Foto: smno.kampus.ub.janu2013. TANAH MOLLISOLS Ordo “Mollisol”, namanya berasal dari kata Latin “mollis”, yang berarti “lunak, soft”. These mineral soils.
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Presentasi berjudul: "Foto: smno.kampus.ub.janu2013. TANAH MOLLISOLS Ordo “Mollisol”, namanya berasal dari kata Latin “mollis”, yang berarti “lunak, soft”. These mineral soils."— Transcript presentasi:
TANAH MOLLISOLS Ordo “Mollisol”, namanya berasal dari kata Latin “mollis”, yang berarti “lunak, soft”. These mineral soils have developed on grasslands, a vegetation that has extensive fibrous root systems. The topsoil of Mollisols is characteristically dark and rich with organic matter, giving it a lot of natural fertility. Tanah-tanah ini jenuh dengan kation-kation basa (Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Na +, dan K + ), unsur hara esensial bagi tumbuhan. Mollisols merupakan tanah-tanah yang sangat subur. Diunduh dari: ………….. 4/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS RINGKASAN 1.Vegetasi: Prairie, Lahan berumput 2.Iklim: variety of soil temperature regimes (cryic to hypothermic) 3.Rezim lengas-tanah: variety of soil moisture regimes - aquic, udic, ustic, or xeric; rataan curah hujan tahaunan mm 4.Ciri tanah yang utama: Kandungan BOT, Kejenuhan Basa tinggi 5.Horison Penciri: argilik, Kambik (Natrik, Kalsik, Petrokalsik, gypsik, albik, duripan) 6.Epipedon: Molik 7.Major processes: melanization, decomposition, humification, pedoturbation 8.Ciri khas: Tanah-tanah snagat subur MOLLISOLS: 1.Grassland soils of steppes and prairies (base rich soils) 2.Deposits and landscapes with a wide range of ages 3.Many Mollisols are formed on deposits associated with glaciation (unconsolidated quaternary materials) - calcareous rich aolian deposits supported the formation of Mollisols 4.In other areas they develop in residuum weathered from sedimentary rocks
TANAH MOLLISOLS KONDISI LINGKUNGAN MOLLISOLS IKLIM Mollisols terdapat pada beragam zone iklim, berkisar dari rezim suhu cryik (mis. Mongolia, North Dakota), frigid (mis. Iowa), mesik (mis. Di Pakistan), atau thermik (mis. Di Oklahoma bagian tengah). Rata-rata curah hujan tahunan berkisar dari 200 mm dg vegetasi speta rumput- pendek hingga 800 mm dengan vegetasi rumput-tinggi. For example, climate in the Great Plains favor the development of Mollisols: severe, dry winters with much wind and relatively slight accumulation of snow; relatively moist springs and droughty summers with some thunderstorms and/or tornadoes (e.g. typical climate of the Great Plains). Mollisols terdapat pada kondisi rezim lengas-tanah: udik, ustik, xerik, dan aquik.
TANAH MOLLISOLS KONDISI LINGKUNGAN MOLLISOLS VEGETASI Kebanyakan Mollisols telah terbentuk pada kondisi vegetasi prairie atau padang-rumput. Ada berbagai tipe : Dalam prairie rumput-tinggi, tingginya rumput dewasa m; sedangkan dalam prairie rumput-pendek, tingginya rumput hanya 13 – 30 cm. The prairie or grassland vegetation add plentiful raw organic matter to the soil, mostly by in situ root death. Legumes in the prairie or grassland community contribute considerable nitrogen to the soil. Prairies develop under relatively moist condistions, whereas grass steppe develop under drier climate. Prairie extension was largest approximately 5000 to 2000 B.P. Common species of prairie vegetation are bluestem (Andropogon gerardi), buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides), or western wheat grass (Agropyron smithii). Mollisols ADALAH TANAH-TANAH SUBUR, menempati sekitar 25% lahan pertanian di USA dna menghasilkan gandum, kedelai, dan alfalfa. Beberapa tanah Mollisols berkembang pada kondisi vegetasi hutan, drainage jelek dan/atau bahan induk berkapur atau bahan yang kaya basa-basa.
TANAH MOLLISOLS KONDISI LINGKUNGAN MOLLISOLS Relief - Topografi: Mollisols cover a wide range of land forms (e.g. flat or gently rolling plains, undulating plains, mountain areas). Extensions of prairies by fire have formed preferentially on topography over which fire moves easily (e.g. ridgetops, windward slopes). Bahan Induk Tanah: Mollisols ditemukan pada deposits dan lanskap yang umurnya sangat beragam. Banyak Mollisols terbentuk pada deposits yg berhubungan dnegan proses glasiasi (material tidak-padu dari zaman Quaternary), dimana deposit aeolian yg kaya kapur mendukung pembentukan Mollisols. Akan tetapi, pada beberapa kasus lainnya mollisols berkemnag pada bahan induk residuum hasil pelapukan batuan sedimen. Time: The age for development of Mollisols is indifferent and closely associates to the other environmental factors.
TANAH MOLLISOLS PROSES PEMBENTUKAN MOLLISOLS Melanisasi didefinisikan sebagai proses terjadinya “warna gelap” tanah karena penambahan bahan organik dan ini merupakan proses dominan pada Mollisols. Melanisasi yg terjadi pada Mollisols didukung oleh masuknya bahan organik langsung ke tganah mineral. Vegetasi prairie dan padang-rumput mengakumulasi sejumlah besar bahan organik. Microbial decomposition of organic materials in the soil produces relatively stable, dark compounds (humification). Residue from plants partially decomposes on the soil surface and enriches the upper part of the A horizon through incorporation by soil fauna. Earthworms, ants, cicada nymphs, and rodents (e.g. gophers) are considered to be important agents in promoting the incorporation and breakdown of litter into the soil. Aktivitas biologis pada Mollisols lebih besar dibandingkan dnegan tanah-tanah hutan, terutama aktivitas cacing tanah sangat banyak pada Mollisols.
TANAH MOLLISOLS PROSES PEMBENTUKAN MOLLISOLS Pedoturbasi yg intensif dapat menghasilkan diferensiasi horison. Pada Mollisols ada beberapa macam pedoturbation : 1.Faunal pedoturbation: Pencampuran material tanah oleh binatang, seperti rayap, cacing-tanah, moluska, dan rodent, 2.Human pedoturbation: Pengolahan tanah, 3.Congelli pedoturbation (cryoturbation): pencampuran material tanah oleh siklus beku-cair seperti dilanskap tundra dan alpine 4.Argilli pedoturbation: mixing of materials in the solum by shrink and swell movements of expansible clays as they wet and dry in the water cycles within the soil.
TANAH MOLLISOLS PROSES PEMBENTUKAN MOLLISOLS Dalam beberapa Mollisols ada bukti-bukti proses eluviasi dan iluviasi koloid organik dan koloid mineral (liat, oksida besi dan mangan) di sepanjang rongga di antara agregat, dan permukaan agregat menjadi terselimuti oleh kutan yg berwarna gelap (organo-argillans). For example, an eluviated horizon is present in the Albolls and an argillic horizon is found in Argiudolls. Percolation of water is influenced by systems of cracks, krotovinas, and macropores made by roots and soil fauna. Pada Mollisols yang teksturnya medium dan drainagenya bagus, adanya horison A dan B yg kandungan liatnya hampir sama dapat dijelaskan oleh proses-proses berikut: 1.Di daerah iklim dimana evapotranspirasi melebihi presipitasi (curah hujan) mineral liat dapat ditranslokasikan ke arah atas dari horison B ke horison A, 2.Pembentukan liat yg cepat di horison A pada kondisi lengas tanah yg drainagenya bagus dan vegetasi padang-rumput, 3.Eluviasi sangat lambat dalam tanah-tanah padang rumput, karena terjadinya pembentukan kompleks mineral dan koloid organik, dan penyerapan yg cepat air oleh akar tumbuhan, 4.pedoturbation by prairie ants (Formica cinerea), which builds mounds where clay, organic material, phosphorus, and potassium is accumulated.
TANAH MOLLISOLS PROSES PEMBENTUKAN MOLLISOLS Deposition of loess material (dust) and blown out dry organic matter support the development of Mollisols (wind erosion). The deposited material is rich in calcium and other nutrients, which supports microbial activity. In many Mollisols the calcareous loess was leached of carbonates and varying degrees of acidity have developed. After leaching of carbonates, clay formation reaches its maximum and clay movement might occur when precipitation exceeds evapotransiration. Erosi oleh air dapat menyebabkan kumulasi dan penebalan epipedon MOLIK. Tanah- tanah ini biasanya berada di lereng-bawah atau dataran-banjir. Biasanya mereka ini disebut dengan istilah “cumulic”. Di daerah yang digarap secara intensif, banyak tanah telah kehilangan material tanah lapisan atas (permukaan) karena erosi.
TANAH MOLLISOLS SIFAT DAN CIRI MOLLISOLS A major characteristic of Mollisols is the high accumulation and decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). SOM includes a variety of materials ranging form newly added material to the thoroughly decomposed and polymerized residual matter (humus). The grassland or prairie vegetation produce high amount of SOM, where as much as 80 % of the total biomass is in the roots. For example, the above-ground production of tall- grass prairie ranges from 1700 to 3500 kg/ha, whereas the dry weight of roots is about 3 times higher. Under prairie vegetation more than 50 % of the biomass is added to the soil annually, almost all the above ground parts and at least 30 % of the underground parts. As a result, most of the OM is deposited within the profile itself, the highest amount within the mollic epipedon. Due to decomposition and humification stable humus is formed, which is composed of complex organic compounds synthesized by the soil organisms and resistant polymers of phenolic and aromatic functional groups. The average C:N ratio for grassland soils is nearly constant, ranging from 10:12.
TANAH MOLLISOLS SIFAT DAN CIRI MOLLISOLS Mollisols exhibit a mollic epipedon, which is dark in color, humus-rich, relatively fertile, and show a thickness of about 40 to 75 cm. If earthworm activity is high wormholes or macropores are formed which are pathways for preferential flow. Additional factors that are associated with the accumulation of organic matter in Mollisols are a high base saturation (> 50 %), high cation exchange capacity, and a high water holding capacity. Generally, the A horizon shows a granular structure, whereas the B horizon exhibits blocky and prismatic soil structure. Many clay minerals have been formed from pedogenesis. Inherited micas have been depleted of potassium and valence charges of the layers have been lowered by weathering producing a wide array of clay minerals in Mollisols. Coatings are found on ped surfaces, which are called organo-argillans composed of mineral and organic components. The eluviation and illuviation of clay might form an argillic or a cambic diagnostic horizon. Because the formation of the argillic horizon is relatively slow, its presence in Mollisols indicates soils formed on older, more stable geographic surfaces.
TANAH MOLLISOLS KLASIFIKASI MOLLISOLS While it is true that all Mollisols have mollic epipedons, the presence of a mollic epipedon does not automatically qualify a soil as a Mollisol. Epipedons that are made to meet the mollic criteria by the common practice of agricultural liming are excluded from criteria when placing a soil in the Mollisol order. Kriteria untuk memenuhi kualifikasi Mollisol : 1.Epipedon Molik 2.Kejenuhan basa 50 % atau lebih dalam semua horison hingga kedalaman 180 cm; atau hingga kontak litik atau paralitik kalau ada. Ada tujuh subordo dalam Mollisols: Albolls: Albolls are Mollisols with an albic horizon, aquic conditions for some time in most years, and redox concentrations within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Below the albic horizon there is an argillic or natric horizon. Processes which develop Albolls are eluviation/illuviation and reduction of iron and manganese oxides due to wet soil moisture conditions. They occur on nearly level interfluve ridgetops or closed depressions. Diunduh dari: online.sfsu.edu/jerry/geog317/resources/Mollisols_l.pdf ………….. 25/2/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS KLASIFIKAIS MOLLISOLS Aquolls: They develop under aquic conditions thus they show soil properties associated with wetness: (i) redoximorphic features, (ii) accumulation of organic matter, (iii) a histic epipedon overlying the mollic epipedon, (iv) accumulation of calcium carbonate or exchangeable sodium near the soil surface. Rendolls: They are formed in humid regions under forest, formed from calcareous parent materials (e.g. limestone, calcareous glacial till, chalk, shell deposits). The mollic epipedon must be less than 50-cm thick and may be rather weakly expressed due to the dilution effect of the light-colored, calcium-rich material from which it has formed. Rendolls do not have argillic or calcic horizons. This suborder is not subdivided into great groups, but a number of subgroups are identified on the basis of a shallow lithic contact, cryic soil temperature regime, vertic character, and presence or absence of a cambic horizon. Diunduh dari: online.sfsu.edu/jerry/geog317/resources/Mollisols_l.pdf ………….. 25/2/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Albolls Albolls are the Mollisols that have both an albic horizon and fluctuating ground water. Most supported grass or grass and shrub vegetation. In early stages of development, some are thought to have supported forest vegetation that was later succeeded by grass. Most of the soils have gentle slopes and are used as cropland. Aquolls Aquolls adalah Mollisols yang basah. Most have supported vegetation of grasses, sedges, and forbs, but some supported forest vegetation. Most have been artificially drained, and are used as cropland. Cryolls Cryolls are the cool or cold, more or less freely drained Mollisols. They support forest, grass, or grass and shrub vegetation. Cryolls banyak digunakan sebagai padang gembalaan ternak. Sebagian tanah-tanah ini dikelola sebagai hutan dan pasture. Diunduh dari: online.sfsu.edu/jerry/geog317/resources/Mollisols_l.pdf ………….. 25/2/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Rendolls Rendolls are the Mollisols that are of humid regions and formed in highly calcareous parent materials, such as limestone, chalk, and drift composed mainly of limestone, or on shell bars. They formed mostly under forest vegetation or under grass and shrubs. Most are used as cropland or pasture, but some are used as rangeland or forest. Udolls Udolls adalah mollisols yang drainagenya bagus dan berkembang di daerah iklim humid. Vegetasi selama proses pembentukkannya didominasi oleh rumput prairie yang tinggi. Lereng tidak terlalu curam, hampir semua atanah-tanah ini dikelola sebagai lahan pertanian, sebagian dikelola sebagai padang rumput gembalaan. Diunduh dari: online.sfsu.edu/jerry/geog317/resources/Mollisols_l.pdf ………….. 25/2/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS KLASIFIKASI MOLLISOLS Xerolls: Xerolls are Mollisols that have a xeric soil moisture regime. They ordinarily have a thick mollic epipedon, or cambic or argillic horizon and an accumulation of carbonates in the lower solum. Cryolls: This is the most extensive Mollisol suborder worldwide. Borolls form under a frigid and cryic soil temperature regime. They occur in Eastern Europe and Asia (the northern Russian steppes), and the northern Great Plains and in mountainous areas of the western United States. Diunduh dari: online.sfsu.edu/jerry/geog317/resources/Mollisols_l.pdf ………….. 25/2/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Ustolls Ustolls are the more or less freely drained Mollisols of subhumid to semiarid climates. They are mostly on the western Great Plains. They also are common throughout the Rocky Mountain States. Most of the Ustolls on the Great Plains supported grass vegetation when the country was settled. Some Ustolls, mostly those in the mountains of the Western States, supported forest vegetation. Rainfall comes mainly during a growing season, often in heavy showers, but is erratic. Drought is frequent and may be severe. Without irrigation, the low supply of moisture usually limits crop yields. During a drought, soil blowing can be a problem. Kebanyakan tanah-tanah ini dikelola sebagai lahan pertanian tanaman pangan yang produktif. Diunduh dari: online.sfsu.edu/jerry/geog317/resources/Mollisols_l.pdf ………….. 25/2/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS KLASIFIKASI MOLLISOLS Ustolls: That are the freely drained Mollisols of semiarid to subhumid climates with ustic soil moisture regime. Erratic rainfall occurs mostly during the growing season, and summer drought is a frequent, but erratic occurence. Most Ustolls show an accumulation of calcium carbonate in the soil profile (calcic horizon). Udolls: Udolls berkembang pada kondisi rezim lengas-tanah UDIK dalam iklim kontinental di daerah temperate dan tropika. Tanah-tanah ini terbentuk pada deposit glasial akhir-Pleistocene atau Holocene atau deposit lainnya, di bawah vegetasi prairie rumput-tinggi. Epipedon molik berkembang dnegan baik. Biasanya di bawahnya ada horison Argillik atau Kambik. Diunduh dari: online.sfsu.edu/jerry/geog317/resources/Mollisols_l.pdf ………….. 25/2/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Xerolls Xerolls adalam mollisols yang drainagenya bagus, berkembang di daerah iklim Mediterranean. They are in the Pacific Northwest, California, Idaho, Nevada, and western Utah. Xerolls are dry for extended periods in summer, but moisture moves through most of the soils in winter and is stored above the deep layers or above bedrock in normal years. The vegetation at the time of settlement was dominantly bunchgrass and shrubs or trees in the areas that have a mesic or frigid temperature regime, a savanna of perennial grasses and a savanna of annual grasses and oak species on the Xerolls in California that have a thermic temperature regime. Many irrigated crops are grown on the Xerolls in the United States, especially where the temperature regime is thermic or mesic. Most of the soils that have gentle or moderate slopes are used as cropland. The very steep soils are used mainly as rangeland, but some are used as forest. Diunduh dari: online.sfsu.edu/jerry/geog317/resources/Mollisols_l.pdf ………….. 25/2/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS KLASIFIKASI MOLLISOLS Several soil moisture regimes are considered at subgroup level ranging from dry to wet conditions: Xeric (e.g. Xeric Argialbolls), aridic (e.g. Aridic Calcixerolls), udic (e.g. Udic Paleustolls), ustic (e.g. Ustic Argicryolls), and aquic (e.g. Aquic Natrustolls). Great groups dan subgroups dibedakan oleh horison penciri bawah-permukaan: (i) argillic - mis. Argialbolls, Argic Duraquolls, (ii) natric - mis. Natraquolls, Natric Duraquolls, (iii) calcic - mis. Calciaquolls, Calcic Haplocryolls, (iv) petrocalcic - mis. Petrocalcic Palexerolls, (v) gypsic - mis. Clcixerolls, (vi) albic - mis. Albic Cryoborolls,or (vii) duripan - mis. Duricryolls, Duric Natrixerolls (viii) Kambik - mis. Eutropeptic Rendolls. Tanah-tanah yang berkembang pada bahan induk vulkanik dengan bobot isi yang rendah ( 2 mm) lebih dari 35 % disebut 'andic', 'aquandic', atau 'vitrandic' (mis. Andic Cryoborolls, Aquandic Argialbolls, Vitrandic Durixerolls). Istilah 'vertic' dipakai kalau Mollisols menunjukkan karakteristik seperti retakan, agregat berbentuk “wedge”, bidang-geser, dan kaya liat tipe mengembang (mis. Vertic Cryaquolls, Vertic Haprendolls, Vertic Palexerolls). Diunduh dari: online.sfsu.edu/jerry/geog317/resources/Mollisols_l.pdf ………….. 25/2/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Penciri Mollisols In Mollisols the significant characteristic is the presence of a mollic epipedon. There are similar soils which show a dark, humus-rich surface horizon high in exchangeable calcium and magnesium. Differences in chemical composition (e.g. phosphorus content) differentiate Mollisols from other soils with similar morphology but different genetic histories. The mollic epipedon may occur in soils of other orders in addition to Mollisols. Mollic epipedons are present in many Vertisols, in which case the plastic, shrink-swell nature of the clay is a more significant soil property than the mollic epipedon. Also, mollic epipedons are found in the Inceptisol order with cambic horizons that more significantly influence the profile than does the mollic epipedon, which in some cases may have been formed by lime applications. Diunduh dari: online.sfsu.edu/jerry/geog317/resources/Mollisols_l.pdf ………….. 25/2/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Penciri Mollisols Tanah-tanah pririe seperti Argiudolls akan berkembang menjadi Albaquolls kalau pelapukan, produksi liat, dan diferensiasi horison dapat berlangsung. Failure to meet the thickness criteria for a mollic epipedon results in potential classification of many of these soils as Mollic Hapludalfs if they are well drained and have an argillic horizon. Tanpa horison argilik, tetapi dnegan horison kambik, tanah-tanah seperti ni diklasifikasikan sebagai Inceptisols. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS KLASIFIKASI MOLLISOLS 1.Mollisols dengan horison GLOSSIK, yaitu penyusupan material albik ke dalam horison bawah-permukaan disebut 'glossic' (mis.Glossic Natriborolls, Glossic Natrustolls). 2.Some Mollisols are differentiated by soil texture. Mollisols that have a sandy or sandy- skeletal particle-size class throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm to 100 cm are denoted as 'arenic' (e.g. Arenic Argiaquolls, Arenic Argiborolls). Other Mollisols that have a mollic epipedon 50 cm or more thick with a texture finer than loamy fine sand are called 'pachic' (e.g. Pachic Haplustolls, Pachic Argiustolls). Mollisols that have a sandy particle-size class throughout the upper 75 cm of the argillic horizon, or throughout the entire argillic horizon if it is less than 75 cm thick are classified as 'psammentic' (e.g. Psammentic Argiudolls ). 3.Tebalnya epipedon molik membedakan Mollisols dengan sebutan 'entik'. Misalnya, tebalnya epipedon molik harus kurang dari 50 cm pada Entic Vermustolls dan tebalnya kurang dari 75 cm pada Entic Vermudolls. Mollisols yang tipis/dangkal diklasifikan menjadi 'lithic' (mis. Lithic Endoaquolls, Lithic Rendolls, Lithic Argicryolls). Epipedon molik yang lebih tebal diklasifikasikan sebagai 'cumulic', tebalnya epipedon > 50 cm (mis. Cumulic Cryaquolls). Diunduh dari: online.sfsu.edu/jerry/geog317/resources/Mollisols_l.pdf ………….. 25/2/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS KLASIFIKASI MOLLISOLS 1.Mollisols yang banyak mengandung liang-liang cacing, kotoran cacing, atau liang-liang hewan tanah, diklasifikasikan sebgaai 'vermic' (mis. Vermudolls). 2.Mollisols dengan epipedon histik (mis. Histic Cryaquolls) dan tanah-tanah dnegan epipedon molik, yg sebenarnya adalah histosol terkubur, yang batas atasnya berada didalam 100 cm tanah-mineral permukaan (mis. Thapto-Histic Cryaquolls). 3.Kondisi lengas-tanah yg basah membentuk mollisols aquik atau oxyaquic Mollisols, dimana sifat-sifat redoximorphic tampak jelas (mis. Aquic Natrixerolls, Oxyaquic Argiborolls). 4.Mollisols where the argillic horizon has its upper boundary 60 cm or more below the mineral soil surface are classified by the term 'pale' (e.g. Paleborolls). In those soils the argillic horizon is the result of an earlier weathering regime no longer present. Diunduh dari: online.sfsu.edu/jerry/geog317/resources/Mollisols_l.pdf ………….. 25/2/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Mollisols adalah tanah-tanah yg mempunyai horison permukaan berwarna gelap, relatif kaya bahan organik. Tanah-tanah ini kaya basa-basa, sehingga sangat subur. Mollisols berkembang di bawah vegetasi rumput pada kondisi iklim yg mempunyai defisit air musiman tingkat moderat hingga signifikan. Mollisols menyusun sekitar 7% permukaan lahan dunia yang bebas es. Diunduh dari: online.sfsu.edu/jerry/geog317/resources/Mollisols_l.pdf ………….. 25/2/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Profil tanah Mollisol, menunjukkan horison permukaan yg warnanya gelap, kaya humus. (sumber: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Soil Survey Staff). Diunduh dari: horizon-rich ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Konsep sentral dari Mollisols adalah bahwa tanah-tanah ini mempunyai horison permukaan yg berwarna gelap, dan kaya basa-basa. Hampir semua tanah-tanah ini mempunyai epipedon Molik. Banyak juga tanah ini yang mempunyai horison argilik atau natrik, atau horizon Kalsik. Beberapa tanah mempunyai horison albik. Ada juga tanah-tanah ini yang mempunyai duripan atau horison petrokalik. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Mollisol di Minnesota Tanah ini mempunyai horison A setebal 16 inches terletak di atas horison Bt yang tipis. Tanda anak panah menunjukkan batas atas dan batas bawah horison Bt (horison tempat akumulasi liat). Horison C terletak di bawah horison Bt. Tanda panah paling bawha menunjukkan becak karbonat. Bahan induk tanah ini kaya kalsium karbonat. Over time, the carbonate has been removed from the upper part of the profile by water leaching through the soil. In a humid climate, where carbonate is found in the subsoil, weathering has not progressed sufficiently for the horizon to be called a B horizon. This is designated the C horizon. Diunduh dari: lawr.ucdavis.edu ………….. 2/3/2013lawr.ucdavis.edu
TANAH MOLLISOLS Mollisols mempunyai horison permukaan berwarna gelap (epipedon molik) yang kaya bahan organik. Lapisan permukaan ini terasa lunak dan “fluffy feel”. Tanah-tanah ini terbentuk dari bahan induk yang kaya hara, dan biasanya di bawah vegetasi padang rumput. Tanah-tanah ini secara alamiah subur dan mampu menyimpan banyak air tersedia. Tanah-tanah ini dikelola sebagai lahan pertanian. Penciri tanah ini adalah epipedon molik. Urutan horison dalam profil tanah adalah: A1, A2, AB, Bw, BC, C. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013www.swac.umn.edu
TANAH MOLLISOLS Horison dalam Mollisols The A horizon, called topsoil by most growers, is the surface mineral layer where organic matter accumulates. Over time, this layer loses clay, iron, and other materials to leaching. This loss is called eluviation. Materials resistant to weathering, such as sand, tend to remain in the A horizon as other materials leach out. The A horizon provides the best environment for the growth of plant roots, microorganisms, and other life. The B horizon, or subsoil, is often called the zone of accumulation where chemicals leached out of the A and E horizon accumulate. The word for this accumulation is illuviation. The B horizon has a lower organic matter content than than the topsoil and often has more clay. The A, E, and B horizons together are known as the solum. This part of the profile is where most plant roots grow. The C horizon lacks the properties of the A and B horizons. It is the soil layer less touched by soil-forming processes and is usually the parent material of the soil. Development of color or structure. The symbol indicates that a horizon has developed enough to show some color or structure but not enough to show illuvial accumulation of material. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Bahan induk tanah kasa basa-basa dan kalkareus, termasuk limestone, loess, atau pasir yg diendapkan angin. The main processes that lead to the formation of grassland Mollisols are melanisation, decomposition, humification and pedoturbation. Mollisols have deep, high organic matter, nutrient- enriched surface soil (A horizon), typically between 60–80 cm in depth. This fertile surface horizon, known as a mollic epipedon, is the defining diagnostic feature of Mollisols. Epipedom Molik terbentuk dari proses jangka panjang poenambahan bahan organik yg berasal dari akar-akar tumbuhan, dan mempunyai struktur-tanah granuler yang lunak. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013 Subordo pada Mollisols 1.Albolls — wet soils; aquic soil moisture regime with an eluvial horizon 2.Aquolls — wet soils; aquic soil moisture regime 3.Cryolls — cold climate; frigid or cryic soil temperature regime 4.Gelolls — Iklim sangat dingin; Rataan tahunan suhu tanah < 0°C 5.Rendolls — bahan induknya kapur 6.Udolls — humid climate; udic moisture regime 7.Ustolls — Iklim subhumid climate; Rezim lengas-tanahnya USTIK 8.Xerolls — Iklim Mediteranaean; Rezim lengas-tanahnya XERIK.
TANAH MOLLISOLS Torrertic Paleustoll (fine, mixed, superactive, thermic) This profile was photographed in Potter County, Texas. The soil is formed in Pleistocene age calcareous sediments on a nearly level slope. Native vegetation is short prairie grasses. This profile has an 18 cm clay loam textured Ap horizon in a mollic epipedon that extends to 60 cm. A clay texture argillic (Bt) horizon is present from 60 to 80 cm and extends to 180 cm as a calcareous Btk horizon. The upper boundary of calcium carbonate rich C horizon is seen at 180 cm. The thick, reddish colored argillic horizon identifies the profile in the ‘Pale’ great group and the borderline soil moisture regime wherein the moisture regime is dry in some or all parts for more than 180 but less than 205 cumulative days in normal years and a COLE (coefficient of linear extensibility) value more than 0.06 are identified by the Torrertic subgroup, i.e. an intergrade to the suborder of Torrerts. In addition to pasture these soils are used for both irrigated and dryland cotton, corn, grain sorghum and winter wheat. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Udic Paleustoll (Fine, mixed, semiactive isohyperthermic) This profile was photographed in Zambia, Africa. The soil is formed in limestone derived sediment on a nearly level slope. The site has been used as cropland for many years and there is no record of natural vegetation. The surface Ap horizon (0-18 cm) is clay loam in texture below which clay content increases to between 50 and 60 percent to a depth of 180 cm. Organic carbon content exceeds 1 percent from the surface to a depth of 70 cm. Base saturation percentage (CEC7) exceeds 60 percent throughout the entire profile. Tanaman utama yang dibudidayakan pada tanah ini adalah jagung, sorghum, kedelai, kacang-buncis, Kapas dan bunga matahari. The clay loam Ap horizon presents some difficulty for hand hoe cultivation but mechanized cultivation prepares better seed bed tilth. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Lithic Hapludoll (coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, hyperthermic) This profile was photographed in São Paulo state Brazil SA. The soil is formed over calcareous sandstone at the edge, shoulder position below a plateau covered with Oxisols formed in thick oxidized sediments. The lithic contact, seen in this photo at 50 cm is at the limit of the Lithic subgroup classification. Mollisols formed in base enriched sediments from the calcareous sandstone also dominate the side slopes directly below this site are thicker and classify as Typic Hapludolls and Typic Argiudolls. Base saturation in the soils formed in and from sediments derived from the calcareous sandstone range from 50 to 90%. In surrounding Oxisols base saturation percentages are mostly less than 10%. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Typic Hapludoll (fine, mixed, active isohyperthermic) This profile was photographed in a cultivated field in the state of Loreto, Peru. This soil is formed in fine textured basic sediments on a 3 percent slope under tropical rain forest vegetation. This profile, photographed when extremely dry barely qualifies as a Mollisol with a mollic epipedon just over 25 cm thick, consisting of moderately hard blocky peds that are less than 30 cm in diameter. A thin cambic horizon is seen between 25 and 35 cm. White calcium carbonate nodules are present below 100 cm but are not present in sufficient quantity to form a calcic horizon. These soils are highly valued for slash and burn cultivation practiced by the indigenous people. In contrast to the more prevalent Ultisols in the area these soils naturally vegetate more rapidly after food crop cultivation is abandoned, and that vegetation can be again be cut and burned in as little as five years. Weeds are a more significant problem in cultivated crops than on adjacent Ultisols and are most often the reason to abandon a cultivated site after two or three crops. Heat from burning kills weed seeds near the surface enabling relatively weed free growth for one or two crops. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Aridic Calciustoll (coarse-loamy, carbonatic, isohyperthermic) This profile was photographed in Ponce District, Puerto Rico. This soil is formed in colluvium and residuum weathered from soft limestone bedrock on a 10 percent slope. The profile has a 30 cm mollic epipedon over a calcic (Bk) horizon at a depth of 35 to 70 cm. The calcic horizon is enriched in carbonate but the parent material C horizon below 70 cm is also calcareous. The natural grassland vegetation is pastured. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Udic Argiustoll (fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic) This quarry exposure was photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska. The soil is formed in loess, to a depth of about 150 cm over glacial till. The till is unoxidized, grey color except around oxidized cracks that are filled with white CaCO3 illuviated from the solum. No plow layer is evident at this site but these soils are extensively used for corn and small grains. However, unreliable rainfall during the summer growing season threatens yields in most years unless supplemental irrigation is available. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Typic Argiustoll southeastern South Dakota This profile illustrates the typical morphology associated with soils formed under grassland vegetation in the central Great Plains region. The thick, dark A horizon has developed as a result of the proliferation and subsequent decompostion of fine and very fine roots. This process is known as melanization. Mean annual precipitation is ~22", and secondary carbonates are clearly visible as the white nodules in the subsoil. Secondary carbonates are those that have been translocated in the profile and re-precipitated in discrete forms such as nodules, concretions, masses, and coatings on ped faces and pore linings. Kalau CaCO3 telah tercuci dari bagian-atas profil tanah, pergerakan dan akumulasi liat menghasilkan epembentukan horison Bt argilik. Diunduh dari: 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Oxyaquic Argixeroll (Southwick series) This soil belongs to the Southwick series and has developed in loess under ponderosa pine forest. The relatively open canopy and dense understory associated with ponderosa pine forest in this area are responsible for development of a mollic epipedon. The A-Bw horizon sequence has formed mostly in Holocene loess while the Btb horizon represents the upper part of a late-Wisconsinan paleosol. (Southwick series)Southwick series The Btb horizon is hydraulically restrictive with a saturated hydraulic conductivity of ~0.1 cm/day. Water is perched above this horizon for a period extending from late November through May. Diunduh dari: 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Loamy-skeletal, mixed, superactive, mesic Lithic Argixeroll (Gwin series) This soil formed in loess mixed with basalt colluvium. (Gwin series) The Bt horizons contain 27 to 35% clay. This is due to a long period of soil formation on a stable land surface. The percentage of coarse fragments in these soils is generally greater than 35%. The high percentage of coarse fragments and the shallowness of the soil, limit the total available water holding capacity to around inches. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Loamy-skeletal, mixed, superactive, mesic Lithic Argixerolls TYPICAL PEDON: Gwin cobbly silt loam, rangeland (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted) A : inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) cobbly silt loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; moderate to strong granular and weak thin platy structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many roots; 20 percent angular rock fragments; neutral (pH 6.6); clear smooth boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick) Bt1: inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) very cobbly silty clay loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; moderate coarse prismatic and moderate coarse subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, moderately sticky and moderately plastic; many roots; many fine continuous tubular pores; few faint clay films on vertical and horizontal faces of peds; 55 percent angular rock fragments; neutral (pH 6.6); gradual wavy boundary. (4 to 9 inches thick) Bt2 : inches; brown (7.5YR 4/2) extremely cobbly silty clay loam, dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) moist; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, moderately sticky and moderately plastic; few roots; few faint black (10YR 2/1) clay films on faces of peds and rock fragments; 60 percent angular rock fragments; neutral (pH 6.6); gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 12 inches thick) R : 17 inches; batuan basalt. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS TYPE LOCATION: Walla Walla County, Washington; on Black Snake Ridge; SW1/4SW1/4 section 3, T. 7 N., R. 38 E. KARAKTERISTIK Mean annual soil temperature is about 47 to 54 degrees F. These soils are usually moist, but are dry in the moisture control section for 60 to 75 consecutive days following summer solstice but range to 45 days in western Idaho (xeric moisture regime). The solum thickness and depth to bedrock range from 10 to 20 inches. The particle-size control section contains 40 to 90 percent gravel, cobbles, and stones, and 15 to 35 percent clay. The soils are slightly acid to slightly alkaline. Hue is 10YR or 7.5YR throughout. The A horizon has value of 3 through 5 dry. 2 or 3 moist, through and chroma of 1 through 6 dry, 1 through 3 moist, through. It has weak to strong structure. The BA horizon, when present, has colors similar to the A horizon, but has textures and rock fragments similar to the Bt horizon. The Bt horizon has value of 3 through 6 dry, 2 through 4 moist, through, and chroma of 1 through 6 dry, and 1 through 4 moist.. It is heavy silt loam, loam, clay loam or silty clay loam and has 35 to 90 percent rock fragments. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS TATANAN GEOGRAFI These soils are on mountain slopes, basalt plateaus, ridgetops, foothills, structural benches, hill shoulders, summits, backslopes, and footslopes and canyon walls. They formed in colluvium and residuum from basalt mixed with loess. Slopes are 0 to 90 percent. Elevations range from 1,600 to 4,500 feet in Washington, and from 800 to 6,210 feet in Oregon and Idaho. Highest elevations are on south aspects only. The climate can be characterized by cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 14 to 24 inches in Washington, 14 to 33 inches in Idaho, and 14 to 28 inches in Oregon. Mean January temperature is 25 to 29 degrees F; mean July temperature is 66 to 72 degrees F; and mean annual temperature is 43 to 52 degrees F. Frost-free season is 90 to 180 days. DRAINAGE dan PERMEABILITAS Well drained, slow to very rapid runoff, moderately slow permeability. PENGGUNAAN & VEGETASI The Gwin soil is used for grazing and as wildlife habitat. Native vegetation is mainly bluebunch wheatgrass, Idaho fescue, and Sandberg bluegrass. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Horison penciri dan sifat-sifat khas yg dikenali pada pedon ini : 1.Epipedon Molik - from the surface to 17 inches (A, Bt1 and Bt2 horizons) 2.Horison Argillic - from 5 to 17 inches (Bt1 and Bt2 horizon) 3.Lithic contact - at 17 inches (R horizon) 4.Particle-size control section - from 5 to 17 inches (Bt1 and Bt2 horizons) 5.Rezim lengas-tanah Xerik Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Argiudoll (Sharpsburg series) (Sharpsburg series) Tanah-tanah ini nterbentuk pada bahan induk loess yang dalam (tebal) di bawah vegetasi prairie rumput-tinggi. They are extensive throughout SW Iowa, NW Missouri, NE Kansas, and SE Nebraska, where they occupy convex ridgetops, upland divides, convex side slopes, and high benches. Most of these soils are now used for cultivation of corn, soybeans, small grains, and hay. Mean annual precipitation is approximately 28-32", which has been sufficient to leach CaCO3 from the soil profile. This has allowed clay movement and formation of an argillic horizon (Bt horizons). Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, smectitic, mesic Typic Argiudolls TYPICAL PEDON: Sharpsburg silty clay loam, on a convex slope of 8 percent, in a cultivated field. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.) Ap--0 to 20 centimeters; black (10YR 2/1) silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. A1--20 to 28 centimeters; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; moderate very fine subangular blocky structure; friable; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. A2: cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silty clay loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; some brown (10YR 4/3) peds; moderate very fine subangular blocky structure; friable; moderately acid; gradual smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of the A horizon is 25 to 49 centimeters.) Bt1: cm; brown (10YR 4/3) silty clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine subangular blocky; firm; very few fine roots; common distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) clay films on faces of peds; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) organic stains on faces of peds; moderately acid; gradual smooth boundary. Bt2: cm; brown (10YR 4/3) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting to moderate fine subangular blocky; firm; very few fine and medium roots; many distinct dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay films on faces of peds; few fine iron and manganese oxide concretions; few fine distinct light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) redoximorphic depletions; moderately acid; gradual smooth boundary. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Bt3: cm; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting to weak medium subangular blocky; friable; many prominent grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay films on faces of peds; few fine iron and manganese oxide concretions; common medium faint light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) redoximorphic depletions; common medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) redoximorphic concentrations; moderately acid; gradual smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bt horizon is 50 to 100 centimeters.) BC: cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure; firm; common distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay films on faces of peds; few fine iron and manganese oxide concretions; many fine and medium distinct grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) redoximorphic depletions; common medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) redoximorphic concentrations; moderately acid; gradual smooth boundary. (10 to 25 centimeters thick) C : cm; mottled grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2), yellowish brown (10YR 5/4), and brown (7.5YR 4/4) silty clay loam; massive; firm; very few fine roots; common fine iron and manganese oxide concretions; slightly acid. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of the mollic epipedon--25 to 49 centimeters Depth to carbonates -- >150 cm Clay content in the particle-size control section (weighted average)--36 to 42 percent Sand content in the particle-size control section (weighted average)--less than 5 percent Ap and A horizons: Hue: 10YR; Value: 2 or 3; Chroma: 1 to 3 Texture--silt loam or silty clay loam Clay content--25 to 34 percent clay Sand content--less than 5 percent Reaction--strongly acid to slightly acid Bt horizon (upper part): Hue: 10YR; Value: 4 or 5; Chroma: 3 or 4 Texture--silty clay loam or silty clay Clay content : 36 to 42 percent Sand content : less than 5 percent Reaction--strongly acid to slightly acid Matrix value and chroma of 5/2 and 6/2 within depths of less than 80 centimeters are outside the range of the series Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013 RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Bt horizon (lower part) or Btg (if present): Hue: 7.5YR to 5Y; Value: 4 to 6; Chroma: 2 to 6 Texture--silty clay loam Clay content--30 to 38 percent clay Sand content--less than 5 percent Reaction--moderately acid or slightly acid BC or BCg horizon (if present): Hue: 7.5YR to 5Y; Value: 4 to 6; Chroma: 2 to 6 Texture--silty clay loam Clay content--28 to 35 percent clay Sand content--less than 5 percent Reaction--moderately acid to neutral C or Cg (if present) horizon: Hue: 7.5YR to 5Y; Value: 4 to 6; Chroma: 2 to 6 Texture--silty clay loam or silt loam Clay content--25 to 35 percent clay Sand content--less than 5 percent Reaction--moderately acid to neutral
TANAH MOLLISOLS GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: 1.Bahan induk tanah: loess 2.Landscape--dissected till plains and stream terraces 3.Landform--interfluves and side slopes on dissected till plains and on treads and risers on stream terraces in river valleys 4.Bentuk lereng: convex (cembung) 5.Hillslope position--summit and back slope 6.Geomorphic component--interfluve, side slope, and tread and riser 7.Kemiringan : % 8.Elevation: m above sea level 9.Mean annual air temperature--8 to 17 degrees C 10.Mean annual precipitation--660 to 1,145 millimeters 11.Periode bebas salju: hari. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS PERHATIAN: 1.Particle-size control section--the zone from a depth of 43 to 93 centimeters; series control section--the zone from the surface to a depth of 150 centimeters. 2.Horison penciri dan sifat-sifat yg dikenali dalam pedon ini : Epipedon molik : the zone from the surface of the soil to a depth of 43 centimeters (Ap, A1, and A2 horizons); Horison argilik: the zone from a depth of 43 to 97 centimeters (Bt1, Bt2, and Bt3 horizons); Rezim lengas tanah UDIK. 3.Redoximorphic features above a depth of 100 centimeters are believed to be related to precipitation events in abnormal years. 4.Ketebalan horison A, depth to clay maximum, maximum percent clay, thickness of the Bt horizon, and depth to redoximorphic features decrease as gradient increases on convex slopes. Diunduh dari: ………….. 2/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS The Drummer series consists of very deep, poorly drained soils formed in loess or other silty material and in the underlying loamy stratified outwash on nearly level or depressional parts of outwash plains, stream terraces, and till plains. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 940 mm (37 inches), and mean annual air temperature is about 11 degrees C (52 degrees F). Diunduh dari: https://soilseries.sc.egov.usda.gov/OSD_Docs/D/DRUMMER.html ………….. 4/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Endoaquolls TYPICAL PEDON: Drummer silty clay loam - on a south-facing concave slope with less than 1 percent gradient under grass at an elevation of about 218 meters (715 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.) Ap--0 to 18 cm (0 to 7 inches); black (10YR 2/1) silty clay loam, dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; weak fine granular structure; firm; many fine roots; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary. A--18 to 36 cm (7 to 14 inches); black (10YR 2/1) silty clay loam, dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; moderate fine subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine granular; firm; many fine and medium roots throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. [Combined thickness of the A horizons is 25 to 56 cm (10 to 22 inches)]. BA--36 to 48 cm (14 to 19 inches); very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silty clay loam, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; moderate fine and medium subangular blocky structure; firm; many fine and medium roots; few fine faint very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2) masses of oxidized iron-manganese in the matrix; slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary. [0 to 20 cm (0 to 8 inches) thick] …….. Diunduh dari: https://soilseries.sc.egov.usda.gov/OSD_Docs/D/DRUMMER.html ………….. 4/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS Bg--48 to 64 cm (19 to 25 inches); dark gray (10YR 4/1) silty clay loam; moderate fine prismatic structure parting to moderate fine angular blocky; firm; many fine roots; common fine distinct and prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of oxidized iron in the matrix; many worm holes; neutral; gradual smooth boundary. Btg1--64 to 81 cm (25 to 32 inches); grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty clay loam; weak fine and medium prismatic structure parting to moderate fine angular blocky; firm; many fine roots; common distinct dark gray (N 4/0) clay films on faces of peds; many medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of oxidized iron-manganese in the matrix; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. Btg2--81 to 104 cm (32 to 41 inches); gray (N 5/0) silty clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting to weak medium angular blocky; firm; few fine roots; few distinct dark gray (N 4/0) clay films on faces of peds; many medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of oxidized iron-manganese in the matrix; neutral; clear wavy boundary. [Combined thickness of the Bg horizon and Btg horizons is 51 to 119 cm (20 to 47 inches).] Diunduh dari: https://soilseries.sc.egov.usda.gov/OSD_Docs/D/DRUMMER.html ………….. 4/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS 2Btg to 119 cm (41 to 47 inches); gray (N 5/0) loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; few distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay films on faces of peds; common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of oxidized iron in the matrix; 4 percent fine gravel; neutral; abrupt wavy boundary. [10 to 25 cm (4 to 10 inches) thick] 2Cg--119 to 152 cm (47 to 60 inches); dark gray (10YR 4/1) stratified loam and sandy loam; massive; friable; many medium prominent olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) masses of oxidized iron-manganese in the matrix; many medium distinct gray (N 5/0) iron depletions in the matrix; slightly alkaline. Diunduh dari: https://soilseries.sc.egov.usda.gov/OSD_Docs/D/DRUMMER.html ………….. 4/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The depth to the base of soil development ranges from 102 to 165 cm (40 to 65 inches). The depth to horizons with greater than 15 percent sand ranges from 102 to 152 cm (40 to 60 inches). The dominant clay mineral in the upper part of the series control section is smectite and in the lower part is illite. The particle- size control section averages between 20 and 35 percent clay and less than 15 percent fine sand or coarser. The mollic epipedon ranges from 25 to 61 cn (10 to 24 inches) in thickness and extends into the upper part of the B horizon in many pedons. Rock fragments are less than 15 percent in the lower part of the series control section. Depth to carbonates is greater than 102 cm (40 inches). The Ap, A, and/or AB horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or is neutral; value of 2 to 3; and chroma of 0 to 2. It is silty clay loam and less commonly is silt loam. Clay content ranges from 20 to 35 percent. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to slightly alkaline. Some pedons have an AB horizon rather than a BA horizon. The Bg, Btg, and/or BA horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or is neutral; value dominantly of 4 or 5, but ranges to 3 in the upper part and to 6 in the lower part; and chroma dominantly of 1 or 2, but ranging from 0 to 4. Texture is silty clay loam in the upper part and silty clay loam or silt loam in the lower part. Clay content ranges from 20 to 35 percent. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to slightly alkaline. Diunduh dari: https://soilseries.sc.egov.usda.gov/OSD_Docs/D/DRUMMER.html ………….. 4/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The 2Bg, 2Btg, and/or 2BCg horizon has hue of 7.5YR, 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or is neutral; value of 4 to 6; and chroma of 0 to 2. Some pedons have nearly equal proportions of low chroma and high chroma colors in the matrix. Texture is commonly loam or silt loam, and most pedons contain strata of sandy loam, clay loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay loam, or fine sandy loam. Clay content ranges from 15 to 33 percent and sand content ranges from 15 to 55 percent. Content of rock fragments is less than 7 percent. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline. The 2Cg and/or 2C horizon has hue of 7.5YR, 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or is neutral; value of 4 to 7; and chroma of 0 to 8. It typically is stratified. Textures include loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam, silt loam, and silty clay loam. Some pedons have thin strata of loamy sand. Clay content ranges from 10 to 32 percent and sand content ranges from 15 to 80 percent. Content of rock fragments is less than 15 percent. Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline. Diunduh dari: https://soilseries.sc.egov.usda.gov/OSD_Docs/D/DRUMMER.html ………….. 4/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Drummer soils are on nearly level or depressional parts of outwash plains, stream terraces, and till plains of Wisconsinan Age. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Drummer soils formed in 40 to 60 inches of loess or other silty material and in the underlying loamy stratified outwash. Mean annual air temperature ranges from 46 to 54 degrees F., mean annual precipitation is 29 to 40 inches, frost free days range from 140 to 180 days, and the elevation ranges from 500 to 1020 feet above mean sea level. DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Poorly drained. In drained conditions, an apparent seasonal high water table is 15 cm (0.5 foot) above the surface to 31 cm (1.0 foot) below the surface at some time between January and May in most years. In undrained conditions, an apparent seasonal high water table is 15 cm (0.5 foot) above the surface to 15 cm (0.5 foot) below the surface at some time between November and June in most years. The potential for surface runoff is negligible to low. Water ponds on these soils for brief periods during the spring. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high to high (4.23 to micrometers per second). Permeability is moderate. Diunduh dari: https://soilseries.sc.egov.usda.gov/OSD_Docs/D/DRUMMER.html ………….. 4/3/2013
TANAH MOLLISOLS USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are cropped. Corn and soybeans are the principal crops. Some areas are used for growing small grain or meadow. Native vegetation is hydrophytic grasses, reeds, and sedges. SERIES ESTABLISHED: Ford County, Illinois, Horison penciri dan sifat-sifat pada pedon ini: 1.mollic epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of 48 cm (19 inches) (Ap, A, and BA horizons); 2.cambic horizon - the zone from approximately 48 to 119 cm (19 to 47 inches) (Bg, Btg1, Btg2, and 2Btg3 horizons); 3.aquic conditions - redoximorphic features present in the zone from approximately 36 to 152 cm (14 to 60 inches) (BA, Bg, Btg1, Btg2, 2Btg3, and 2Cg horizons). ADDITIONAL DATA: SSIR No. 19, pp University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 665, Profile No. 29. Diunduh dari: https://soilseries.sc.egov.usda.gov/OSD_Docs/D/DRUMMER.html ………….. 4/3/2013
PENGELOLAAN MOLLISOLS Even the most fertile Mollisols cannot sustain high crop production and harvest without fertilization. While native fertility will maintain moderate levels of crop production for several years, high levels of production require additional fertility. Note that by about 1920 fertilizer was required for a lesser yield on Ultisols while no fertilizer was used to obtain a greater yield on Mollisols. By about 1980 the use of fertilizer had increased on both soils but the Mollisols required higher annual fertilizer rates than the Ultisols because higher yield averages were maintained. Although lime is usually not initially required for crop production and was not used in 1919 it is now often necessary to maintain crop production on most Mollisols. A portion of the success of initial food crop growth on Mollisols can be attributed to the mineralization of organic carbon with release of organically bound nitrogen as the soils are cultivated and exposed to higher maximum soil temperatures. The presence of fertile subsoil, free of aluminum toxicity and thus unhindered root penetration is a major contributor to the excellence of Mollisols for crop production. Diunduh dari: 4/3/2013
PENGELOLAAN MOLLISOLS Mollisols dapat dikelola sebagai sawah produktif ………….. bgm caranya? Foto: smno.sawah.nganjuk.janu2013