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Virtualization. Definisi Virtualisasi Virtualization berasal dari kata Virtual atau Maya yang menerangkan sebuah teknik menciptakan sesuatu yang maya.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Virtualization. Definisi Virtualisasi Virtualization berasal dari kata Virtual atau Maya yang menerangkan sebuah teknik menciptakan sesuatu yang maya."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Virtualization

2 Definisi Virtualisasi Virtualization berasal dari kata Virtual atau Maya yang menerangkan sebuah teknik menciptakan sesuatu yang maya dari sesuatu yang konkrit. Teknik ini telah diterapkan sejak jaman mainframe dan dan terus terus berkembang berkembang sampai sampai diterapkan diterapkan pada pada cloud cloud computing sebagai satu feature yang sangat penting. Walaupun tentunya penerapan teknik virtualisasi ini berbeda.

3 Sejarah Virtualisasi Pada jaman mainframe computing atau “Host-Terminal” system, teknik virtualisasi ini sudah diterapkan pada sistem memory. Dengan teknik ini jumlah memory seakan disulap menjadi berlipat ganda dari jumlah memory secara fisik yang sesungguhnya. Bayangkan saja sistem PDP-11 sebuah minicomputer yang hanya mempunyai memory sebesar 64 KB memory saja bisa dirubah sehingga mempunyai kemampuan untuk melayani puluhan users. Coba bandingkan saja saja dengan dengan komputer komputer PCPC yang yang umum umum kita kita pakai pakai,, memorynya memorynya saja saja sudah sudah 22 GB tetapi hanya melayani 1 user saja. Prinsip cukup sederhana, dengan bantuan hard disk dan kenyataan bahwa eksekusi setiap program dari user adalah satu instruksi setiap saatnya, maka hanya sebagian program saja yang diangkut ke memory pada setiap saat dan sisanya mendekam di harddisk yang baru diangkut ke memory sampai dibutuhkan atau eksekusi program tersebut tiba pada instruksi yang dikandungnya. Prinsip manfaat yang kita peroleh dari teknik virtualisasi ini adalah meningkatnya kemampuan jumlah user yang bisa dilayani secara bersamaan

4 Sejarah Virtualisasi … Lalu berkembang sebuah teknik irtualisasi yang mensimulasi sebuah hardware atau PC secara software misalnya Virtual PC. Virtual PC ini berfungsi sama persis seperti sebuah komputer lengkap dengan operating systemnya dan siap dipergunakan user sebagaimana sebuah PC beneran layaknya. Untuk mempergunakan virtual pc ini maka user harus menjalankan software cpc yang yang telah telah diciptakannya itu karena karena virtual pc ini hanyalah merupakan sebuah file saja. Jadi dengan mempergunakan sebuah PC kita bisa menciptakan virtual pc bermacam-macam seolah kita mempunyai beberapa PC dalm arti sesungguhnya. Salah satu tujuan penggunaannya adalah untuk testing software sehingga apabila ada terjadi masalah atau virus sekalipun maka PC benerannya tidak akan kena imbasnya karena segala yang terjadi hanya di dalam virtual pc itu sendiri. Penanggulangannya semudah menghapus sebuah file dan menciptakan virtual pc yang baru.

5 Manfaat Virtualisasi Tujuan lain dari virtualisasi adalah untuk memaksimalkan pemanfaatan sebuah fasilitas infrastructure seperti processor, network, dan communication channel. Tanpa disadari bahwa processor lebih banyak nganggurnya daripada sibuk bekerja. Pada waktu anda melakukan pekerjaan mengetik dengan Microsoft word sebenarnya processor tidaklah begitu banyak dipergunakan. Apalagi kalau kita bicara printer tentunya tidak mungkin atau jarang kita melakukan printing dengan printer itu. Jadi lebih banyak nganggurnya daripada dipakai. Kenyataan inilah yang menyadarkan dunia bisnis untuk mengirit biaya, misalnya biaya biaya media media telekomunikasi telekomunikasi.. Seandainya Seandainya dulu dulu menyediakan menyediakan 11 jalur jalur untuk untuk 11 departemen, sekarang tidak lagi tetapi mungkin cukup hanya 2 jalur dan dishare dengan teknik virtualisasi oleh semua departemen. Hebatnya teknik virtualisasi ini adalah bahwa pihak user tidak mengetahui kenyataan ini dan merasa atau mengetahui bahwa mereka memiliki 1 jalur sendiri yang tidak dipakai bersama2 dengan pihak lainnya.

6 Manfaat Virtualisasi … Bisa meningkatkan UTILITY atau pemanfaatan infrastructure mencapai 100% atau semaksimalnya. Bisa menciptakan imunisasi atau security dimana 1 user tidak bisa mengganggu atau merusak user lainnya karena mereka masing masing terselubung dalam 1 virtual machine. Bisa memberikan elastisitas atau ketidakterbatasan infrastructure kepada setiap user. Bisa menciptakan virtual machine atau virtual desktop yang sesuai dengan spesifikasi prosesor, memory, harddisk, dsb yang dibutuhkan oleh user. Sehingga user cukup pakai sebuah IPAD saja untuk mengoperasikan sebuah virtual super desktop atau komputer secanggih apapun karena semua proses dilakukan di cloud host/server dan IPAD itu hanya berfungsi sebagai kepanjangan monitor dan keyboard saja.

7 7 Key Properties of Virtual Machines Partitioning  Run multiple operating systems on one physical machine  Divide system resources between virtual machines

8 8 Partitioning  Run multiple operating systems on one physical machine  Divide system resources between virtual machines Key Properties of Virtual Machines Isolation  Fault and security isolation at the hardware level  Advanced resource controls preserve performance

9 9 Key Properties of Virtual Machines Partitioning  Run multiple operating systems on one physical machine  Divide system resources between virtual machines Isolation  Fault and security isolation at the hardware level  Advanced resource controls preserve performance Encapsulation  Entire state of the virtual machine can be saved to files  Move and copy virtual machines as easily as moving and copying files

10 10 Encapsulation  Entire state of the virtual machine can be saved to files  Move and copy virtual machines as easily as moving and copying files Key Properties of Virtual Machines Partitioning  Run multiple operating systems on one physical machine  Divide system resources between virtual machines Isolation  Fault and security isolation at the hardware level  Advanced resource controls preserve performance Hardware-Independence  Provision or migrate any virtual machine to any similar or different physical server

11 Software virtualization Technology Platform Emulation Instruction-set/pure emulation : 8086 emulator on IA-32 OS-API emulation : wine Hosted virtualization VMWare ESX server, User Mode Linux Para-virtualization Xen, Denali Container based virtualization Linux Vserver, Solaris Zones, BSD Jails, FreeVPs, OpenVz

12 the virtual machine simulates the complete hardware, allowing an unmodified "guest" OS for a completely different CPU to be run. This approach has long been used to enable the creation of software for new processors before they were physically available. Examples include Bochs, PearPC, PPC version of Virtual PC, QEMU without acceleration, and the Hercules emulator. Emulation is implemented using a variety of techniques, from state machines to the use of dynamic recompilation on a full virtualization platform. Emulation or simulation

13 Hosted Virtualization form of full virtualization where the hypervisor runs on top of a host OSfull virtualizationhypervisorrunshost OS

14 the virtual machine does not necessarily simulate hardware, but instead (or in addition) offers a special API that can only be used by modifying the "guest" OS. This system call to the hypervisor is called a "hypercall" in Xen, Parallels Workstation and Enomalism; it is implemented via a DIAG ("diagnose") hardware instruction in IBM's CMS under VM (which was the origin of the term hypervisor). Examples include VMware ESX Server, Win4Lin 9x, and z/VM. Paravirtualization

15 Platform Virtualization Para-virtualization (Type 1)Hosted-virtualization (Type 2)

16 Hypervisors are currently classified in two types: –Type 1 hypervisor (or Type 1 virtual machine monitor) is software that runs directly on a given hardware platform (as an operating system control program). A "guest" operating system thus runs at the second level above the hardware. The classic type 1 hypervisor was CP/CMS, developed at IBM in the 1960s, ancestor of IBM's current z/VM. More recent examples are Xen, VMware's ESX Server, and Sun's Hypervisor (released in 2005). –Type 2 hypervisor (or Type 2 virtual machine monitor) is software that runs within an operating system environment. A "guest" operating system thus runs at the third level above the hardware. Examples include VMware server and Microsoft Virtual Server. Hypervisor

17 This is the preferred technology for running Linux servers as it is the fastest approach. OpenVZ is container-based virtualization for Linux. OpenVZ creates multiple secure, isolated containers (otherwise known as CT, VEs or VPSs). Each container performs and executes exactly like a stand-alone server; a container can be rebooted independently and have root access, users, IP addresses, memory, processes, files, applications, system libraries and configuration files.

18 Resource Virtualization The basic concept of platform virtualization, was later extended to the virtualization of specific system resources, such as storage volumes, name spaces, and network resources.

19 Resource aggregation, spanning, or concatenation combines individual components into larger resources or resource pools. For example: –RAID and volume managers combine many disks into one large logical disk. –Storage Virtualization refers to the process of completely abstracting logical storage from physical storage, and is commonly used in SANs. The physical storage resources are aggregated into storage pools, from which the logical storage is created. Multiple independent storage devices, which may be scattered over a network, appear to the user as a single, location-independent, monolithic storage device, which can be managed centrally. –Channel bonding and network equipment use multiple links combined to work as though they offered a single, higher- bandwidth link. –Virtual Private Network (VPN), Network Address Translation (NAT), and similar networking technologies create a virtualized network namespace within or across network subnets. –Multiprocessor and multi-core computer systems often present what appears as a single, fast processor. Resource Virtualization

20 Computer clusters, grid computing, and virtual servers use the above techniques to combine multiple discrete computers into larger metacomputers. Partitioning is the splitting of a single resource (usually large), such as disk space or network bandwidth, into a number of smaller, more easily utilized resources of the same type. This is sometimes also called "zoning," especially in storage networks. Encapsulation is the hiding of resource complexity by the creation of a simplified interface. For example, CPUs often incorporate cache memory or pipelines to improve performance, but these elements are not reflected in their virtualized external interface. Similar virtualized interfaces hiding complex implementations are found in disk drives, modems, routers, and many other "smart" devices. Resource Virtualization

21 Linux-related virtualization projects ProjectTypeLicense BochsEmulationLGPL QEMUEmulationLGPL/GPL VMwareFull virtualizationProprietary z/VMFull virtualizationProprietary XenParavirtualizationGPL UMLParavirtualizationGPL Linux-VServerOperating system- level virtualization GPL OpenVZOperating system- level virtualization GPL

22 Virtualization Examples Server consolidation - Virtual machines are used to consolidate many physical servers into fewer servers, which in turn host virtual machines. Each physical server is reflected as a virtual machine "guest" residing on a virtual machine host system. This is also known as Physical-to- Virtual or 'P2V' transformation.

23 Disaster recovery - Virtual machines can be used as "hot standby" environments for physical production servers. This changes the classical "backup-and-restore" philosophy, by providing backup images that can "boot" into live virtual machines, capable of taking over workload for a production server experiencing an outage. Virtualization Examples

24 Testing and training - Hardware virtualization can give root access to a virtual machine. This can be very useful such as in kernel development and operating system courses. Virtualization Examples

25 Portable applications - The Microsoft Windows platform has a well-known issue involving the creation of portable applications, needed (for example) when running an application from a removable drive, without installing it on the system's main disk drive. This is a particular issue with USB drives. Virtualization can be used to encapsulate the application with a redirection layer that stores temporary files, Windows Registry entries, and other state information in the application's installation directory – and not within the system's permanent file system. See portable applications for further details. It is unclear whether such implementations are currently available. Virtualization Examples

26 Portable workspaces - Recent technologies have used virtualization to create portable workspaces on devices like iPods and USB memory sticks. These products include: –Application Level – Thinstall – which is a driver-less solution for running "Thinstalled" applications directly from removable storage without system changes or needing Admin rights –OS-level – MojoPac, Ceedo, and U3 – which allows end users to install some applications onto a storage device for use on another PC. –Machine-level – moka5 and LivePC – which delivers an operating system with a full software suite, including isolation and security protections. Virtualization Examples

27 27 VMware VMotion 73% of VMware customers have implemented VMotion in production Live migration of virtual machines Zero downtime

28 28 VMware DRS Resource Pool Business Demand Dynamic and intelligent allocation of hardware resources Ensure optimal alignment between business and IT 67% of VMware customers use DRS in production

29 29 Ensure High availability with VMware HA Resource Pool X VMware HA automatically restarts virtual machines when a physical server fails

30 30 Distributed Power Management Resource Pool Business Demand Power Off Consolidates workloads onto fewer servers when the cluster needs fewer resources Places unneeded servers in standby mode Brings servers back online as workload needs increase Minimize power consumption while guaranteeing service levels

31 31 VirtualCenter Components ƒ VirtualCenter Management Server – Minimum one management server license required to manage individual ESX Server instances – Analogous to IBM Director server  VirtualCenter Agent – this is the management agent required for every ESX Server instance being managed by VirtualCenter – Analogous to IBM Director agent ƒ VirtualCenter VMotion – required on every ESX Server instance on which VMotion is intended to be used ƒ Requires VC Agent License VirtualCenter Agent ESX Server SMP VMotion VirtualCenter Management Server VirtualCenter Consoles

32 32 7 Programmatic Interfaces Virtual Machine and Server Management 1 Provisioning 2 Migration 3 Resource Management 4 System Monitoring 5 Security and Access Control 6 Centralized Management VirtualCenter Capabilities What's new

33 33 –Simplifies and automates disaster recovery workflows: Setup, testing, failover, failback –Provides central management of recovery plans from VirtualCenter –Turns manual recovery processes into automated recovery plans –Simplifies integration with 3 rd - party storage replication Introducing VMware Site Recovery Manager Site Recovery Manager leverages VMware Infrastructure to transform disaster recovery

34 34 Replication with VMware: Array- Based Replication WAN or Dark Fiber WAN or Dark Fiber Array-Based Replication (SRDF, SnapMirror, etc.) PRIMARY DR SITE Site Failure Source VMFS Target VMFS SLA’s = High


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