bakar yang yang mengeluarkan emisi gas rumah kaca yang minim, apalagi bila menggunakan sumber dari tenaga air, angin, sel surya ataupun nuklir. Listrik ideal digunakan untuk transportasi yang melalui jalur tetap seperti Bus Listrik, Kereta rel listrik (KRL), tetapi selain itu saat ini sudah diperkenalkan mobil/motor yang digerakkan dengan listrik yang disimpan dalam batere. Bahan bakar gas, dapat berupa LPG (liquefied Petroleum Gas) ataupun CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) yang saat ini sudah digunakan untuk angkutan bus TransJakarta di Jakarta, sumber gasnya terdapat dibeberapa daerah di Indonesia yang ditransportasi melalui pipa dan tangki bertekanan. Sel bahan bakar, merupakan konsep baru yang dikembangkan dimana prosesnya adalah penggunaan gas H2 yang direaksikan dengan O2 yang menghasilkan air dan listrik, listrik yang dihasilkan digunakan untuk menggerakkan kendaraan. Selain gas H2 juga bisa digunakan gas methan. Permasalahan yang ditemukan pada kendaraan yang berbahan bakar H2 adalah belum adanya jaringan stasiun pengisian bahan bakar gas hidrogen. Bahan bakar nabati, merupakan bahan bakar yang diolah dari bahan-bahan nabati, dapat diperoleh dari Minyak Nabati, ataupun alkohol, ataupun dalam bentuk padat. Minyak nabati seperti minyak jarak, minyak kelapa sawit digunakan untuk campuran minyak diesel yang diberi nama BioDiesel, sedang alkohol yang berasal dari hidrat arang dari tetes tebu ataupun lainnya dicampurkan ke bahan bakar premium/pertamax yang diberi nama BioPertamax di Indonesia.

7 KENDARAAN HIJAU Sumber: Diunduh 15/4/2012 Kendaraan yang ramah lingkungan seperti mobil listrik, kendaraan hibrida yang merupakan gabungan antara mesin mobil konvensional yang menggerakkan generator yang mengisi baterai dan kendaraannya sendiri dijalankan dengan motor listrik. Salah satu permasalahan yang dihadapi adalah harga kendaraan yang relatif mahal, sehingga di banyak negara diberikan berbagai insentip bila menggunakannya diantaranya penurunan bea masuk, pajak kendaraan bermotor yang lebih rendah, pembebasan pembayaran retribusi pengendalian lalu lintas. Toyota merupakan salah satu produsen mobil yang giat menciptakan kendaraan yang hemat bahan bakar, salah satu diantaranya adalah Toyota Prius yang kemudian diikuti dengan produsen lainnya di Jepang maupun negara- negara Eropa dan Amerika. Angkutan umum Salah satu pendekatan yang banyak didorong dikota-kota adalah pengembangan angkutan massal dan untuk itu akan lebih baik bila dikaitkan dengan tata ruang. Ukuran alat angkut yang digunakan harus disesuaikan dengan permintaan angkutan yang ada, kalau permintaannya sangat besar maka sebaiknya digunakan kereta api kota.

8 PERHITUNGAN GAS RUMAH KACA Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Untuk menghitung besarnya emisi Gas Rumah Kaca dapat digunakan rumus berikut: Emisi GRK = LPK x VKT x FI dimana: Emisi GRK = Gas rumah kaca (ton/tahun) VKT=jumlah kilometer tempuh per tahun LPK = Liter per km FI = GRK bahan bakar (GRK Kg/liter bahan bakar) Pada tabel berikut ditunjukkan besarnya Gas Rumah Kaca yang dihasilkan untuk setiap liter bahan bakar yang digunakan/dibakar Dengan menggunakan rumus dan data tersebut diatas: Kalau sebuah mobil dijalankan km/ tahun dan konsumsi bahan bakarnya adalah 0,08 liter primium/km maka Emisi GRK yang dihasilkan dalam satu tahun adalah 0,08 x x 2,3 adalah sebesar 3680 kg GRK/tahun atau 3,68 Ton GRK/tahun. Kalau menggunakan mobil yang lebih boros bahan bakar misalnya 0,13 liter/km maka gas rumah kaca yang dihasilkan untuk jarak tempuh yang sama adalah sebesar 5,98 ton GRK/tahun. Jenis Bahan BakarKg GRK/liter BB Premium2,3 Diesel2,7 LPG1,6

9 KONSUMSI BAHAN BAKAR MODA ANGKUTAN Konsumsi bahan bakar beberapa moda transportasi: Sumber: Diunduh 15/4/2012 Upaya untuk mengurangi emisi gas rumah kaca adalah dengan menggunakan kendaraan yang lebih besar sepanjang faktor muatnya tinggi, bila faktor muatnya rendah maka emisinya akan menjadi tinggi per km orang nya. Langkah yang penting yang perlu didorong adalah bagaimana mengalihkan masyarakat dari kendaraan yang konsumsi bahan bakar per orang yang diangkut paling kecil. Angka ini akan menjadi lebih tinggi kalau kecepatan lalu lintas menurun karena kemacetan lalu lintas. Kemacetan sudah menjadi masalah sehari- hari dikota-kota besar, yang cenderung mengakibatkan emisi GRK yang lebih tinggi daripada kalau jalannya lancar. ModaPnp rata2 Konsumsi BB ml/Km Konsumsi ml/orang/km gr GRK/orang/km Sepeda motor1,32015,435 Mobil pribadi kecil 1,88044,4102 Mobil pribadi besar 1,812066,7153 Bus kecil/mikrolet Bis 3/ Bus besar403508,7524 Bus Tempel605008,6623

10 PRINSIP TRANSPORTASI YANG BERKELANJUTAN Keberlanjutan merupakan hal yang sangat penting untuk diperhatikan dalam rangka menyambut masa depan yang lebih baik untuk generasi yang akan datang, jangan generasi kita menghabiskan semua sumber daya yang ada dan tidak menyisakan untuk anak cucu kita. Sumber: an….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Aksesibilitas bukan mobilitas Bahwa yang perlu disediakan adalah bagaimana menciptakan aksesibilitas khususnya terhadap aksesibilitas terhadap penggunaan angkutan umum, bukan terhadap pengguna angkutan pribadi. Dengan demikian akan mendorong pengguna kendaraan pribadi untuk menggunakan angkutan umum dengan langkah- langkah membatasi akses terhadap parkir kendaraan pribadi. Transportasi orang bukan kendaraan pribadi Salah satu prinsip penting yang perlu didorong adalah bagaimana kebijakan harus diarahkan untuk menciptakan keberpihakan terhadap pelayanan angkutan orang yang menggunakan angkutan umum dan kebijakan yang tidak mendukung penggunaan kendaraan pribadi dan menyulitkan masyarakat untuk menggunakan kendaraan pribadi. selain itu efisiensi dan effektifitas penggunaan waktu perjalanan yang lebih cepat saat ini juga menjadi isu penting untuk menjadikan public transportation (trasportasi publik) menjadi alasan pokok dalam menjadikan angkutan publik sebagai moda transportasi utama. sebagaimana yang sudah diterapkan di Jepang. kereta api menjadi transportasi utama. tidak ada alasan lain kenapa masyarakat lebih memilih kerta api selain alasa efisiensi waktu, dengan kereta api mereka dapat berpindah dari satu pulau ke pulau yang lain dalam waktu singkat, berbeda jika mereka naik kendaraan pribadi. Manfaatkan lahan untuk kepentingan umum Lahan perkotaan sebaiknya digunakan seluas-luasnya untuk kepentingan masyarakat bukan untuk jalan bagi kendaraan pribadi, ataupun untuk tempat parkir, tetapi lebih banyak digunakan untuk tempat berjalan kaki, membangun kawasan pejalan kaki, bersepeda ataupun tempat bermain untuk anak-anak yang lebih ramah terhadap lingkungan serta bisa menurunkan angka kecelakaan secara nyata.

11 DAMPAK EKONOMI TRANSPORT YANG BERKESINAMBUNGAN Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Ada berbagai dampak ekonomi yang ditimbulkan dengan dikembangkannya sistem transportasi yang berkelanjutan, yaitu: 1.Membuka peluang bisnis baru, termasuk bisnis angkutan umum baru, warung, restoran, dan pertokoaan akan mendapatkan pelanggan yang lebih banyak karena tingkat kepadatan yang tinggi. 2.Menurunkan biaya transportasi, 3.Meningkatkan produktivitas tenaga kerja karena waktu yang hilang di perjalanan dapat berkurang, termasuk juga berkurangnya stress yang timbul selama perjalanan dan ditambah lagi masyarakat berjalan kaki lebih jauh yang akan menurunkan biaya kesehatan. 4.Menurunkan biaya untuk pembangunan dan perawatan infrastruktur. 5.Biaya untuk pelayanan masyarakat yang lebih rendah, seperti untuk patroli polisi bersepeda, pengumpulan sampah yang lebih gampang, penyediaan air bersih yang lebih mudah. Hentikan subsidi untuk kendaraan pribadi Subsidi untuk kendaraan pribadi sangatlah besar, khususnya subsidi yang diberikan pemerintah untuk bahan bakar, untuk pembangunan infrastruktur jalan, membangun tempat parkir maupun prasarana lain untuk mendukung penggunaan kendaraan pribadi yang tidak efisien. Subsidi ini sebaiknya malah dialokasikan untuk membangun angkutan umum dan mendukung operasional angkutan umum yang lebih efisien dalam penggunaan ruang, penggunaan bahan bakar dan sumber daya lainnya.

12 STRATEGI PENERAPAN TRANSPORTASI BERKELANJUTAN Beberapa langkah yang dapat dilakukan menuju transportasi berkelanjutan: Sumber: an ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Mengurangi kemacetan 1.Mengurangi kemacetan dapat ditempuh dengan: 2.Informasi transportasi dan manajement 3.Managemen mobilitas 4.Pembatasan akses 5.Promosi angkutan umum 6.Distribusi barang dan logistic 7.Manajemen parkir 8.Road pricing Menurunkan penggunaan enerji dan emisi gas buang Menurunkan penggunaan enerji dan emisi gas buang dengan jalan: 1.Manajemen mobilitas 2.Promosi penggunaan sepeda dan kendaraan tidak bermotor 3.Kekantor bareng yang di negara- negara maju dikenal sebagai Car pooling, 4.Bahan bakar yang bersih dan berwawasan lingkungan seperti penggunaan bahan bakar nabati, bahan bakar gas, kendaraan listrik serta kendaraan yg bersih lainnya seperti hibrida. 5.Promosi angkutan umum yang lebih gencar agar pemakai kendaraan pribadi mau beralih ke angkutan umum. 6.Penerapan retribusi pengendalian lalu lintas serta berbagai kebijakan tarif dan fiskal lainnya. Penurunan emisi local dan peningkatan kualitas hidup dipusat kota Penurunan emisi local dan peningkatan kualitas hidup dipusat kota dapat ditempuh dengan: 1.Pembatasan akses 2.Distribusi barang dan logistic 3.Manajemen parkir

13 Kurangi tekanan parkir Kurangi tekanan parkir dapat ditempuh dengan: 1.Dorong penggunaan sepeda 2.Bareng kekantor 3.Manajemen mobilitas 4.Manajemen parkir Sumber: an ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Peningkatan efisiensi transportasi Peningkatan efisiensi transportasi dapat ditempuh dengan: 1.Integrasi angkutan multi modal 2.Manajemen mobilitas 3.Promosi penggunaan sepeda 4.Bareng kekantor 5.Pembatasan akses 6.Promosi penggunaan angkutan umum 7.Road pricing Meningkatan daya saing angkutan umum terhadap kendaraan pribadi Meningkatan daya saing angkutan umum terhadap kendaraan pribadi dapat ditempuh dengan: 1.Sistem informasi transportasi 2.Integrasi angkutan multi moda 3.Manajemen mobilitas 4.Bareng kekantor 5.Pembatasan akses 6.Promosi penggunaan angkutan umum 7.Road pricing STRATEGI PENERAPAN TRANSPORTASI BERKELANJUTAN Beberapa langkah yang dapat dilakukan menuju transportasi berkelanjutan:

14 MANAJEMEN LALU LINTAS Manajemen lalu lintas berdasarkan Undang-undang No. 22 Tahun 2009 tentang Lalu Lintas dan Angkutan Jalan didefinisikan sebagai serangkaian usaha dan kegiatan yang meliputi perencanaan, pengadaan, pemasangan, pengaturan, dan pemeliharaan fasilitas perlengkapan Jalan dalam rangka mewujudkan, mendukung dan memelihara keamanan, keselamatan, ketertiban, dan kelancaran Lalu Lintas. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Dengan mengacu kepada Undang-undang No 22 Tahun 2009 tentang Lalu Lintas dan Angkutan Jalan, Manajemen lalu lintas didefinisikan sebagai upaya untuk mengatur pergerakan lalu lintas supaya memenuhi kriteria keselamatan, kelancaran, efisiensi, dan murah. Manajemen lalu lintas selanjutnya meliputi kegiatan perencanaan lalu lintas, pengaturan lalu lintas, pengawasan lalu lintas, dan pengendalian lalu lintas. TEMPAT ISTIRAHAT Tempat istirahat atau dikenal secara lebih luas sebagai rest area adalah tempat beristirahat sejenak untuk melepaskan kelelahan, kejenuhan, ataupun ke toilet selama dalam perjalanan jarak jauh. Tempat istirahat ini banyak ditemukan di jalan tol ataupun dijalan nasional di mana para pengemudi jarak jauh beristirahat. Di jalan arteri primer juga banyak ditemukan restoran yang berfungsi sebagai tempat istirahat. Restoran-restoran ini banyak digunakan oleh pengemudi truk jarak jauh ataupun bus antar kota untuk beristirahat. KETENTUAN ISTIRAHAT Dalam peraturan perundangan mengenai Lalu Lintas dan Angkutan Jalan ada ketentuan yang menyebutkan bahwa setiap mengemudikan kendaraan selama 4 jam harus istirahat selama sekurang- kurangnya setengah jam, untuk melepaskan kelelahan, tidur sejenak ataupun untuk minum kopi, makan ataupun ke kamar kecil/toilet. Waktu kerja bagi Pengemudi Kendaraan Bermotor Umum paling lama 8 (delapan) jam sehari, sehingga tempat istirahat juga digunakan untuk tempat pergantian pengemudi.

15 KESELAMATAN DAN KEAMANAN LALU LINTAS Sumber: ….. Diunduh 17/4/2012 Untuk meningkatkan keselamatan lalu lintas dari kendaraan yang melewati tempat istirahat dengan kendaraan yang keluar masuk ke tempat istirahat harus direncanakan sedemikian sehingga konflik dapat diminimalisasi, terutama pada tempat istirahat yang ditempatkan pada pada salah satu sisi di jalan dua arah karena akan terjadi konflik bersilangan untuk kendaraan yang memotong jalan masuk ke tempat istirahat. Keadaan ini menjadi masalah besar di jalan arteri nasional yang arus lalu lintasnya sudah tinggi tetapi belum ada median jalannya. Di jalan tol tempat istirahat dilengkapi dengan lajur percepatan dan lajur perlambatan agar kendaraan yang masuk ataupun ke luar dari tempat istirahat dapat menyesuaikan kecepatan pada lajur percepatan ataupun lajur perlambatan. Perencanaan tempat istirahat seyogyanya mengikuti kriteria sebagai berikut: 1.Jalur mobil penumpang harus dipisah dari jalur mobil barang 2.Pemisahan tempat pengisian bahan bakar antara mobil penumpang dengan truk 3.Parkir mobil penumpang harus dilengkapi fasilitas pejalan kaki yang aman 4.Parkir mobil penumpang dipisah dari parkir truk 5.Khusus jalur truk agar sedapat mungkin satu arah Masalah lain yang juga ditemukan ditempat istirahat yang tidak terlalu ramai adalah masalah kriminal, di mana dilakukan pencurian ataupun pemerasan terhadap pengguna tempat istirahat, ataupun tempat istirahat dijadikan tempat untuk melakukan Rendezvous, pacaran yang strategis.

16 TROTOAR Trotoar adalah jalur pejalan kaki yang umumnya sejajar dengan jalan dan lebih tinggi dari permukaan perkerasan jalan yang berfungsi untuk meningkatkan keamanan pejalan kaki yang bersangkutan. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 17/4/2012 Para pejalan kaki berada pada posisi yang lemah jika mereka bercampur dengan kendaraan, maka mereka akan memperlambat arus lalu lintas. Oleh karena itu, salah satu tujuan utama dari manajemen lalu lintas adalah berusaha untuk memisahkan pejalan kaki dari arus kendaraan bermotor, tanpa menimbulkan gangguan-gangguan yang besar terhadap aksesibilitas dengan pembangunan trotoar.Untuk keamanan pejalan kaki maka trotoar ini harus dibuat terpisah dari jalur lalu lintas kendaraan, oleh struktur fisik berupa kereb. Perlu tidaknya trotoar dapat diidentifikasikan oleh volume para pejalan kaki yang berjalan dijalan, tingkat kecelakaan antara kendaraan dengan pejalan kaki dan pengaduan/permintaan masyarakat. PENEMPATAN TROTOAR Fasilitas pejalan kaki dapat ditempatkan disepanjang jalan atau pada suatu kawasan yang akan mengakibatkan pertumbuhan pejalan kaki dan biasanya diikuti oleh peningkatan arus lalu lintas serta memenuhi syarat- syarat atau ketentuan-ketentuan untuk pembuatan fasilitas tersebut. Tempat-tempat tersebut antara lain : 1.Daerah perkotaan secara umum yang tingkat kepadatan penduduknya tinggi 2.Jalan yang memiliki rute angkutan umum yang tetap 3.Daerah yang memiliki aktivitas kontinyu yang tinggi, seperti misalnya jalan-jalan dipasar, pusat perkotaaan, daerah industri 4.Lokasi yang memiliki kebutuhan/permintaan yang tinggi dengan periode yang pendek, seperti misalnya stasiun-stasiun bis dan kereta api, sekolah, rumah sakit, lapangan olah raga 5.Lokasi yang mempunyai permintaan yang tinggi untuk hari-hari tertentu, misalnya lapangan/gelanggang olah raga, masjid

17 ASPEK DESAIN TROTOAR Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Aspek yang perlu diperhatikan dalam perencanaan/desain trotoar: 1.Perbedaan tinggi trotoar dari muka jalan yang tidak terlalu rendah tetapi juga tidak terlalu tinggi karena akan mengurangi kapasitas jalan. Ketinggian dari perkerasan jalan yang disarankan adalah 150 mm. 2.Kelandaian pada akses jalan untuk memungkinkan penderita cacat yang menggunakan kursi roda untuk bisa menggunakan trotoar dengan gampang dan mudah. 3.Lintasan yang bisa dilewati oleh penderita cacat yang buta. 4.Lebar yang sesuai dengan jumlah pejalan kaki yang menggunakan trotoar Lebar fasilitas pejalan kaki Lebar fasilitas pejalan kaki yang ideal bisa dihitung dengan menggunakan pendekatan sebagai berikut: Dimana: P = volume pejalan kaki (Orang/menit/meter) W = lebar fasilitas pejalan kaki (meter) Bila pada fasilitas pejalan kaki masih ditambah dengan perabot jalan atau fasilitas lainnya maka perlu ada pelebaran untuk fasilitas tersebut dari hasil perhitungan sebagaimana rumus diatas. Pada daftar berikut ditunjukkan tambahan lebar yang dibutuhkan: NoJenis FasilitasTambahan lebar, Cm 1Kursi roda Tiang lampu penerang Tiang lampu lalu lintas Rambu lalu lintas Kotak Surat/Pos Keranjang sampah Pohon/Tanaman peneduh Pot Bunga150

18 PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Dampak negatif sebagai akibat performansi lalu lintas yang jelek, bahan bakar yang buruk serta teknologi kendaraan yang sudah ketinggalan dapat mengakibatkan pecemaran lingkungan. Pencemaran lingkungan ini berupa: 1.Emisi gas buang yang berupa gas dan partikel beracun seperti, gas CO, HC, NO x, Benzen dan berbagai gas lainnya serta berbagai partikel seperti senyawa karbon lepas, timbal dan berbagai partikel lainnya. 2.Emisi gas rumah kaca, yang saat ini dianggap sebagai pemicu terjadinya perubahan iklim. Peran Gas rumah kaca dari sektor transportasi berada pada kisaran 15 sampai 20 persen yang merupakan angka yang tidak kecil. KEPUTUSAN MENTERI NEGARA LINGKUNGAN HIDUP NO. 48 TAHUN 1996 TANGGAL 25 NOPEMBER 1996 BAKU TINGKAT KEBISINGAN

19 19 GREEN TRANSPORTATION Transportasi hijau merupakan perangkat transportasi yang berwawasan lingkungan. Merupakan pendekatan yang digunakan untuk menciptakan transportasi yang sedikit atau tidak menghasilkan gas rumah kaca.

20 20 GREEN TRANSPORT Green transport is a category of sustainable transport which uses human power, animal power and renewable energy. Often the definition does not include public transport which relies on non-renewable energy. SUMBER: bluemangoindia.com/.../photogallery.html

21 GREEN TRANSPORT INCLUDES Walking Cycling and some other types of human-powered transport Solar powered vehicles Wind powered vehicles Peranan Vegetasi Mereduksi Polusi Udara Vegetasi bermanfaat untuk merekayasa masalah lingkungan di perkotaan dan mengurangi polusi udara. Vegetasi sebagai pereduksi polutan dan untuk memperbaiki kualitas lingkungan ditempatkan sebagai elemen lanskap pada Ruang Terbuka Hijau Kota (RTHK). RTHK dapat berupa hutan kota yang meliputi taman-taman, tepi jalan, bangunan umum, lahan-lahan yang terbuka, kawasan industri, kawasan perdagangan dan kawasan perumahan.

22 22 GREEN TRANSPORT Often there can be a sliding scale of green transport depending on the sustainability of the option. Public transport on traditional petrol buses uses less petrol per passenger than private vehicles so is more green than private vehicles, but is not as green as using a solar powered bus. It can often be useful to talk about moving a community towards the ultimate green mode transport outcomes - instead of declaring that they are there if they cross a particular sustainability threshold. Walking across sensitive environments can often cause considerable damage and so is not always the greenest option. Sumber:

23 23 Mobil Hijau A green vehicle is a vehicle that is considered to be more "environmentally friendly" than traditional all-petroleum internal combustion engine vehicles (APICEVs). This is accomplished by having a low dust to dust energy cost. Sumber: greenlagirl.com/clicklist-moving-green-vehicles/

24 24 Produksi Part of the total energy cost can be cut by choosing smaller, lighter vehicles that use less energy to produce.

25 25 Efisiensi Energi But car with similar production energy spendings can obtain, during the life of the car (operational phase), large reductions in energy costs through several measures: The most significant is by using alternative propulsion: An efficient engine that reduces the vehicle's consumption of petroleum (i.e. petroleum electric hybrid vehicle), or, preferably, that uses renewable energy sources throughout its working life (i.e. battery electric vehicle).petroleumrenewable energy SUMBER: en.expo2010.cn/a/ / htm

26 26 Using biofuels instead of petroleum fuels. Proper maintenance of a vehicle such as engine tune-ups, oil changes, and maintaining proper tire pressure can also help. Removing unnecessary items from a vehicle reduces weight and improves fuel economy as well.

27 27 Tipe-tipe Examples of vehicles with reduced petroleum consumption include electric cars, hybrid cars and hydrogen cars.electric cars Solar car races are held on a regular basis in order to promote green vehicles and other "green technology". These sleek driver-only vehicles can travel long distances at highway speeds using only the electricity generated instantaneously from the sun.

28 A conventional vehicle can become a greener vehicle of a sort by mixing in renewable fuels. Typical gasoline cars can handle up to 15% ethanol. There are some places that have built cars that run strictly on ethanol, but another option is a flexible-fuel vehicle, which allows a varying mixture (often up to 85%, sometimes up to 100%. DieselDiesel-powered vehicles can often transition completely to biodiesel, though the fuel is a very strong solvent, which can occasionally damage rubber seals in vehicles built before More commonly, however, biodiesel causes problems simply because it removes all of the built-up residue in an engine, clogging filters, unless care is taken when switching from dirty fossil-fuel derived diesel to bio- diesel. THE FLEXIBLE-FUEL VEHICLE GREEN VEHICLES (GV) A green vehicle is a vehicle that is supposedly "environmentally friendly". It provides a way of sustainable transport. Production GV Part of the total energy cost can be cut by choosing smaller, lighter vehicles that use less energy to produce. Energy efficiency GV Any car with similar production energy spendings can obtain, during the life of the car (operational phase), large reductions in energy costs through several measures: The most significant is by using alternative propulsion: 1.An efficient engine that reduces the vehicle's consumption of petroleum (i.e. petroleum electric hybrid vehicle), or, preferably, that uses renewable energy sources throughout its working life. 2.Using biofuels instead of petroleum fuels. Proper maintenance of a vehicle such as engine tune-ups, oil changes, and maintaining proper tire pressure can also help. Removing unnecessary items from a vehicle reduces weight and improves fuel economy as well.

29 Promosi Nasional dan Internasional European Union The European Union is promoting the marketing of greener cars via a combination of binding and non-binding measures. Benefits of green vehicle use: Environmental Vehicle emissions contribute to the increasing concentration of gases linked to climate change. In order of significance, the principal greenhouse gases associated with road transport are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Road transport is the third largest source of greenhouse gases emitted in the UK, and accounts for over 20% of total emissions. Of the total greenhouse gas emissions from transport, over 85% are due to CO2 emissions from road vehicles. The transport sector is the fastest growing source of greenhouse gases. Road transport also remains the main source of many local emissions including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulates (PMs). Within urban areas, the percentage of contributions due to road transport is particularly high - in London road transport contributes almost 80% of particulate emissions.

30 30 United States The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is promoting the marketing of greener cars via the SmartWay program. The Smart-Way and Smart-Way Elite designation mean that a vehicle is a better environmental performer relative to other vehicles. This US EPA designation is arrived at by taking into account a vehicle's Air Pollution Score and Greenhouse Gas Score. Higher Air Pollution Scores indicate vehicles that emit lower amounts of pollutants that cause smog relative to other vehicles.

31 31 TRANSPORTASI DAN GAS RUMAHKACA Higher Greenhouse Gas Scores indicate vehicles that emit lower amounts of carbon dioxide and have improved fuel economy relative to other vehicles. To earn the Smart Way designation, a vehicle must earn at least a 6 on the Air Pollution Score and at least a 6 on the Greenhouse Gas Score, but have a combined score of at least 13. SmartWay Elite is given to those vehicles that score 9 or better on both the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Scores. SUMBER:

32 32 Mobil Hijau: Manfaat Lingkungan Vehicle emissions contribute to the increasing concentration of gases that are leading to climate change. In order of significance, the principal greenhouse gases associated with road transport are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Road transport is the third largest source of UK greenhouse gases and accounts for over 20% of total emissions. Of the total greenhouse gas emissions from transport, over 85% are due to CO2 emissions from road vehicles.

33 33 TRANSPORTASI KOTA DAN EMISI GAS RUMAH KACA The transport sector is the fastest growing source of greenhouse gases. Road transport also remains the main source of many local emissions including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulates (PMs). Within urban areas, the percentage of contributions due to road transport is particularly high - in London road transport contributes almost 80% of particulate emissions. Emisi kendaraan bermotor ikut mencematri udara kota

34 34 KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Vehicle pollutants have been linked to human ill health including the incidence of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer. A 1998 report estimated that up to 24,000 people die prematurely each year in the UK as a direct result of air pollution. According to the World Health Organisation, up to 13,000 deaths per year among children (aged 0-4 years) across Europe are directly attributable to outdoor pollution. Emisi kendaraan bermotor membahayakan kesehatan

35 The organisation estimates that if pollution levels were returned to within EU limits, more than 5,000 of these lives could be saved each year. Pada saat ini belum ada regulasi di Uni Eropa yang membatasi jumlah CO2 yang dihasilkan oleh mobil. However the European Commission reached a voluntary agreement with the European Automobil Manufacturers Association to reduce the average CO2 emissions to 140g/km by 2008 for all new cars sold in the EU with a possible second target of 120g/km by STANDAR EMISI CO2 Efek Rumah Kaca Efek rumah kaca disebabkan karena naiknya konsentrasi gas karbondioksida (CO2) dan gas-gas lainnya di atmosfer. Kenaikan konsentrasi gas CO2 ini disebabkan oleh kenaikan pembakaran bahan bakar minyak (BBM), batu bara dan bahan bakar organik lainnya yang melampaui kemampuan tumbuhan-tumbuhan dan laut untuk mengabsorbsinya. Energi yang masuk ke bumi mengalami : 25% dipantulkan oleh awan atau partikel lain di atmosfer 25% diserap awan 45% diadsorpsi permukaan bumi 5% dipantulkan kembali oleh permukaan bumi Sumber: pasmajaya.wordpress.com/.../29/efek-rumah-kaca/

36 36 Kontroversi A two-year study by CNW Marketing Research suggests that the extra energy cost of manufacture, shipping, disposal, and the short lives of some of these types of vehicle (particularly gas-electric hybrid vehicles) outweighs any energy savings made by their using less petroleum during their useful lifespan. These claims are under dispute.

37 37 Kota Ramah Lingkungan A more sustainable city, or Eco-city, has fewer inputs (of energy, water, food etc) and fewer waste products (heat, air pollution, water pollution etc) than a less sustainable city. In this context, sustainability is a relative concept. One cannot say that one city is 'sustainable' and another city is 'non-sustainable' or 'unsustainable'.

38 38 GREEN CITY Cities can be made more sustainable by means of: Green roofs Green transport Sustainable urban drainage systems or SUDS Energy conservation Xeriscaping - garden and landscape design for water conservation

39 39 Ecopolis (city) An Ecopolis is a large city that follows ecological principles. The word ecopolis is a portmanteau created from ecology (interactions between living organisms and the environment) and polis (a city state). It was used in a 1991 article by architect Paul F Downton, who later founded the company Ecopolis Architects. The term was used more recently in a 2006 article by New Scientist. Jalan raya dengan paving, salah satu ciri ecocity

40 40 EKOPOLIS An ecopolis can feed and power itself with minimal reliance on the surrounding countryside, and creates the smallest possible eco-footprint for its residents. This results in a city that is friendly to the surrounding environment, in terms of pollution, land use, and alleviation of global warming. It is estimated that by 2007, over half of the world’s population will live in urban areas and this provides both challenges and opportunities for environmentally-conscious developers.

41 41 ECOCITY Ecological cities can be achieved though various means, such as: Small scale, private agriculture and agricultural plots in the city’s suburbs to reduce the distance food has to travel from field to fork. Jalur hijau sepanjang jalan dapat menyejukkan udara

42 42 ENERGI TERBARUKAN Renewable energy sources, such as wind turbines, solar cells, or bio-gas created from sewage. Cities provide economies of scale that make such energy sources viable. Various methods to reduce the need for air conditioning (a massive energy demand), such as low lying buildings that allow air to circulate, an increase in water features, and green spaces equaling at least 20% of the city's surface. This counters the environmental heating caused by factors such as an abundance of tarmac and asphalt, which can heat city areas by up to 6 degrees Celsius during the evening. Jalan raya beraspal ikut memanaskan udara kota

43 43 ANGKUTAN KOTA Improved public transport and an increase in pedestrianisation to reduce car emissions. This requires a radically different approach to city planning, with integrated business, industrial, and residential zones. Roads may be designed to make driving difficult. Optimal building density to make public transport viable but avoid the creation of urban heat islands. Angkutan kota ikut memanaskan suasana Udara kota

44 HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE In recent years, highway traffic noise - the unpleasant, unwanted sounds generated on our nation's streets and highways - has been of increasing concern both to the public and to local, National and regional officials. At the same time, modern acoustical technology has been providing better ways to lessen the adverse impacts of highway traffic noise. Some of acoustical techniques are now being employed by government agencies, highway planners and designers, construction engineers, and private developers. Sumber: Causes of Traffic Noise The level of highway traffic noise depends on three things: (1) the volume of the traffic, (2) the speed of the traffic, and (3) the number of trucks in the flow of the traffic. Generally, the loudness of traffic noise is increased by heavier traffic volumes, higher speeds, and greater numbers of trucks. Vehicle noise is a combination of the noises produced by the engine, exhaust, and tires. The loudness of traffic noise can also be increased by defective mufflers or other faulty equipment on vehicles. Any condition (such as a steep incline) that causes heavy laboring of motor vehicle engines will also increase traffic noise levels. In addition, there are other more complicated factors that affect the loudness of traffic noise. For example, as a person moves away from a highway, traffic noise levels are reduced by distance, terrain, vegetation, and natural and manmade obstacles. Traffic noise is not usually a serious problem for people who live more the.500 feet from heavily traveled freeways or more than l00 to 200 feet from lightly traveled roads.

45 KOTA EKOPOLIS Few real life examples of ecopolis exist. On a small scale, green buildings such as the Melbourne city council building in Australia produce much of their own energy supplies. Many shanty towns in the underdeveloped world already practice the principles of an ecopolis: efficient power use, recycling, private agriculture, and pedestrianisation. The planned development of Sociópolis in Valencia, Spain will provide low-rise affordable housing integrated into traditional agricultural zones and irrigation systems. Vetegasi tegakan permanen jalur hijau jalan raya berfungsi menyerap polutan dari udara dan meresapkan air hujan How Traffic Volume Affects Noise A 2000 vehicles per hour B 200 vehicles per hour A sounds twice as loud as B.

46 EFFECT OF ROADSIDE VEGETATION ON THE REDUCTION OF TRAFFIC NOISE LEVELS C.M. Kalansuriya1, A.S. Pannila1, D.U.J Sonnadara2 1Electro Technology Laboratory, Industrial Technology Institute 2Centre for Instrument Development, Department of Physics, University of Colombo A study was carried out to determine the effect of roadside vegetation on the reduction of road traffic noise levels under varying traffic conditions. Roadside vegetation which have the potential to act as noise barriers were selected for this study. The road traffic noise was measured together with the parameters that control the vegetation. Several noise level descriptors were recorded together with the A-weighted continuous noise level. The results show that higher frequency noise (above 4 kHz) is heavily attenuated by the vegetation barriers with virtually no attenuation for low frequency noise (below 100 Hz). The width of the vegetation barrier is linearly proportional to the amount of sound absorption. Without the vegetation barrier, the observed maximum and minimum noise levels were 72 dB(A) and 64 dB(A) respectively. On average, vegetation barriers were able to reduce the noise by 4 dB(A) which corresponds to an approximately 40% acoustic energy reduction. Thus, with careful planning and growing of roadside vegetation, the effect of road noise can be reduced.

47 JALUR HIJAU JALAN-RAYA Roadside vegetation can be planted to create a psychological relief, if not an actual lessening of traffic noise levels. Since a substantial noise reduction cannot be obtained for an extended period of time, the FHWA does not consider the planting of vegetation to be a noise abatement measure. The planting of trees and shrubs provides only psychological benefits and may be provided for visual, privacy, or aesthetic treatment, not noise abatement. Source:

48 VEGETASI JALUR HIJAU JALAN-RAYA The potential value of vegetation as noise abaters, as determined by the study, was deemed very good. Findings showed that reduction of sound values in the order of 5 to 10 decibels are not unusual for wide belts of tall, dense trees. Species did not appear to differ greatly in their ability to reduce noise levels, provided the deciduous varieties were in full leaf. However, evergreens are favored for year-round noise screening. A supplementary study of various surfaces indicated that, from a noise- reduction standpoint, surfaces covered with trees were the best. Sumber:

49 Noise absorption with vegetation barrier height Sumber:

50 Road noise with and without vegetation barrier Sumber:

51 MITIGATION OF TRAFFIC NOISE “A traffic noise impact occurs when the predicted levels approach or exceed the noise abatement criteria (NAC) or when predicated traffic noise levels substantially exceed the existing noise level, even though the predicted levels may not exceed the NAC.” Federal Rule – Highway Traffic Noise Analysis & Abatement Policy & Guidance FHWA – June 1996 (23 CFR 772)

52 RTH PEMUKIMAN Screening of urban residential property was effective with a single row of dense shrubs backed by a row of taller trees, totaling a depth of 20 feet. Screening for rural areas or freeways where truck traffic is heavy requires wider belts consisting of several rows of tall trees in dense plantings. Distances of 100 feet or more between the noise source and the area to be protected were found desirable. Source: Sumber: egov.cityofchicago.org/chicagotrees/forest.html

53 53 KESEHATAN EKOLOGIS Ecological health or ecological integrity or ecological damage is used to refer to symptoms of an ecosystem's pending loss of carrying capacity, its ability to perform nature's services, or a pending ecocide, due to cumulative causes such as pollution. Trees absorb other pollutants such as ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulates. These chemicals, especially ozone, are ingredients in smog. Trees act as “carbon sinks,” absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen back into the air. An average-sized tree can absorb 141 pounds of carbon dioxide per year.

54 54 LINGKUNGAN SEHAT The term health is intended to evoke human environmental health concerns, which are often closely related (but as a part of medicine not ecology). As with ecocide, that term assumes that ecosystems can be said to be alive. While the term integrity or damage seems to take no position on this, it does assume that there is a definition of integrity that can be said to apply to ecosystems. TREES & AIR QUALITY Trees have a big effect on urban air quality, reducing pollution in several ways: Trees shade buildings, reduce urban heat islands, and cool the surrounding air through evapotranspiration. These cooling effects reduce the need for air conditioning, which is usually generated by fossil fuels. Therefore trees help reduce fossil fuel emissions by reducing the demand for power. The trees in the City of Boulder prevent about 43,000 tons of carbon from entering the atmosphere each year, just by shading buildings and reducing the need for air conditioning.

55 55 KEARIFAN EKOLOGIS The more political term ecological wisdom refers not only to recognition of a level of health, integrity or potential damage, but also, to a decision to do nothing (more) to harm that ecosystem or its dependents.ecological wisdom Measures of ecological health, like measures of the more specific principle of biodiversity, tend to be specific to an ecoregion or even to an ecosystem. Measures that depend on biodiversity are valid indicators of ecological health as stability and productivity (good indicators of ecological health) are two ecological effects of biodiversity.

56 DEGRADASI LINGKUNGAN Dependencies between species vary so much as to be difficult to express abstractly. However, there are a few universal symptoms of poor health or damage to system integrity: The buildup of waste material and the proliferation of simpler life forms (bacteria, insects) that thrive on it - but no consequent population growth in those species that normally prey on them. Menuju perilaku “hijau” Sebenarnya yang dimaksud dengan ”perilaku hijau” adalah bagaimana kita manusia dalam kehidupan sehari-hari dapat menjaga dan memelihara lingkungan hidupnya. Bagaimana dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, manusia dapat menggunakan sumber-sumber kekayaan alam sambil berpikir bahwa sumberdaya alam ini semakin lama semakin terbatas ketersediaannya.

57 57 DINAMIKA POPULASI The loss of keystone species, often a top predator, causing smaller carnivores to proliferate, very often overstressing herbivore populations; A higher rate of species mortality due to disease rather than predation, climate, or food scarcity; The migration of whole species into or out of a region, contrary to established or historical patterns; The proliferation of a bioinvader or even a monoculture where previously a more biodiverse species range existed.

58 SISTEM PERTANIAN SEHAT EKOLOGIS Some practices such as organic farming, sustainable forestry, natural landscaping, wild gardening or precision agriculture, sometimes combined into sustainable agriculture, are thought to improve or at least not to degrade ecological health, while still keeping land usable for human purposes. This is difficult to investigate as part of ecology, but is increasingly part of discourse on agricultural economics China conservation. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE ON THE ENVIRONMENT P. Sequi Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Via della Navicella 2-4, Rome, Italy. The impact of agriculture on the environment is often discussed merely in terms of pollution due to leaching of agrochemicals or to erosion of contaminated soil particles. As a matter of fact, however, more important environmental problems are due to the imbalance or the lack of closure of nutrient cycles and to the wrong choices made to this purpose. The natural role of agriculture is the re-utilization of wastes and effluents, no more congenial today for the farmers themselves. It is necessary therefore to encourage farmers to play their environmental role. The definition of sustainable agriculture does not prescind from this role, and it is possible to stress the concept that agriculture, by playing this role, becomes the ground for a sustainable society. In modern agriculture, the applicatiotno the soil of organic amendments is somewhat troublesome. Undoubtely the use of chemical fertilizerisn general is more convenient for a farmer, due to the easier handling, storage, and other characteristics of feasibility. In addition, the use of organic amendments per se does not solve the problems of crop nutrition. The application of organic amendments to the soil is not sufficient to fit the nutrient requirements of modern crop varieties: their use mbeu satl ways accompanied by that of mineral fertilization.

59 59 ECOTAGE Ecotage is another tactic thought to be effective by some in protecting the health of ecosystems, but this is hotly disputed. In general, low confrontation and much attention to political virtues is thought to be important to maintaining ecological health, as it is far faster and simpler to destroy an ecosystem than protect it - thus wars on behalf of ecosystem integrity may simply lead to more rapid despoliation and loss due to competition.

60 60 PENEBANGAN TEGAKAN HUTAN Deforestation and the loss of deep-sea coral reef habitat are two issues that prompt deep investigation of what makes for ecological health, and fuels a great many debates. The role of clearcuts, plantations and trawler nets is often portrayed as negative in the extreme, held akin to the role of weapons on human life. SUMBER: jazzrunner.wordpress.com/.../ In practice, agriculture is a sustainable activityi f fulfils simultaneously three different requisites: 1.It must guarantee the conservation of environmental equilibria so as to allow that productivity lasts on a permanently durable basis, i.e., shouldn ot lead in particular to dissipation of unrenewable materials or energy (sustainabilityo f resources). 2.It must guarantee full safety to the farmer and any other operator, in addition to hygienic and sanitary safe conditionst o the consumer (sustainability of human health). 3.It must guarantee economically convenient productions, i.e., a profit to farmers (economical sustainability). This last requisite is that more frequently forgiven. Sometimes it is also concealed, either with financial subsidietso farmers or, worse, by frauds against consumers.

61 61 Kesehatan Lingkungan Environmental health comprises those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, chemical, biological, social, and psychosocial factors in the natural environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing, correcting, controlling, and preventing those factors in the environment that can potentially affect adversely the health of present and future generations.

62 VEGETASI POHON DAN KONTAMINASI AIR Nutrition, soil contamination, water pollution, air pollution, safe drinking water, noise pollution, light pollution, waste control, and public health are integral aspects of environmental health. The Use of Vegetation for Noise Reduction The following excerpt from the federal regulation cited above and drawing explain the limitations of using vegetation for noise mitigation: Vegetation Vegetation, if it is high enough, wide enough, and dense enough that it cannot be seen through, can decrease highway traffic noise. A 61 ‐ meter width of dense vegetation can reduce noise by 10 decibels, which cuts in half the loudness of traffic noise. It is usually impossible, however, to plant enough vegetation along a road to achieve such reductions.

63 RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU KOTA Kesehatan dan kenyamanan lingkungan kota, serta keindahan visual SUMBER: GIZI DAN KESEHATAN There are six main nutrients that the body needs to receive: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. It is important to consume these six nutrients on a daily basis to build and maintain healthy body systems. Ill health can be caused by an imbalance of nutrients, producing either an excess or deficiency, which in turn affects body functioning cumulatively. Moreover, because most nutrients are, in some way or another, involved in cell-to-cell signalling (e.g. as building block or part of a hormone or signalling 'cascades'), deficiency or excess of various nutrients affects hormonal function indirectly.

64 64 KONTAMINASI TANAH Soil contamination is the presence of man made chemicals or other alteration to the natural soil environment. This type of contamination typically arises from rupture of underground storage tanks, application of pesticides, percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. SUMBER: faculty.plattsburgh.edu/.../Persistence.htm

65 65 HUJAN ASAM DI KOTA The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals. This occurrence of this phenomenon is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of chemical usage. The concern over soil contamination stems primarily from health risks, both of direct contact and from secondary contamination of water supplies. SUMBER:

66 66 Efek Kesehatan The major concern is that there are many sensitive land uses where people are in direct contact with soils such as residences, parks, schools and playgrounds. Other contact mechanisms include contamination of drinking water or inhalation of soil contaminants which have vaporized. There is a very large set of health consequences from exposure to soil contamination depending on pollutant type, pathway of attack and vulnerability of the exposed population.

67 67 POLUTAN LOGAM BERAT Chromium and many of the pesticide and herbicide formulations are carcinogenic to all populations. Lead is especially hazardous to young children, in which group there is a high risk of developmental damage to the brain and nervous system, while to all populations kidney damage is a risk. Chronic exposure to benzene at sufficient concentrations is known to be associated with higher incidence of leukemia.benzeneleukemia SUMBER: news.tennesseeanytime.org/node/2148

68 68 LOGAM BERAT Mercury and cyclodienes are known to induce higher incidences of kidney damage, some irreversible. PCBs and cyclodienes are linked to liver toxicity. Organophosphates and carbamates can induce a chain of responses leading to neuromuscular blockage. Many chlorinated solvents induce liver changes, kidney changes and depression of the central nervous system. There is an entire spectrum of further health effects such as headache, nausea, fatigue, eye irritation and skin rash for the above cited and other chemicals. At sufficient dosages a large number of soil contaminants cause death. SUMBER: healthandenergy.com/air_pollution_health_effe...

69 69 Udara yang tidak sehat The suggested Federal limit of an "average" of 50 micrograms of "particulate matter" per cubic foot of air (in a one year period) is considered poor air quality. There is evidence that the daily peak levels that contribute to the year average, can have significant impact on an individual’s health. The elderly and those with heart, lung, or asthma problems are most at risk. The exact impact of poor air quality on health is not thoroughly understood, but long term exposure to particulates may increase susceptibility to infections. Those with chronic lung diseases or heart disease may also have their conditions exacerbated. Monitoring the daily pollution forecasts may be useful for those with chronic conditions, so that outside exposure can be limited on bad days. SUMBER:

70 70 SUMBERDAYA AIR BERSIH Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. Water of drinkable qaulity is termed potable water, whether it is used as such or not. Although many fresh water sources are utilised by humans, some contain disease or pathogens and cause long-term health problems if they do not meet specific water quality guidelines. Water that is not harmful for human beings is sometimes called safe water, water which is not contaminated to the extent of being unhealthful.

71 71 VEGETASI POHON DAN AIR BERSIH The available supply of drinking water is an important criterion of carrying capacity, the population level that can be supported by planet Earth. As of the year 2006 (and pre-existing for at least three decades), there is a substantial shortfall in availability of potable water, primarily arising from overpopulation in lesser developed countries. Many nations have water quality regulations for water sold as drinking water, although these are often not strictly enforced outside of the developed world. The World Health Organization sets international standards for drinking water. SUMBER:

72 Environmental health services are defined by the World Health Organization as: Those services which implement environmental health policies through monitoring and control activities. They also carry out that role by promoting the improvement of environmental parameters and by encouraging the use of environmentally friendly and healthy technologies and behaviours. They also have a leading role in developing and suggesting new policy areas. JASA KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Environmental quality is a set of properties and characteristics of the environment, either generalized or local, as they impinge on human beings and other organisms. It is a measure of the condition of an environment relative to the requirements of one or more species and or to any human need or purpose. Environmental quality is a general term which can refer to varied characteristics that relate to the natural environment as well as the built environment, such as air and water purity or pollution, noise and the potential effects which such characteristics may have on physical and mental health caused by human activities.air

73 Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS), is a serious and deadly environmental health issue facing workers across the world. On June 27, 2006, the U.S. Surgeon General released an in-depth report which analyzed the body of science relating to the disease and death caused by secondhand smoke. Sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) is a condition whereby untreated sewage is discharged into the environment, escaping wastewater treatment. This situation, also known as Wet Weather Overflow, is primarily meaningful in developed countries, which have extensive sewage treatment facilities. ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS) The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular contaminant relevant to each of them: 1.Air pollution:- the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Particulate matter, or fine dust is characterized by their micrometre size PM 10 to PM 2.5.ozone smogmicrometre 2.Light pollution:- includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference. 3.Littering:- the criminal throwing of inappropriate man-made objects, unremoved, onto public and private properties. 4.Noise pollution:- which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar. 5.Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals, MTBE, herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons. 6.Radioactive contamination, resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment. 7.Thermal pollution, is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence, such as use of water as coolant in a power plant. 8.Visual pollution, which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines, motorway billboards, scarred landforms (as from strip mining), open storage of trash, municipal solid waste or space debris. 9.Water pollution, by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) into surface waters; discharges of untreated domestic sewage, and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, from treated sewage; release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides); waste disposal and leaching into groundwater; eutrophication and littering. sewageurban runoff

74 The main causes of SSO are: Infiltration of excessive stormwater into sewer lines during heavy rainfall Rupture or blockage of sewerage lines Malfunction of pumping station lifts or electrical power failure Human operator error at treatment plant facilities Since a number of countries have essentially 100 percent treatment of domestic wastewater, an SSO episode is viewed as a significant breakdown in environmental control of water resources; for example, the USA, Japan, the United Kingdom and some other European countries strive for complete secondary treatment of all effluent and pursue vigorously shortcomings in the sewerage systems. SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW (SSO) NOISE MANAGEMENT It should be noted that, depending on the issues, officers from different areas within council may need to be involved in the assessment of the noise component of a development application. For example the range of issues for a noise assessment that are likely to require input from different areas within council are - (a) acoustic performance issues; (b) wildlife and vegetation issues; (c) landscaping and safety issues; (d) amenity issues; (e) road access; (f) structural requirements, design and proposal layout issues; (g) maintenance issues.

75 75 DRAINASE DAN SANITASI By far the most prevalent cause of Sanitary Sewer Overflow stems from heavy rainfall events which can cause massive infiltration of stormwater into sewerage lines. This circumstance is most prevalent in older cities whose subsurface infrastructure is quite old; Inflow into the sanitary lines can be caused by tree root rupture of subsurface lines or by mechanical fracture due to age and overpressure from trucks and buildings above. Sumber: md.water.usgs.gov/.../fs /html/index.html

76 76 BIO TRICKLING FILTER Other modes of system failure can include power outage which may disable lift station pumps or parts of the treatment plant operations themselves; in fact, any mechanical system failure within a treatment plant can create a circumstance leading to overflow: breakdown of rotating arms of trickling filters, jamming of line gates, clogging of filters or grates etc. Furthermore, some forms of human error can infrequently lead to diversion of sewage and result in an overflow event. Sumber:

77 77 Decentralized failures in dry weather mainly occur from collection sewer line blockages, which can arise from a debris clog, line rupture or tree root intrusion into the line itself. One of the main problems of a decentralized line failure is the difficulty of defining the location of overflow, since a typical urban system contains thousands of miles of collection pipage, and the central treatment plant has no way of communicating with all the lines, unless expensive monitoring equipment has been installed. LIMBAH DAN SAMPAH KOTA PENANGANAN SAMPAH PERKOTAAN TERPADU Arianto Wibowo & Darwin T Djajawinata Pertambahan penduduk yang disertai dengan tingginya arus urbanisasi ke perkotaan telah menyebabkan semakin tingginya volume sampah yang harus dikelola setiap hari. Hal tersebut bertambah sulit karena keterbatasan lahan untuk Tempat Pembuangan Akhir (TPA) sampah. Pengangkutan sampah ke TPA juga terkendala karena jumlah kendaraan yang kurang mencukupi dan kondisi peralatan yang telah tua. Masalah lainnya adalah pengelolaan TPA yang tidak sesuai dengan kaidah-kaidah yang ramah lingkungan. Beberapa kegiatan perlu dilakukan untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut diatas, diantaranya : (1) melakukan pengenalan karekteristik sampah dan metoda pembuangannya, (2) merencanakan dan menerapkan pengelolaan persampahan secara terpadu (pengumpulan, pengangkutan, dan pembuangan akhir), (3) memisahkan peran pengaturan dan pengawasan dari lembaga yang ada dengan fungsi operator pemberi layanan, agar lebih tegas dalam melaksanakan reward & punishment dalam pelayanan, (4) menggalakkan program Reduce, Reuse dan Recycle (3 R) agar dapat tercapai program zero waste pada masa mendatang, (5) melakukan pembaharuan struktur tarif dengan menerapkan prinsip pemulihan biaya (full cost recovery) melalui kemungkinan penerapan tarif progresif, dan mengkaji kemungkinan penerapan struktur tarif yang berbeda bagi setiap tipe pelanggan (6) mengembangkan teknologi pengelolaan sampah yang lebih bersahabat dengan lingkungan dan memberikan nilai tambah ekonomi bagi bahan buangan.

78 Kesehatan manusia dan konsekwensi ekologis Human health impacts include significant numbers of gastrointestinal illness each year, although death from one overflow event is uncommon. Additional human impacts include beach closures, swimming restrictions and prohibition against consumption of certain aquatic animals (particularly certain molluscs) after overflow events. NOISE MANAGEMENT For developments including a sensitive receiving environment adjacent to roads and railways, the noise report should also include a suitably scaled plan indicating the following : For road noise : a. predicted 60 (or 63) dB(A) LA10 (18 hour or less) contour with and without noise attenuation measures; b. predicted 55 dB(A) LAeq (1hr) contour with and without noise attenuation measures; c. the noise contours are plotted for both lowset and two- storey dwellings. For dwellings, the receptor height is taken to be 1.5 metres above each finished floor level.

79 79 VEGETASI DAN KUALITAS AIR Ecological consequences include fish kills, harm to plankton and other aquatic microflora and microfauna. Turbidity increase and dissolved oxygen decrease in receiving waters can lead to accentuated effects beyond the obvious pathogenic induced damage to aquatic ecosystems. It is possible that higher life forms such as marine mammals can be affected since certain seals and sea lions are known to experience peaks in pathogenic harm SUMBER:

80 Jalur Hijau Pohon peneduh jalan raya, jalur hijau di bawah kawat listrik tegangan tinggi, jalur hijau di tepi jalan kereta api, jalur hijau di tepi sungai di dalam kota atau di luar kota dapat dibangun dan dikembangkan sebagai hutan kota. SUMBER: sepedalutfi.wordpress.com/2009/02/23/258/ Noise Management For developments including a sensitive receiving environment adjacent to roads and railways, the noise report should also include a suitably scaled plan indicating the following : For rail noise : a. predicted 87dBA LA max contour with and without noise attenuation measures; b. predicted 65 dB(A) LAeq (24 hour) contour with and without noise attenuation measures; c. predicted 55 dB(A) LAeq (1hr) contour with and without noise attenuation measures; d. the noise contours are plotted for both lowset and two-storey dwellings. For dwellings the receptor height is taken to be 1.5 metres above each finished floor level.

81 JALUR HIJAU JALAN RAYA Deciduous trees: Taller trees should be selected for the center of the vegetative barrier. Fast growth rate can be considered to provide a more effective barrier more quickly. Smaller trees especially those with attractive flowering and form work well on the inside of the barrier for both visual and sound effect. Acer platanoides Acer saccharinum Aesculus hippocastanum Eleagnus angustifolium Fraxinus americana Gleditsia triacanthos and its varieties Juglans nigra Malus species (for inside rows as flowering sensitive to high levels of air pollutants) Populus spp. Prunus spp. Robinia pseudoacacia Salix spp. SUMBER:

82 82 Taman Kota Taman dapat diartikan sebagai tanaman yang ditanam dan ditata sedemikian rupa, untuk mendapatkan komposisi tertentu yang indah. Setiap jenis tanaman mempunyai karakteristik tersendiri baik menurut bentuk, warna dan teksturnya. Ada pohon yang bentuk tajuknya kecil tinggi dan lurus (cemara lilin), tajuk pohon berbentuk piramida (cemara) dan ada juga yang bentuk tajuknya besar, bulat dan rindang (beringin). SUMBER:

83 83 Kebun dan Halaman Tanaman di kebun dan halaman rumah juga bisa disebut hutan kota. Jenis tanaman yang ditanam di kebun dan halaman biasanya dari jenis yang dapat menghasilkan buah seperti mangga, durian, sawo, rambutan, jambu, pala, jeruk, delima, kelapa dan lainnya. SUMBER: indonesia-property.com/.../action/detail/zgr/980

84 84 KEBUN RAYA, HUTAN RAYA DAN KEBUN BINATANG Kebun raya, hutan raya dan kebun binatang dapat dimasukkan ke dalam salah satu bentuk hutan kota. Tanaman dapat berasal dari daerah setempat, maupun dari daerah lain, baik dari daerah lain di dalam negeri maupun di luar negeri. SUMBER: balirc.com/.../bedugul-kebun-raya-eka-karya.php

85 85 KUBURAN DAN TAMAN MAKAM PAHLAWAN Pada tempat pemakaman banyak ditanam pepohonan. Pohon-pohon di sana juga bagian dari hutan kota. Overall, trees reduce air pollution. But some trees have a greater net effect than others. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) from some species of trees can interact with sunlight and nitrogen oxides from fossil fuel emissions to produce ozone and other chemicals in the air. A few species produce almost as much ozone as they absorb. surabayamazing.blogspot.com/2009/07/taman-mak...

86 86 TIPE HUTAN KOTA Hutan Kota Tipe Pemukiman Hutan kota di daerah pemukiman dapat berupa taman dengan komposisi tanaman pepohonan yang tinggi dikombinasikan dengan semak dan rerumputan. Umumnya dipergunakan untuk olah raga, bersantai, bermain dan sebagainya. Hutan kota yang dibangun pada areal pemukiman bertujuan utama untuk pengelolaan lingkungan pemukiman, maka yang harus dibangun adalah hutan kota dengan tipe pemukiman. Hutan kota tipe ini lebih dititik- beratkan kepada keindahan, penyejukan, penyediaan habitat satwa khususnya burung, dan tempat bermain dan bersantai. SUMBER:

87 87 TIPE HUTAN KOTA Hutan Kota Tipe Kawasan Industri Suatu wilayah perkotaan biasanya mempunyai satu atau beberapa kawasan industri. Limbah dari industri dapat berupa partikel, aerosol, gas dan cairan dapat mengganggu kesehatan manusia. Di samping itu juga dapat menimbulkan masalah kebisingan dan bau yang dapat mengganggu kenyamanan, karena itu harus dibangun hutan kota dengan tipe kawasan industri yang mempunyai fungsi sebagai penyerap pencemar, tempat istirahat bagi pekerja, tempat parkir kendaraan dan keindahan. Tanaman yang bisa dikembangkan di kawasan industri haruslah tanaman yang memiliki kemampuan dalam menyerap polutan. Saat ini juga tengah diteliti ketahanan dari beberapa jenis tanaman terhadap polutan yang dihasilkan oleh suatu pabrik. SUMBER: egov.cityofchicago.org/chicagotrees/forest.html

88 88 TIPE HUTAN KOTA Hutan Kota Tipe Rekreasi dan Keindahan Saat ini, pemerintah kota dan swasta mulai banyak membangun taman rekreasi berupa hutan kota. Tujuannya untuk menyegarkan kembali kondisi warga yang letih dan jenuh menikmati pemandangan alam dan pepohonan hijau dan segar. tapalkaki.blogspot.com/2009/11/program-hutan-.

89 89 TIPE HUTAN KOTA Hutan Kota Tipe Pelestarian Plasma Nutfah Hutan konservasi mengandung tujuan untuk mencegah kerusakan perlindungan dan pelestarian terhadap sumberdaya alam. Bentuk hutan kota yang memenuhi kriteria ini antara lain kebun raya, hutan raya dan kebun binatang. Manusia modern menginginkan back to nature. Hutan kota dapat diarahkan kepada penyediaan habitat burung dan satwa lainnya. Suatu kota sering kali mempunyai kekhasan dalam satwa tertentu, khususnya burung yang perlu diperhatikan kelestariannya. Untuk melestarikan burung tertentu, maka jenis tanaman yang perlu ditanam adalah yang sesuai dengan keperluan hidup satwa yang akan dilindungi atau ingin dikembangkan, misalnya untuk keperluan bersarang, bermain, mencari makan ataupun untuk bertelur. SUMBER: sustainablog.org/.../

90 90 TIPE HUTAN KOTA Hutan Kota Tipe Perlindungan Selain dari tipe yang telah disebutkan di atas, areal kota dengan mintakat ke lima yaitu daerah dengan kemiringan yang cukup tinggi yang ditandai dengan tebing- tebing yang curam ataupun daerah tepian sungai perlu dijaga dengan membangun hutan kota agar terhindar dari bahaya erosi dan longsoran. Hutan kota yang berada di daerah pesisir dapat berguna untuk mengamankan daerah pantai dari gempuran ombak laut yang dapat menghancurkan pantai. Untuk beberapa kota masalah abrasi pantai ini merupakan masalah yang sangat penting. Kota yang memiliki kerawanan air tawar akibat menipisnya jumlah air tanah dangkal dan atau terancam masalah intrusi air laut, maka hutan lindung sebagai penyerap, penyimpan dan pemasok air harus dibangun di daerah resapan airnya. Dengan demikian ancaman bahaya intrusi air laut dapat dikurangi. SUMBER:

91 91 TIPE HUTAN KOTA Hutan Kota Tipe Pengamanan Hutan kota dengan tipe pengamanan adalah jalur hijau di sepanjang tepi jalan bebas hambatan. Dengan menanam perdu yang liat dan dilengkapi dengan jalur pohon pisang dan tanaman yang merambat akan dapat menahan kendaraan yang keluar dari jalur jalan. Sehingga bahaya kecelakaan karena pecah ban, patah setir ataupun karena pengendara mengantuk dapat dikurangi. Pada kawasan ini tanaman harus betul-betul cermat dipilih yaitu yang tidak mengundang masyarakat untuk memanfaatkannya. Tanaman yang tidak enak rasanya seperti pisang hutan dapat dianjurkan untuk ditanam di sini.

92 SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT Sustainable transport (or green transport) refers to any means of transport with low impact on the environment, and includes non-motorised transport, i.e. walking and cycling, transit oriented development, green vehicles, CarSharing, and building or protecting urban transport systems that are fuel-efficient, space-saving and promote healthy lifestyles. Sustainable transport systems make a positive contribution to the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the communities they serve. Transport systems exist to provide social and economic connections, and people quickly take up the opportunities offered by increased mobility. The advantages of increased mobility need to be weighed against the environmental, social and economic costs that transport systems pose. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Transport systems have significant impacts on the environment, accounting for between 20% and 25% of world energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions from transport are increasing at a faster rate than any other energy using sector. Road transport is also a major contributor to local air pollution and smog. The social costs of transport include road crashes, air pollution, physical inactivity, time taken away from the family while commuting and vulnerability to fuel price increases. Many of these negative impacts fall disproportionately on those social groups who are also least likely to own and drive cars. Traffic congestion imposes economic costs by wasting people's time and by slowing the delivery of goods and services. Traditional transport planning aims to improve mobility, especially for vehicles, and may fail to adequately consider wider impacts. But the real purpose of transport is access - to work, education, goods and services, friends and family - and there are proven techniques to improve access while simultaneously reducing environmental and social impacts, and managing traffic congestion. Communities which are successfully improving the sustainability of their transport networks are doing so as part of a wider programme of creating more vibrant, livable, sustainable cities.

93 SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT The term sustainable transport came into use as a logical follow-on from sustainable development, and is used to describe modes of transport, and systems of transport planning, which are consistent with wider concerns of sustainability. There are many definitions of the sustainable transport, and of the related terms sustainable transportation and sustainable mobility. One such definition, from the European Union Council of Ministers of Transport, defines a sustainable transportation system as one that: Allows the basic access and development needs of individuals, companies and society to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health, and promotes equity within and between successive generations. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Is Affordable, operates fairly and efficiently, offers a choice of transport mode, and supports a competitive economy, as well as balanced regional development. Limits emissions and waste within the planet’s ability to absorb them, uses renewable resources at or below their rates of generation, and uses non-renewable resources at or below the rates of development of renewable substitutes, while minimizing the impact on the use of land and the generation of noise.

94 ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT Transport systems are major emitters of greenhouse gases, responsible for 23% of world energy-related GHG emissions in 2004, with about three quarters coming from road vehicles. Currently 95% of transport energy comes from petroleum. Energy is consumed in the manufacture as well as the use of vehicles, and is embodied in transport infrastructure including roads, bridges and railways. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 The environmental impacts of transport can be reduced by improving the walking and cycling environment in cities, and by enhancing the role of public transport, especially electric rail. Green vehiclesGreen vehicles are intended to have less environmental impact than equivalent standard vehicles, although when the environmental impact of a vehicle is assessed over the whole of its life cycle this may not be the case.life cycle Electric vehicle technology has the potential to reduce transport CO 2 emissions, depending on the embodied energy of the vehicle and the source of the electricity. Hybrid vehicles, which use an internal combustion engine combined with an electric engine to achieve better fuel efficiency than a regular combustion engine, are already common.

95 GREENWAY A greenway is a long, narrow piece of land, where vegetation is encouraged, which is managed for public recreation and slow travel. The term greenway comes from the green in green belt and the way in parkway, implying a recreational or pedestrian use rather than a typical street corridor, as well as an emphasis on introducing or maintaining vegetation, in a location where such vegetation is otherwise lacking. Some greenways include community gardens as well as typical park-style landscaping of trees and shrubs. They also tend to have a mostly contiguous pathway.green belt parkway Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Greenways are distinct from green corridors. Because green corridors have as their primary purpose connection between areas of conserved habitat for use by wildlife, they are not necessarily managed as parks for recreational use, and may not include facilites such as public trails. The European Greenways Association defines it as "communication routes reserved exclusively for non-motorised journeys, developed in an integrated manner which enhances both the environment and quality of life of the surrounding area. These routes should meet satisfactory standards of width, gradient and surface condition to ensure that they are both user- friendly and low-risk for users of all abilities." (Lille Declaration, European Greenways Association, 12th September 2000).European Greenways Association Greenways are vegetated, linear, and multi-purpose. They incoporate a footpath or bikeway within a linear park. In urban design they are a component of planning for bicycle commuting and walkability. footpath The land may be newly developed, but usually it is a redevelopment of an abandoned railroad, towpath or unused highway. Greenways may also be colocated within the right-of-way property belonging to still operating railroads; or existing utility lines. Riparian zones are also used as a location for greenways where they provide lineal corridors of regional significance, which because of flooding hazards have been retained as open space

96 GREENBELT A green belt or greenbelt is a policy and land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas. Similar concepts are greenways or green wedges which have a linear character and may run through an urban area instead of around it. In essence, a green belt is an invisible line encircling a certain area, preventing development of the area allowing wildlife to return and be established. The green belt has many benefits for people: 1.Walking, camping, and biking areas close to the cities and towns. 2.Contiguous habitat network for wild plants, animals and wildlife.plants animals 3.Cleaner air and water 4.Better land use of areas within the bordering cities. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 The objectives of green belt policy are to: 1.Protect natural or semi- natural environments; 2.Improve air quality within urban areas;air quality urban 3.Ensure that urban dwellers have access to countryside, with consequent educational and recreational opportunities; and 4.Protect the unique character of rural communities that might otherwise be absorbed by expanding suburbs.ruralsuburbs The effectiveness of green belts differs depending on location and country. They can often be eroded by urban rural fringe uses and sometimes, development 'jumps' over the green belt area, resulting in the creation of "satellite towns" which, although separated from the city by green belt, function more like suburbs than independent communities.

97 GREEN VEHICLE A green vehicle or environmentally friendly vehicle is a road motor vehicle that produces less harmful impacts to the environment than comparable conventional internal combustion engine vehicles running on gasoline or diesel, or one that uses alternative fuels.diesel Presently, in some countries the term is used for any vehicle surpassing the Euro6- norm such as LEVs and ULEVs, and also more informally it is used for California's zero emissions vehicles and other low-carbon emission vehiclesULEVs Green vehicles are powered by alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies and include: 1.hybrid electric vehicles, 2.plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, 3.battery electric vehicles, 4.compressed-air vehicles, 5.hydrogen and fuel-cell vehicles, 6.neat ethanol vehicles, 7.flexible-fuel vehicles, 8.natural gas vehicles, 9.clean diesel vehicles, 10.and some sources also include vehicles using blends of biodiesel and ethanol fuel or gasohol. biodiesel Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Green vehicles include vehicles types that function fully or partly on alternative energy sources other than fossil fuel or less carbon intensive than gasoline or diesel. Another option is the use of alternative fuel composition in conventional fossil fuel-based vehicles, making them function partially on renewable energy sources. Other approaches include personal rapid transit, a public transportation concept that offers automated, on- demand, non-stop transportation on a network of specially built guideways. Electric and fuel cell-powered Examples of vehicles with reduced petroleum consumption include electric cars, plug-in hybrids and fuel cell-powered hydrogen cars. Electric carsElectric cars are typically more efficient than fuel cell-powered vehicles on a wheel-to-wheel basis. For this reason, battery powered vehicles and plug-in hybrids are gaining popularity. They have better fuel economy than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles but are hampered by range or maximum distance attainable before discharging the battery. The electric car batteries are their main cost. They provide a 55% to 99.9% improvement in CO 2 emissions compared to an ICE (gasoline, diesel) vehicle, depending on the source of electricityrangeCO 2ICE

98 BENEFITS OF GREEN VEHICLE USE Environmental Vehicle emissions contribute to the increasing concentration of gases linked to climate change. In order of significance, the principal greenhouse gases associated with road transport are carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). Road transport is the third largest source of greenhouse gases emitted in the UK, and accounts for over 20% of total emissions, and 33% in the United States. Of the total greenhouse gas emissions from transport, over 85% are due to CO 2 emissions from road vehicles. The transport sector is the fastest growing source of greenhouse gases Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Health Vehicle pollutants have been linked to human ill health including the incidence of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer. A 1998 report estimated that up to 24,000 people die prematurely each year in the UK as a direct result of air pollution. According to the World Health Organisation, up to 13,000 deaths per year among children (aged 0–4 years) across Europe are directly attributable to outdoor pollution. The organisation estimates that if pollution levels were returned to within EU limits, more than 5,000 of these lives could be saved each year. Solar vehicles are electric vehicles powered by solar energy obtained from solar panels on the surface (generally, the roof) of the vehicle. Photovoltaic (PV) cells convert the Sun's energy directly into electrical energy. Solar vehicles are not practical day-to-day transportation devices at present, but are primarily demonstration vehicles and engineering exercises, often sponsored by government agencies.

99 PEDESTRIAN ZONES Pedestrian zones (also known as auto-free zones and car-free zones) are areas of a city or town reserved for pedestrian only use and in which some or all automobile traffic may be prohibited. They are instituted by communities who feel that it is desirable to have pedestrian- only areas. Converting a street or an area to pedestrian only use is called pedestrianisation. Carfree developments are residential or mixed use developments which: 1.Normally provide a traffic free immediate environment, and: 2.Offer no parking or limited parking separated from the residence, and: 3.Are designed to enable residents to live without owning a car. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Pedestrian zones have a great variety of attitudes or rules towards human powered vehicles such as bicycles, inline skates, skateboards and kick scooters.skateboards Some have a total ban on anything with wheels, others ban certain categories, others segregate the human-powered wheels from foot traffic, and others still have no rules at all. Many of the Middle Eastern examples have no wheeled traffic, but use donkeys for freight transport. Benefits and problems of carfree developments Several studies have been done on European carfree developments. Characteristics of carfree developments: 1.very low levels of car use, resulting in much less traffic on surrounding roads. 2.high rates of walking and cycling. 3.more independent movement and active play amongst children. 4.less land taken for parking and roads - more available for green or social space. The main benefits found for carfree developments: 1.Low atmospheric emissions. 2.Low road accident rates. 3.Better built environment conditions. 4.Discouragement of private car and other motorized vehicles (measure of travel demand management). 5.Encouragement of activo modes. The main problems related to parking management. Where parking is not controlled in the surrounding area, this often results in complaints from neighbours about overspill parking.overspill parking

100 PARKING Parking is the act of stopping a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied for more than a brief time. Parking on one or both sides of a road is commonly permitted, though often with restrictions. Parking facilities are constructed in combination with most buildings, to facilitate the coming and going of the buildings' users.vehicle Parking facilities include indoor and outdoor private property belonging to a house, the side of the road where metered or laid-out for such use, a parking lot (American English) or car park (British English), indoor and outdoor multi- level structures, shared underground parking facilities, and facilities for particular modes of vehicle such as dedicated structures for cycle parking.road Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 Modes of parking For most motorised vehicles, there are three basic modes of parking, based on the arrangement of vehicles — parallel parking, perpendicular parking, and angle parking. These are self-park configurations where the vehicle driver is able to access the parking independently. Parallel parking With parallel parking of cars, these are arranged in a line, with the front bumper of one car facing the back bumper of an adjacent one. This is done parallel to a curb, when one is provided.curb Parallel parking is the most common mode of streetside parking for cars. It may also be used in parking lots and parking structures, but usually only to supplement parking spaces that use the other modes. Perpendicular parking With perpendicular parking of cars, these are parked side to side, perpendicular to an aisle, curb, or wall. This type of car parking is more scalable than parallel parking and is therefore commonly used in car parking lots and car parking structures. Often, in car parking lots using perpendicular parking, two rows of parking spaces may be arranged front to front, with aisles in between. If no other cars are blocking, a driver may perform a "pullthrough" by driving through one parking space into the connecting space to avoid having to reverse out of a parking space upon their return.parking space Sometimes, a single row of perpendicular car parking spaces is marked in the center of a street. This arrangement eliminates reversing from the manoeuvre; cars are required to drive in forwards and drive out forwards.

101 SUSTAINABLE GREEN ROAD The path of contentment is a green road. It’s a way of living in harmony with an ever-changing world rather than subsisting in a safe place where nothing changes. It’s an opportunity to find joy in the process rather than a product. We can keep our nose on the grindstone and work toward goals like getting a good job and making lots of money, but unless we enjoy the process we will soon lose our noses. Theirs never a guarantee that we'll be compensated for the work we do. We can lose a job and we can lose money, but if these are the only things that motivate us we’ll soon lose our motivation. Sumber: Diunduh 15/4/2012

102 June 11, 2009, 4:53 pm A TOUR OF THE CENTRAL VALLEY GREENWAY: A major new bike and walking path through three municipalities! What’s the Central Valley Greenway? It’s a new 24-kilometre pathway through Vancouver, Burnaby, and New Westminster. That means you can now walk or cycle on a dedicated path from Science World to New Westminster Quay, with all sorts of parks, shopping, worksites, and major transit hubs along the way. It’s a new, high-quality backbone for the regional cycling network, helping our region cut greenhouse gases and encouraging alternative modes of travel. But more than that—the Greenway is just a really great walk or bike ride! And to show you just what I’m talking about, I’ll do a picture/video tour of the Greenway here. Sumber: bike-and-walking-path-through-three-municipalities/….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 A section of the Central Valley Greenway in New Westminster.

103 PANAMA PACIFICO…THE GREAT, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY The Developer has commited to eco-friendly design in both the master plan and building designs. Although Panama City has a very high density, there are very few public parks or open spaces to provide relief from the heat and the traffic. The town center of Panama Pacifico is maintaining a high density while adding safe public spaces at ground level. The ground level will not be ruled by the automobile as in Panama City and pedestrians will have places to relax and enjoy the city. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012 There are a number of different scales throughout the town center. Housing sizes range from apartments within a large mixed-use building, to townhomes and single family detached homes. There are several types of parks, the large Central Park where I can immagine all of the festivities taking place. Finger parks and Plazas are dispersed throughout the town center for a more intimate open space. These smaller parks are great for the tropical environment because they provide the proper shading to make both the park and the adjacent buildings more comfortable. Also, there is a greenway running through the town center, providing safe bicycle and walking routes

104 THE GREENBELT HIGHWAY How to protect the world's longest desert road from being buried by sand Sumber: Diunduh 15/4/2012 The Tarim Desert Highway crosses the Taklamakan desert from north to south. The total length of the highway is 552km; approximately 446km of the highway cross uninhabited areas covered by shifting sand dunes, making it the longest such highway in the world. To prevent the road from being buried by sand, China authorities have built a 60-meter-wide tree belt along the route provided with a massive irrigation system which pump water for the vegetation. The blue buildings that appear every few miles are house workers who maintain the greenbelt. There is a house of road workers every 4 kilometers. Each of the houses is guarded by a couple of isolated Chinese workers who live here for at least two years. They don't use to have contact with any person during this time.

105 URBAN FORESTRY As much as people around the world associate Canada to be a "Forest Nation" or "Forest People", in reality 78% of Canadians live in urban centres. For most Canadians, the forest they most closely associate with are the woodlot remnants, riparian borders and street trees that constitute the urban forest. Sumber: Diunduh 15/4/2012 Urban forestry in Canada is, in effect, an entity of the local municipality. While organizations such as the International Society of Arboriculture promote the exchange of information among practitioners, no formal mechanism exists to ensure an effective, on-going exchange of information among municipalities. Except for some planting programs implemented through NGO groups such as the Tree Canada Foundation and efforts to deal with specific crises in the urban forest (i.e. emerald ash borer), the provincial and federal governments provide little leadership in urban forestry.

106 COEUR D'ALENE "STREET TREES" & URBAN FORESTRY It was interesting to find that Coeur d'Alene has a forest of "street trees" managed by the Urban Forestry department of the Parks Department. Did you know that it is the responsibility of every property owner to assist in the care of our city's trees? Coeur d'Alene's Urban Forestry ordinance sets tree care standards and gives guidelines for the care and maintenance of all public trees and shrubs. Public trees include all those growing in the city rights of way such as the grassy area between the sidewalk and curb. On those streets without a sidewalk, the city could own a right of way of 4 to over 20 feet inside your property. the Urban Forestry department can check your address if you aren't sure where there easement ends. The city doesn't have tree crews so it relies on abutting property owners to assist in performing tree maintenance activities. Beware though, the city requires a free tree permit before you can work on city trees. The permit comes with information that is important for you to know, such as importance of matching tree characteristics to the site and pruning techniques. The city requires a seven foot clearance over the sidewalk, and a 14 foot clearance over streets. Intersections and street signs need not be obstructed. Removal of street trees is allowed only if the tree is deteriorating, poses a hazard, or is causing a sidewalk or traffic problem. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 15/4/2012

107 URBAN PARKS: TREATY OAK PARK Located in the heart of the Southbank, Treaty Oak park is a 2.76 acre refuge of historic greenery in a landscape filled with concrete, steel and asphalt. Sumber: Diunduh 15/4/2012 Vegetasi bermanfaat untuk merekayasa masalah lingkungan di perkotaan dan mengurangi polusi udara. Vegetasi sebagai pereduksi polutan dan untuk memperbaiki kualitas lingkungan ditempatkan sebagai elemen lanskap pada Ruang Terbuka Hijau Kota (RTHK). RTHK dapat berupa hutan kota yang meliputi taman- taman, tepi jalan, bangunan umum, lahan- lahan yang terbuka, kawasan industri, kawasan perdagangan dan kawasan perumahan Pepohonan mampu menurunkan konsentrasi partikel Pb yang melayang di udara, karena pohon dapat meningkatkan turbulensi aliran udara. Kondisi tegakan dan keadaan meteorologi berpengaruh terhadap dispersi dan pengendapan partikel di luar atau dalam tegakan. Kemampuan daun menangkap partikel sangat dipengaruhi oleh keadaan permukaan daun, yaitu kebasahan, kelengketan, dan bulu daun. Semakin tinggi kandungan partikel Pb di udara akan semakin tinggi pula kandungan partikel Pb yang terserap oleh daun.

108 ABSORPTION OF AIR POLLUTION BY PLANTS, AND CONSEQUENCES FOR GROWTH William E. Winner, Christopher J. Atkinson Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Volume 1, Issue 1, July 1986, Pages 15–18Volume 1, Issue 1 There is now great concern that air pollutants (especially sulfur dioxide, ozone, and oxides of nitrogen) can alter the physiological processes of plants, thereby affecting patterns of growth. Air pollutants cause damage to leaf cuticles and affect stomatal conductance. They can also have direct effects on photosynthetic systems, leaf longevity, and patterns of carbon allocation within plants. Pollutants interact with other environmental factors, and may alter plant-environment relationships on a regional scale. Sumber: Diunduh 15/4/2012 In this article, Winner and Atkinson summarize current knowledge of the effects of air pollutants on plant growth and physiology, and indicate the new directions of research now under way in North America and Europe. Tanaman mampu mengabsorpsi beberapa jenis polutan dengan efektif, sehingga dapat berperan dalam membersihkan atmosfer dari polusi. Polutan terabsorpsi terikut dalam proses metabolisme. Namun demikian, keefektivan tanaman dalam menyerap polutan akan semakin berkurang dengan peningkatan konsentrasi polutan. Dampak lanjutannya adalah terganggunya fungsi tanaman dalam lingkungan. Dengan demikian, ketahanan tanaman terhadap tingkat polutan menjadi faktor yang penting dalam pemilihan jenis tanaman pereduksi Pb di udara.

109 EMISI GAS BUANG Emisi gas buang adalah sisa hasil pembakaran bahan bakar di dalam mesin pembakaran dalam, mesin pembakaran luar, mesin jet yang dikeluarkan melalui sistem pembuangan mesin. Strategi menurunkan emisi gas buang Sebagian dari gas buang yang dikeluarkan bersifat toksik, dan sebagian besar berupa gas rumah kaca yang pada gilirannya mengakibatkan pemanasan global. Untuk itu berbagai strategi dilakukan untuk meminimumkan dampak emisi: 1. Pengetatan standar emisi gas buang melalui tehnologi. 2. Kebijakan fiskal Pajak kendaraan Pajak bahan bakar Insentif fiskal untuk alat yang ramah lingkungan 3. Peningkatan kelancaran lalu lintas Pembatasan lalu lintas Sistem lalu lintas pintar /Intelligent Transport System Peningkatan kapasitas infrastruktur 4. Peningkatan kualitas bahan bakar Optimasi kualitas bahan bakar Pengembangan bahan bakar nabati (BBN) Pengembangan bahan bakar alternatif : a. Hidrogen b. Listrik Sumber: ….. Diunduh 17/4/2012 Komposisi gas buang Sisa hasil pembakaran berupa air (H 2 O), gas CO atau disebut juga karbon monooksida yang beracun, CO 2 atau disebut juga karbon dioksida yang merupakan gas rumah kaca, NO x senyawa nitrogen oksida, HC berupa senyawa Hidrat arang sebagai akibat ketidak sempurnaan proses pembakara serta partikel lepas.

110 SISTEM PEMBUANGAN Sistem pembuangan adalah saluran untuk membuang sisa hasil pembakaran pada mesin “pembakaran-dalam”. Sistem pembuangan terdiri dari beberapa komponen, minimal terdiri dari satu pipa pembuangan yang di Indonesia dikenal juga sebagai knalpot yang diadopsi dari bahasa Belanda atau saringan suara. Sumber: Diunduh 17/4/2012 DESAIN KNALPOT Desain saluran pembuangan dirancang untuk menyalurkan gas hasil pembakaran mesin ketempat yang aman bagi pengguna mesin. Gas hasil pembakaran umumnya panas, untuk itu saluran pembuangan harus tahan panas dan cepat melepaskan panas. Saluran pembuangan tidak boleh melewati atau berdekatan dengan material yang mudah terbakar atau mudah rusak karena panas. Meskipun tampak sederhana, desain sistem pembuangan cukup berpengaruh terhadap performa mesin. KOMPONEN UTAMA KNALPOT Umumnya komponen dalam sistem pembuangan terdiri dari : 1.Kepala silinder, dimana pipa pembuangan dimulai, kecuali pada mesin dua langkah dimana saluran pembuangan ditempatkan dibagian bawah dinding silender. 2.Exhaust manifold atau exhaust header, dimana pipa dari beberapa ruang bakar/silinder bergabung. 3.Catalytic converter untuk menurunkan kadar gas beracun, CO, HC dan NO x 4.Knalpot, pipa untuk mengalirkan gas hasil pembakaran. 5.Peredam suara atau disebut juga muffler, yang berfungsi untuk meredam suara. Pada sepeda motor, peredam bunyi ada di dalam knalpot sedangkan pada mobil umumnya terlihat dengan jelas berupa tabung sebelum ujung pipa pembuangan.

111 KOMPOSISI DAN PERILAKU GAS BUANG KENDARAAN BERMOTOR Emisi kendaraan bermotor mengandung berbagai senyawa kimia. Komposisi dari kandungan senyawa kimianya tergantung dari kondisi mengemudi, jenis mesin, alat pengendali emisi bahan bakar, suhu operasi dan faktor lain yang semuanya ini membuat pola emisi menjadi rumit. Jenis bahan bakar pencemar yang dikeluarkan oleh mesin dengan bahan bakar bensin maupun bahan bakar solar sebenarnya sama saja, hanya berbeda proporsinya karena perbedaan cara operasi mesin. Secara visual selalu terlihat asap dari knalpot kendaraan bermotor dengan bahan bakar solar, yang umumnya tidak terlihat pada kendaraan bermotor dengan bahan bakar bensin. Sumber: dap%20Kesehatan.pdf….. Diunduh 17/4/2012 Bahan pencemar yang terutama terdapat didalam gas buang buang kendaraan bermotor adalah karbon monoksida (CO), berbagai senyawa hindrokarbon, berbagai oksida nitrogen (NOx) dan sulfur (SOx), dan partikulat debu termasuk timbel (PB). Bahan bakar tertentu seperti hidrokarbon dan timbel organik, dilepaskan keudara karena adanya penguapan dari sistem bahan bakar. Lalu lintas kendaraan bermotor, juga dapat meningkatkan kadar partikular debu yang berasal dari permukaan jalan, komponen ban dan rem. Bahan pencemar yang terutama terdapat didalam gas buang buang kendaraan bermotor adalah karbon monoksida (CO), berbagai senyawa hindrokarbon, berbagai oksida nitrogen (NOx) dan sulfur (SOx), dan partikulat debu termasuk timbel (PB). Bahan bakar tertentu seperti hidrokarbon dan timbel organik, dilepaskan keudara karena adanya penguapan dari sistem bahan bakar. Lalu lintas kendaraan bermotor, juga dapat meningkatkan kadar partikular debu yang berasal dari permukaan jalan, komponen ban dan rem.

112 Oksida sulfur dan partikulat Sulfur dioksida (SO2) merupakan gas buang yang larut dalam air yang langsung dapat terabsorbsi di dalam hidung dan sebagian besar saluran ke paru-paru. Karena partikulat di dalam gas buang kendaraan bermotor berukuran kecil, partikulat tersebut dapat masuk sampai ke dalam alveoli paru-paru dan bagian lain yang sempit. Sifat iritasi terhadap saluran pernafasan, menyebabkan SO2 dan partikulat dapat membengkaknya membran mukosa dan pembentukan mukosa dapat meningkatnya hambatan aliran udara pada saluran pernafasan. Kondisi ini akan menjadi lebih parah bagi kelompok yang peka, seperti penderita penyakit jantung atau paru-paru dan para lanjut usia. Partikulat gas buang kendaraan bermotor terutama terdiri jelaga (hidrokarbon yang tidak terbakar) dan senyawa anorganik (senyawa- senyawa logam, nitrat dan sulfat). Sulfur dioksida di atmosfer dapat berubah menjadi kabut asam sulfat (H2SO4) dan partikulat sulfat. Sumber: dap%20Kesehatan.pdf….. Diunduh 17/4/2012

113 OKSIDA NITROGEN Nitrogen dioksida (NO2) merupakan gas yang sangat toksik. Gas NO2 dapat menembus ke dalam saluran pernafasan lebih dalam. Bagian dari saluran yang pertama kali dipengaruhi adalah membran mukosa dan jaringan paru. Organ lain yang dapat dicapai oleh NO2 dari paru adalah melalui aliran darah. Informasi epidemilogi tentang resiko pengaruh NO2 terhadap kesehatan manusia sampai saat ini belum lengkap, maka evaluasinya banyak didasarkan pada hasil studi eksprimental. Berdasarkan studi menggunakan binatang percobaan, pengaruh yang membahayakan seperti misalnya meningkatnya kepekaan terhadap radang saluran pernafasan, dapat terjadi setelah mendapat pajanan sebesar 100 μg/m3. Percobaan pada manusia menyatakan bahwa kadar NO2 sebesar 250 μg/m3 dan 500 μg/m3 dapat mengganggu fungsi saluran pernafasan pada penderita asma dan orang sehat. Sumber: dap%20Kesehatan.pdf….. Diunduh 17/4/2012

114 Timbel Timbel ditambahkan sebagai bahan aditif pada bensin dalam bentuk timbel organik (tetraetil-Pb atau tetrametil-Pb). Pada pembakaran bensin, timbel organik ini berubah bentuk menjadi timbel anorganik. Timbel yang dikeluarkan sebagai gas buang kendaraan bermotor merupakan partikel-partikel yang berukuran sekitar 0,01 μm. Partikel-partikel timbel ini akan bergabung satu sama lain membentuk ukuran yang lebih besar, dan keluar sebagai gas buang atau mengendap pada kenalpot. Pengaruh pada syaraf otak anak diamati pada kadar 60μg/100 ml, yang dapat menyebabkan gangguan pada perkembangan mental anak. Penelitian pada pengaruh Pb yang dikaitkan IQ anak telah banyak dilakukan tetapi hasilnya belum konsisten. Sistem syaraf pusat anak lebih peka dibandingkan dengan orang dewasa. Gangguan terhadap fungsi syaraf orang dewasa berdasarkan uji psikologi diamati pada kadar Pbdarah 50 μg/100 ml. Sedangkan gangguan sistem syaraf tepi diamati pada kadar Pbdarah 30 μg/100 ml. Pengaruh Pb pada kesehatan yang terutama adalah pada sintesa haemoglobin dan sistem pada syaraf pusat maupun syaraf tepi. Pengaruh pada sistem pembentukkan Hb darah yang dapat menyebabkan anemia, ditemukan pada kadar Pb-darah kelompok dewasa 60-80μg/100 ml dan kelompok anak > 40 μg/100 ml. Pada kadar Pb-darah kelompok dewasa sekitar 40 μg/100 ml diamati telah ada gangguan terhadap sintesa Hb, seperti meningkatnya ekskresi asam aminolevulinat (ALA). Timbel dapat menembus plasenta, dan karena perkembangan otak yang khususnya peka terhadap logam ini, maka janinlah yang terutama mendapat resiko. Sumber: dap%20Kesehatan.pdf….. Diunduh 17/4/2012

115 BAHAN-BAHAN PENCEMAR YANG KARSINOGENIK Pembakaran didalam mesin menghasilkan berbagai bahan pencemar dalam bentuk gas dan partikulat yang umumnya berukuran lebih kecil dari 2μm. Beberapa dari bahan-bahan pencemar ini merupakan senyawa-senyawa yang bersifat karsinogenik dan mutagenik, seperti etilen, formaldehid, benzena, metil nitrit dan hidrokarbon poliaromatik (PAH). Emisi kendaraan bermotor yang mengandung senyawa karsinogenik diperkirakan dapat menimbulkan tumor pada organ lain selain paru. Akan tetapi untuk membuktikan apakah pembentukan tumor tersebut hanya diakibatkan karena asap solar atau gas lain yang bersifat sebagai iritan. Mesin solar akan menghasilkan partikulat dan senyawa- senyawa yang dapat terikat dalam partikulat seperti PAH, 10 kali lebih besar dibandingkan dengan mesin bensin yang mengandung timbel. Untuk beberapa senyawa lain seperti benzena, etilen, formaldehid, benzo(a) pyrene dan metil nitrit, kadar emisi mesin bensin akan sama besarnya dengan mesin solar. Sumber: dap%20Kesehatan.pdf….. Diunduh 17/4/2012

116 RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU KOTA RTH memiliki berbagai fungsi selain sebagai ameliorasi iklim mikro, di antaranya adalah: 1.Sebagai zone konservasi ekologis. 2.Sebagai greenbelt kota. 3.Sebagai area yang sengaja disediakan untuk fasilitas kawasan berkembang. 4.Berperan dalam pembentukan jalur curah hujan. 5.Sebagai area penyerapan air hujan ke dalam tanah. 6.Sebagai jalur hijau, hutan kota dan lokasi rekreasi masyarakat kota. 7.Sebagai taman wisata kota. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 17/4/2012 Undang-undang Nomor 26 Tahun 1997 tentang Penataan Ruang, pasal 29 ayat (2) mengatur, bahwa proporsi ruang terbuka hijau (RTH) pada wilayah kota paling sedikit 30 % dari luas wilayah kota. Batasan 30 % memberi harapan yang lebih besar bagi upaya memperoleh ameliorasi iklim mikro perkotaan. Namun diperlukan konsistensi dan optimalisasi ruang 30 % sebagai areal yang benar-benar hijau.

117 TREES AND VEGETATION Trees and other plants help cool the environment, making vegetation a simple and effective way to reduce urban heat islands. Trees and vegetation lower surface and air temperatures by providing shade and through evapotranspiration. Shaded surfaces, for example, may be 20–45°F (11–25°C) cooler than the peak temperatures of unshaded materials. Evapotranspiration, alone or in combination with shading, can help reduce peak summer temperatures by 2–9°F (1–5°C). Trees and vegetation are most useful as a mitigation strategy when planted in strategic locations around buildings or to shade pavement in parking lots and on streets. Researchers have found that planting deciduous trees or vines to the west is typically most effective for cooling a building, especially if they shade windows and part of the building’s roof. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 17/4/2012 Benefits and Costs The use of trees and vegetation in the urban environment brings benefits beyond mitigating urban heat islands including: 1.Reduced energy use: Trees and vegetation that directly shade buildings decrease demand for air conditioning. 2.Improved air quality and lower greenhouse gas emissions: By reducing energy demand, trees and vegetation decrease the production of associated air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. They also remove air pollutants and store and sequester carbon dioxide. 3.Enhanced stormwater management and water quality: Vegetation reduces runoff and improves water quality by absorbing and filtering rainwater. 4.Reduced pavement maintenance: Tree shade can slow deterioration of street pavement, decreasing the amount of maintenance needed. 5.Improved quality of life: Trees and vegetation provide aesthetic value, habitat for many species, and can reduce noise.

118 URBAN VEGETATION EFFECTS ON THE SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF TEMPERATURE IN THE CITY CENTER Minako Nabeshima, Masatoshi Nishioka and Masaki Nakao, Osaka City Univ. Masashi Mizuno, Daikin Industries, Ltd., Osaka, Japan Hironori Tokura, Osaka Prefectural Government, Osaka, Japan Shunsuke Mizutani, Kyoto City Government, Osaka, Japan Our objective in this study is to evaluate urban vegetation effects on micro- climate variation. The heat island phenomena significantly affect outdoor activities in summer in Osaka city. Urban parks and roadside trees can improve the thermal environment for the ur-ban residents. The park area per resident in Osaka City is 3.5 m2, which is less than the aver-age of cities in Japan, 8.1m2. In comparison, the figure is 27m2 in Berlin and London, and 29m2 in New York. Sumber: Diunduh 18/4/2012 This paper analyzes the present distribution of green spaces and roadside trees in Osa-ka City for mitigating the urban heat island phenomena. A classification map of natural cov-erage was created from 1-meter resolution aerial photographs, visible images and near-infrared images, taken in Aug The distribution characteristics of vegetation coverage are analyzed using 3 kinds of vegetation coverage index: area ratio, the entropy and the C index. The entropy is an index of concentration and the C index is an index of continuity. The dry-bulb temperature was measured in the street using a vehicle equipped with a mobile mea-surement system in Aug. 2-6, The dry- bulb temperature and relative humidity in urban parks were also observed at fixed points during Aug Results show a relationship between temperature and continuity of vegetation coverage; the temperature is relatively lower in the street where the C index of vegetation coverage ratio is relatively higher.

119 GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 30, 2147, 4 PP., 2003 THE EFFECT OF VEGETATION ON SURFACE TEMPERATURE: A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF NDVI AND CLIMATE DATA R. K. Kaufmann; L. Zhou; R. B. Myneni; C. J. Tucker; D. Slayback; N. V. Shabanov; Jorge Pinzon Sumber: Diunduh 18/4/2012 We use statistical techniques to quantify the effect of interannual variations in vegetation within land covers on surface temperature in North America and Eurasia from satellite measures of surface greenness and ground based meteorological observations. During the winter, reductions in the extent of snow cover cause (in a statistical sense) temperature to rise. During the summer, increases in terrestrial vegetation within land covers cause (in a statistical sense) temperature to fall. Temperature-induced increases in vegetation have slowed increases in surface temperature, but this feedback may be limited by the range over which temperature has a positive effect on vegetation. Changes in terrestrial vegetation can modify local, regional, and global climate at diurnal, seasonal, and long-term scales. These vegetation-induced changes imply that warming enhanced vegetation growth and lengthened growing season may offset a portion of anthropogenic warming.

120 EVALUATION OF VEGETATION EFFECT ON URBAN CLIMATE BY COUPLED SIMULATION OF SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING AND LOCAL METEOROLOGICAL MODEL Yujiro Hirano *, Yoshifumi Yasuoka** and Toshiaki Ichinose*** *National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan / JSPS Research Fellow; **The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; ***National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan The purpose of this study is to elaborate the urban climate simulation by use of the satellite remote sensing (RS) data and to evaluate the urban vegetation effect on mitigation of urban heat island. Urban heat island is simulated in Tokyo Metropolitan Area by application of Colorado State University Mesoscale Model (CSU-MM). By comparing simulation results with observed data of the ground monitoring system, it is confirmed that the simulation accuracy is improved by applying remotely sensed vegetation cover ratio (VCR) data to the ground surface of the mesoscale model. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 18/4/2012 In urban areas, the vegetation has the restraining effect for urban heat island phenomenon and it plays a significant role on improvement of the thermal environment in the summer time. Especially, under the Japanese climate condition, the mitigation of urban heat island in the summer time is the important issue related to the amenity of residential environment, the energy saving and peak-cut of electric power for air-conditioning. The results show that air temperature during daytime decreases by 1.5 degree Celsius due to vegetation on a typical summer day.

121 Plant Ecology. Volume , Number 1, Part B: Structure, Productivity and Dynamic TEMPERATURE-VEGETATION STRUCTURE INTERACTION: THE EFFECT ON THE ACTIVITY OF THE ANT MESSOR BARBARUS (L.) F. López, J. M. Serrano and F. J. Acosta Several canopy types in an evergreen oak forest with open pastures have been used to examine climatic features of this system related to temperature. Circadian variation in temperature seems to be related to structural characteristics of the vegetation, with an apparent influence of the plant micro- and meso-environments analyzed. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 18/4/2012 The activity of a population of granivorous ants (Messor barbarus (L.)), studied in the same area, showed a clear dependence on ambient temperature, but, although the colonies were always inside one of the vegetation types, there was no significant relationship between the activity of ants and grasscover. This, together with other observations, indicates that the possible controlling effect of the vegetation is limited by the tolerance of ants (when faced with adverse conditions) during each daily foraging period.

122 Remote Sensing of Environment 89 (2004) 467–483 ESTIMATION OF LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE–VEGETATION ABUNDANCE RELATIONSHIP FOR URBAN HEAT ISLAND STUDIES Qihao Wenga, Dengsheng Lub, Jacquelyn Schubring Urban climate studies have long been concerned about the magnitude of the difference in observed ambient air temperature between cities and their surrounding rural regions, which collectively describe the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 18/4/2012 Remote sensing of urban heat islands (UHIs) has traditionally used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as the indicator of vegetation abundance to estimate the land surface temperature (LST)– vegetation relationship. This study investigates the applicability of vegetation fraction derived from a spectral mixture model as an alternative indicator of vegetation abundance. This is based on examination of a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image of Indianapolis City, IN, USA, acquired on June 22, The transformed ETM+ image was unmixed into three fraction images (green vegetation, dry soil, and shade) with a constrained least-square solution. These fraction images were then used for land cover classification based on a hybrid classification procedure that combined maximum likelihood and decision tree algorithms. Results demonstrate that LST possessed a slightly stronger negative correlation with the unmixed vegetation fraction than with NDVI for all land cover types across the spatial resolution (30 to 960 m). Correlations reached their strongest at the 120-m resolution, which is believed to be the operational scale of LST, NDVI, and vegetation fraction images. Fractal analysis of image texture shows that the complexity of these images increased initially with pixel aggregation and peaked around 120 m, but decreased with further aggregation. The spatial variability of texture in LST was positively correlated with those in NDVI and in vegetation fraction. The interplay between thermal and vegetation dynamics in the context of different land cover types leads to the variations in spectral radiance and texture in LST. These variations are also present in the other imagery, and are responsible for the spatial patterns of urban heat islands. It is suggested that the areal measure of vegetation abundance by unmixed vegetation fraction has a more direct correspondence with the radiative, thermal, and moisture properties of the Earth’s surface that determine LST.

123 Energy and Buildings –235 VEGETATION AS A CLIMATIC COMPONENT IN THE DESIGN OF AN URBAN STREET AN EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR PREDICTING THE COOLING EFFECT OF URBAN GREEN AREAS WITH TREES L. Shashua-Bar a, M.E. Hoffman The cooling effect of small urban green wooded sites of various geometric configurations in summer is the object of this study. Sumber: Diunduh 18/4/2012 It was studied experimentally at 11 different wooded sites in the Tel-Aviv urban complex during the period July–August An empirical model is developed in this study for predicting the cooling effect inside the wooded sites. The model is based on the statistical analysis carried out on 714 experimental observations gathered each hour from the 11 sites on calm days, when urban climate is expressed. Two factors were found to explain over 70% of the air temperature variance inside the studied green site, namely, the partial shaded area under the tree canopy and the air temperature of the non-wooded surroundings adjoining the site. The specific cooling effect of the site due to its geometry and tree characteristics, besides the shading, was found to be relatively small, about 0.5 K, out of an average cooling of about 3 K at noon. The cooling effect of the green wooded areas on their immediate surroundings at noon was also analyzed. The findings corroborate earlier studies that the range is noticeable. At small green sites, the cooling effect estimated in this study is perceivable up to about 100 m in the streets branching out from the site. The empirical findings in this study permit development of tools for incorporating the climatic effects of green areas in the urban design. Some policy measures are proposed accordingly, for alleviating the ‘‘heat island’’ effect in the urban environment. q2000 Published by Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

124 CLIMAQS Workshop ‘Local Air Quality and its Interactions with Vegetation’ January 21 ‐ 22, 2010, Antwerp, Belgium TREES AND URBAN AIR QUALITY Nick Hewitt Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK Sumber: ….. Diunduh 18/4/2012 It is widely believed that trees play important roles in our urban environment, although few attempts have been made to quantify the benefits they provide and to weigh these against any costs they may incur. It is known that trees provide shade and humidity, increase biodiversity, have aesthetic appeal, can create a sense of community, and can provide a calming vista or environment for rest, recuperation or recreation. It is also known that they remove pollutants more efficiently from the atmosphere than do artificial surfaces such as buildings or roads. To counter this, urban trees have genuine costs associated with them – they require maintenance and can cause damage to buildings. In addition, some trees emit reactive chemicals into the atmosphere, which may go on to form ozone, an important ground level pollutant. Here we introduce the concept of an “Urban Tree Air Quality Score” and use the West Midlands (Birmingham, United Kingdom) conurbation as a case study. We use a model of the dry deposition of gases and particles to different urban land use types and the “CiTTyCAT” model of atmospheric chemistry to estimate any detrimental formation of secondary air pollutants, especially ozone, and show that it is possible to make informed decisions about the best species of trees to plant from an air quality perspective. Trees that don’t emit the most reactive volatile organic compounds but do have large leaf surface areas have the best effects on air quality. Scots pine, common alder, larch, Norway maple, field maple, ash and silver birch remove the most pollutants without contributing to the formation of new pollutants. Oak, poplar and willow can have detrimental effects on air quality downwind by contributing to the formation of ground level ozone, so care is needed when planting these species in large numbers. Overall the effects on air quality of very large scale planting of almost all tree species in cities would be highly positive. In fact, by planting trees in all possible sites in the 900 km2 West Midlands conurbation (which would double the number of current trees, from 8 million to 16 million) would reduce the concentration of fine particles by 25%, and we estimate this would lead to a reduction of 140 deaths caused by airborne particles each year.

125 CLIMAQS Workshop ‘Local Air Quality and its Interactions with Vegetation’ January 21 ‐ 22, 2010, Antwerp, Belgium EFFECTS OF URBAN TREES AND SHRUBS ON LOCAL AIR QUALITY: WHICH QUESTIONS ARE UNANSWERED? A.A. PRONK1, C.J. VAN DIJK1, and C.W. VAN IPEREN2 Sumber: ….. Diunduh 18/4/2012 Urban trees and shrubs are mentioned to remove air pollutants and therefore improve air quality. Two basic principles are commonly presented. First, wind flows are obstructed and forced upwards by green structures, mixed with clean air and subsequently concentrations are lowered. Directly behind a green structure concentrations can increase due to reduced wind flows. Second, pollutants are filtered within the trees and shrubs by sedimentation, impaction and or diffusion. In this case the air pollutants are more of less permanently removed as in the first case the pollution is simply diluted. Urban trees and shrubs are planted alongside Dutch roads and may form a closed canopy between houses in due time, called street canyon. When traffic is passing by underneath these closed canopies and airflow is obstructed subsequently, air quality may deteriorate. Recently, municipalities have developed a great interest to plant urban trees and shrubs to improve local air quality, but many questions are still unanswered. Frequently asked questions so far regard the efficacy of greens on local air quality as well as on design strategies for optimal results. In this project we investigate these questions through interviews and workshops. The questions are categorized, answered and published in a handsome booklet. The booklet includes information on the potency, benefits as well as on the pitfalls of urban trees and shrubs related to local air quality.

126 International Journal on Architectural Science, Volume 6, Number 1, p.31-37, 2005 THE IMPACT OF VEGETATION ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF HOUSING ESTATES IN SINGAPORE Nyuk Hien Wong and Tyng Tyng Peck Department of Building, School of Design and Environment National University of Singapore, Singapore Sumber: JAS/V6/p pdf ….. Diunduh 18/4/2012 The population of Singapore is expected to increase from 4 million to 5.5 million in 40 to 50 years’ time. To a point in time, there will be a need to clear vegetation to build more houses to accommodate the growing population. However, as a result of this substitution of vegetation with dark coloured surfaces and buildings, the air temperature of the environment will be much higher than before, leading to the phenomenon of the urban heat island effect. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the impact of vegetation on the ambient air temperature and relative humidity in two neighbourhoods with distinctively different coverage of vegetation. Experiments were conducted simultaneously in two areas with different coverage of vegetation, which were located next to each other. The instrumentations were set up on both sites over a period of 14 days to measure the ambient air temperature and relative humidity at the respective locations. From the experimental results collected, the site with higher greenery coverage had shown to have lower temperature and higher relative humidity in comparison to the other site. The site with lower vegetation coverage has a maximum average temperature of 34.63oC whereas the site with higher vegetation coverage has a maximum average temperature of 32.46oC. The maximum average temperature difference between the two sites is 2.32oC. However due to this higher vegetation coverage, it has also caused a significant built up of moisture in the air and resulting in higher relative humidity.

127 GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 26, NO. 10, PP , 1999 SELF ‐ BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF VEGETATION ON CLIMATE IN AN OCEAN ‐ ATMOSPHERE GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL Richard A. Betts Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Meteorological Office, Bracknell, UK Sumber: Diunduh 18/4/2012 Biotic influences on climate may be important for sustaining life on Earth. Terrestrial vegetation may contribute by affecting surface ‐ atmosphere fluxes of energy and moisture; the importance of this is examined here by performing two climate simulations with and without vegetation, and using each of the resulting climates as input to a vegetation model. Results suggest that contemporary vegetation increases continental precipitation by 15% while generally reducing temperature extremes, and in a simulation neglecting these effects, the boreal, Amazonian and South ‐ East Asian forests cannot become established. The climatological influences of vegetation increase simulated net primary productivity on land by 28% and allow 69% more vegetation biomass to be sustained, implying that bio ‐ geophysical feedbacks are crucial for maintaining present ‐ day patterns of vegetation.

128 VEGETATION INFLUENCES ON THE HUMAN THERMAL COMFORT IN OUTDOOR SPACES José Manuel Ochoa, Jaume Roset and Rafael Serra Dept. Construccions Arquitectòniques I & Dept. Física Aplicada, UPC School of Architecture of Barcelona. Av. Diagonal, 649. E Barcelona. Tel Fax Sumber: Diunduh 18/4/2012 The purpose of this work is to evaluate the thermal comfort of human beings in outdoor spaces, taking into account the microclimatic modifications produced by vegetation. The parameters needed to formulate a comfort index are of differing orders of magnitude, so the same conditions could be seen as comfortable outdoors and yet be unacceptable indoors. One of the most influential landscape elements in the degree of comfort is vegetation. The main effects of vegetation are on solar radiation and wind. However urban wind is more affected by the configuration of urban development than by vegetation. This paper involves numerical evaluation of outdoor radiation effects. Two Barcelona district case studies are presented. The first deals with a pergola in a landscaped square. The second is a tree-lined street of with east-west orientation. In both cases, measures of the main parameters were taken on a summer day and in winter. Vegetation influences temperature, humidity, radiation and wind, and it also has an effect on air composition, as well as improving the visual landscape and quality of life.

129 TREES REDUCE AIR POLLUTION Sumber: ….. Diunduh 18/4/2012 Trees and other plants make their own food from carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere, water, sunlight and a small amount of soil elements. In the process, they release oxygen (O 2 ) for us to breathe. Help to settle out, trap and hold particle pollutants (dust, ash, pollen and smoke) that can damage human lungs. Absorb CO 2 and other dangerous gasses and, in turn, replenish the atmosphere with oxygen. Produce enough oxygen on each acre for 18 people every day. Absorb enough CO 2 on each acre, over a year's time, to equal the amount you produce when you drive your car 26,000 miles. Trees remove gaseous pollutants by absorbing them through the pores in the leaf surface. Particulates are trapped and filtered by leaves, stems and twigs, and washed to the ground by rainfall. Air pollutants injure trees by damaging their foliage and impairing the process of photosynthesis (food making). They also weaken trees making them more susceptible to other health problems such as insects and diseases. The loss of trees in our urban areas not only intensifies the urban "heat-island" effect from loss of shade and evaporation, but we lose a principal absorber of carbon dioxide and trapper of other air pollutants as well. Some of the major air pollutants and their primary sources are: Carbon dioxide: Burning oil, coal, natural gas for energy. Decay and burning of tropical forests. Sulfur dioxide: Burning coal to generate electricity. Hydrogen floride and silicon tetrafloride: Aluminum and phospate fertilizer production, oil refineries, and steel manufacturing. Ozone: Chemical reactions of sunlight on automobile exhaust gases. Ozone is a major pollutant in smog. Methane: Burning fossil fuels, livestock waste, landfills and rice production. Nitros oxides: Burning fossil fuels and automobile exhausts. Chloroflorocarbons: Air conditioners, refrigerators, industrial foam. The burning of fossil fuels for energy and large scale forest fires such as in the tropics are major contributors to the buildup of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Managing and protecting forests and planting new trees reduces CO 2 levels by storing carbon in their roots and trunk and releasing oxygen into the atmosphere.

130 TREES: THE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Sumber: ….. Diunduh 18/4/2012 Trees provide a large leaf surface onto which particles are deposited and gases removed. Pollution is removed by nearly all parts of a tree; the soil, roots, and vegetative portions (leaves, stems and bark) of urban forest ecosystems all function as sinks for atmospheric pollution. Trees “breathe”, or respirate, and exchange gases similar to the way humans do, yet the methods and results are quite different. Leaf surfaces are most efficient at removing pollutants that are watersoluble including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Pollutant removal rates are highest when vegetative surfaces are wet or damp; these conditions can increase removal rates ten-fold because the entire trees surface (leaves, twigs, trunk, and branches) is available for pollutant uptake. Because of the drier climate, trees of the Front Range are not as efficient at removing airborne chemicals as trees in a humid climate. Trees intake gases through stomates, or holes, on their leaves; these gases include those necessary for the tree’s functioning as well as other gaseous air pollutants. Once inside the leaf, gases diffuse into the spaces between the cells of the leaf to be absorbed by water films or chemically altered by plant tissues. Trees also reduce air pollution by intercepting airborne particles and retaining them on the leaf surface, called dry deposition. Some can be absorbed by the leaf surface itself, although most remain on the plant surface

131 Pollutants travel through plants by translocation via the xylem and phloem. Xylem is responsible for bringing minerals and water from the roots to the foliage, while phloem transports sugars and other dissolved foods from the foliage to all non- photosynthetic plant cells. Chemical pollutants absorbed by the leaves are translocated to the root areas where they can be broken down by microbes in the soil, and pollutants absorbed by the roots can be broken down and translocated to the leaves where they are released into the atmosphere. During the process of photosynthesis, trees’ leaves absorb airborne pollutants and translocate them along with carbohydrates to the root zone, where microbes are responsible for breaking them down. TREES: THE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Sumber: ….. Diunduh 18/4/2012

132 Trees Improve Air Quality By Reducing Temperature Trees are also responsible for reducing summertime high temperatures, and therefore slowing the rates at which many air pollutants are formed and volatized. Reduction of air temperatures in summertime help to reduce pollution in three ways: 1.By reducing chemical reaction rates in the atmosphere that result in ozone formation. Lower temperatures reduce ozone-precursor emission rates, thus influencing ozone formation. 2.By decreasing temperature-dependent emissions of hydrocarbons from both natural and manmade sources. 3.By decreasing emissions of pollutants from electric power plants due to reduced air conditioning demands. TREES: THE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Sumber: ….. Diunduh 18/4/2012

133 Sumber: Diunduh 18/4/2012 Trees eat pollution products LEAVES CAN ABSORB ORGANIC NITRATES AND TURN THEM INTO AMINO ACIDS. Katharine Sanderson Forest canopies can suck up organic nitrogen compounds produced from pollutants and turn them into useful amino acids. Paul Shepson and his colleagues at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, believe they are the first to show that trees can take in organic nitrates through their leaves and then process the nitrogen. Plants are already known to use their leaves to absorb inorganic airborne nitrogen molecules, such as ammonia or nitrogen dioxide, and turn them into amino acids. And a relatively reactive compound called peroxyacetyl nitrate can be absorbed by leaves, although it's not clear whether plants actually use it. "There's a difference between [nitrogen species] going into the leaves and that process being useful“. TREES: THE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL The organic nitrates in question are created from the plant's own chemicals. Many trees emit reactive molecules known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the most common of which is called isoprene. These VOCs are so reactive that they quickly get consumed in the atmosphere, and some react with nitrogen oxides (NO x ) — emitted from combustion engines — to form longer-lived organic nitrate compounds, more stable than peroxyacetyl nitrate.

134 Sumber: ….. Diunduh 18/4/2012 Increasing nitrogen deposition to forests can impact the balance between the carbon and nitrogen cycles. This nitrogen source, if taken up and used by forests, can increase growth and carbon storage. While previous findings have suggested that nitrogen deposition is not an important source of nitrogen for a forest ecosystem, the possibility of canopy uptake was not considered. Foliar uptake and utilization of inorganic nitrogen, such as NO 2 and NH 3, has been shown to occur, but utilization of organic nitrogen has not been demonstrated directly. Here we show for the first time that atmospheric organic nitrates (RONO 2 ), one form of organic nitrogen, can be taken up by foliage and incorporated into the leaf amino acids, and we discuss possible uptake mechanisms. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 35, L15809, 5 PP., 2008 FOLIAR UPTAKE OF ATMOSPHERIC ORGANIC NITRATES Amanda L. Lockwood; Timothy R. Filley; David Rhodes; Paul B. Shepson; Setiap jenis tumbuhan pohon mempunyai respon yang berbeda terhadap pencemarpencemar udara yang berbentuk gas atau partikel. Perbedaan tersebut tergantung jenis pohon dan susunan genetiknya. Faktor lain yang ikut berperan adalah tingkat pertumbuhan pohon, jarak terhadap sumber pencemar, konsentrasi bahan pencemar, dan lama terpapar. Kerusakan tanaman karena pencemaran udara berawal dari tingkat biokimia (gangguan proses fotosintesis, respirasi, serta biosintesis protein dan lemak), selanjutnya tingkat ultrastruktural (disorganisasi sel membran), kemudian tingkat sel (dinding sel, mesofil, pecahnya inti sel) dan diakhiri dengan terlihatnya gejala pada jaringan daun seperti klorosis dan nekrosis.

135 Sumber: Diunduh 18/4/2012 Trees remove gaseous pollutants by absorbing them through the pores in the leaf surface. Particulates are trapped and filtered by leaves, stems and twigs, and washed to the ground by rainfall. Air pollutants injure trees by damaging their foliage and impairing the process of photosynthesis (food making). They also weaken trees making them more susceptible to other health problems such as insects and diseases. The loss of trees in our urban areas not only intensifies the urban "heat-island" effect from loss of shade and evaporation, but we lose a principal absorber of carbon dioxide and trapper of other air pollutants as well. TREES REDUCE AIR POLLUTION Trees and other plants make their own food from carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere, water, sunlight and a small amount of soil elements. In the process, they release oxygen (0 2 ) for us to breathe. Trees: 1.Help to settle out, trap and hold particulate pollutants (dust, ash, pollen and smoke) that can damage human lungs. 2.Absorb CO 2 and other dangerous gases and, in turn, replenish the atmosphere with oxygen. 3.Produce enough oxygen on each acre for 18 people every day. 4.Absorb enough CO, on each acre, over a years time, to equal the amount you produce when you drive your car 26,000 miles.

136 Sumber: Diunduh 18/4/2012 The burning of fossil fuels for energy and large scale forest fires such as in the tropics are major contributors o the buildup of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Managing and protecting forests and planting new trees reduces CO 2 levels by storing carbon in their roots and trunk and releasing oxygen into the atmosphere. Mekanisme pencemaran logam secara biokimia pada tumbuhan yang terbagi ke dalam enam proses yaitu: 1.logam mengganggu fungsi enzim, 2.logam sebagai anti metabolit, 3.logam membentuk lapisan endapan yang stabil (kelat) dengan metabolit esensial, 4.logam sebagai katalis dekomposisi pada metabolit esensial, 5.logam mengubah permeabilitas membran sel, 6.logam menggantikan struktur dan elektrokimia unsur yang paling penting dalam sel. TREES: THE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL.

137 TREES CONSERVE WATER AND REDUCE SOIL EROSION Trees create organic matter on the soil surface from their leaf litter. Their roots increase soil permeability. This results in: 1.Reduced surface runoff of water from storms. 2.Reduced soil erosion and sedimentation of streams. 3.Increased ground water recharge that is significantly reduced by paving 4.Lesser amounts of chemicals. transported to streams. 5.Reduced wind erosion of soil. Without trees, cities would need to increase sewage and storm water drainage channels and.waste - treatment capacities to handle increased water runoff. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 18/4/2012.

138 TREES SAVE ENERGY Strategically placed trees can be as effective as other energy saving home improvements, such as insulation and the installation of weather-tight windows and doors. Trees can help reduce your heating and cooling costs. Trees save energy through cooling in the hotter months. They provide a windbreak during winter. This results in burning less fossil fuels to generate electricity for cooling and heating. Strategically placed shade trees-a minimum of three large trees around your home- can reduce air conditioning costs up to 30 percent. Shade trees offer their best benefits when you: 1.Plant deciduous trees, which shed their leaves during winter. These trees provide shade and block heat from the sun during hotter months. By dropping their leaves in the fall they admit sun-light in the colder months. 2.Place these trees on the south and west sides of buildings. 3.Shade all hard surfaces such as driveways, patios and sidewalks to minimize landscape heat load. 4.Use evergreens, which retain their leaves/needles year-long, in a planned pattern. They will serve as windbreaks to save from 10 to 50 percent in energy used for heating. Evergreens offer their best benefits when you: 1.Place them to intercept and slow winter winds, usually on the north side of your home. 2.Do not plant them on the south or west sides of your home, because they block warming sun-light during winter. These trees also provide some shading benefits during summer. 3.Get professional assistance to assure correct selection of species and their placement to maximize energy savings. Sumber: Diunduh 18/4/2012

139 TREES MODIFY LOCAL CLIMATE Trees can help cool the "heat island" effect in our inner cities. These islands result from storage of thermal energy in concrete, steel and asphalt. Heat islands are 3 to 10 degrees warmer than the surrounding countryside. The collective effect of a large area of transpiring trees (evaporating water) reduces the air temperature in these areas. Trees also: Lower air temperature through shade. Increase humidity in dry climates through evaporation of moisture. Reduce glare on sunny days. Reduce wind speed. Sumber: Diunduh 18/4/2012 TREES REDUCE NOISE POLLUTION Trees absorb and block noise from the urban environment TREES CREATE WILDLIFE AND PLANT DIVERSITY Trees and associated plants create local ecosystems that provide habitat and food for birds and animals. They offer suitable mini-climates for other plants that would otherwise be absent from urban areas. Biodiversity is an important part of urban forestry. TREES INCREASE ECONOMIC STABILITY The scope and condition of a community’s trees and, collectively, its urban forest, is usually the first impression a community projects to its visitors. Studies have shown that: 1.Trees enhance community economic stability by attracting businesses and tourists. 2.People linger and shop longer along tree-lined streets. 3.Apartments and offices in wooded areas rent more quickly, have higher occupancy rates and tenants stay longer. 4.Businesses leasing office space in wooded developments find their workers are more productive and absenteeism is reduced. 5.A community’s urban forest is an extension of its pride and community spirit.

140 Kemampuan tanaman menjerap Pb beragam antar jenis tanaman. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 18/4/2012 Menurut Dahlan (2004), Damar (Agathis alba), Mahoni (Swetenia macrophylla), Jamuju (Podocarpus imbricatus), Pala (Mirystica fragrans), Asam londo (pithecelobium dulce), dan Johar (Cassia siamea) memiliki kemampuan sedang sampai tinggi dalam menurunkan Pb di udara. Glodogan tiang (Polyalthea longifolia), Keben (baringtonia asiatica), dan Tanjung (Mimusops elengi) memiliki kemampuan menjerap Pb rendah namun tidak peka terhadap pencemaran udara Daun Kupu-kupu (Bauhinia purpurea) dan Kesumba (Bixa orellana) memiliki kemampuan rendah dan tidak tahan terhadap pencemaran udara. Menurut Setiawati (2000), Kesumba (Bixa orellana) memiliki kemapuan menjerap Pb terkecil (29,01 μg/g) sedangkan Kirai payung (Filicium. decipiens) mempunyai kemampuan tertinggi (50.62 μg/g). Vegetasi sebagai pereduksi Pb di udara dapat ditanam sebagai elemen lanskap pada Ruang Terbuka Hijau Kota (RTHK). Tanaman sebagai elemen lanskap perlu dipilih dan ditempatkan berdasarkan pertimbangan fungsional dan estetis. Aspek fungsional tanaman antara lain adalah kemampuan tanaman dalam menjerap Pb, sehingga tercipta suasana yang nyaman secara fisik. Aspek estetis adalah suasana yang nyaman secara visual yang diperlihatkan oleh penampilan setiap jenis dan komposisi tanaman.


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