2DefinitionStrategi teknologi adalah pola (yang nampak) dalam pemilihan teknologi yang dilakukan perusahaan.Pemilihan tersebut meliputi komitmen sumberdaya atas kesesuaian, pemeliharaan, penerapan dan penghentian kapabilitas teknologikal.Pemilihan teknologi ini menetapkan karakter dan tingkat kemampuan teknis prinsip perusahaan dan sekumpulan ketersediaan platform produk dan proses.
3Empat poin penting dari definisi: Strategi teknologi fokus pada macam teknologi yang dipilih perusahaan untuk dibeli, dikembangkan, diterapkan atau dihentikan.Komitmen2 yang meliputi pemilihan teknologi mendefinisikan strategi teknologiStrategi teknologi tidak terbatas pada high-technology. Baik industri dengan capacity-driven maupun customer-driven tetap membutuhkan strategi teknologi.Strategi teknologi meliputi baik elemen hardware maupun software dari teknologi
5Technology StrategyStrategecally important technology choices made by a firm.Firm’s choice of technologies influences its current and future competitive position within an industry.In short, the technology strategy of a firm is a fundamental driver of its profitability
6We will try to answer such question as: What is technology strategy?What are the principles underlying the formulation of technology strategy?What are the steps involved in formulating a technology strategy?
7The Domain of Technology Choice Firms make myriad technology choice as they compete in the marketplace. Broadly, such choice are made in three domains:Technology Appropriation, or commitments to build technology capabilities.Deployment in product, or commitment to exploit technological capabilities through new product development; andDeployment in value chains, or commitments to exploit technological capaiblities in operations.
8Technology Appropriation Apropriasi teknologi menyangkut penentuan teknologi yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan perusahaan dalam memenangkan persaingan baik untuk diterapkan dalam produk maupun dalam value chain.Keputusan apropriasi teknologi mempengaruhi kemampuan untuk membangun bisnis baru, untuk menyadi pioner market baru, dan untuk melihat arah kebijakan baru.Technology appropriation memilih baik teknologi software-dominant dan hardware-dominant.
9Deployment in productMenerapkan teknologi yang sudah dipilih ke dalam produk yang dihasilkan oleh perusahaan,Contoh: Teknologi EFI yang diterapkan di produk otomotif yang dihasilkan oleh pabrik otomotif.
10Deployment in Value Chain A firm’s value chain, as currently configured, represents innumerable technology choices made over a period of time.
13SCHEME FOR ARRAYING THE PRINCIPLES Objective > Driver > Decision Criteria > ChoiceCOMPETIVENVIRONMENTFIRMADVNTGETECHNOLGYMARKET DIMENSIONSTRAEGYFOCUSCompetitiveDomainStrategicPositioningTECHNOLOGY DIMENSIONCompetitivePositionTechnologicalEnvironmentSCHEME FOR ARRAYING THE PRINCIPLES
14ObjectiveTujuan utama setiap perusahaan adalah penciptaan nilai bagi customer dan investornya. (The fundamental obective of any firm is the creation of value for its customer and its investor)
15DriversBecause competitiveadvantage is the primary objective in technology management, both technology and strategic consideration should be weiged in the process of arriving at the technology choiceThe process should focus on two major question:Does the environment offer sites for value creation? If such profitable site don’t currently exist, can they be created?Is the firm well positioned to exploit the sites?
16Decision CriteriaTechnology choice imply commitment of limited resources.Firm channel their resources to those alternatives that promise the most effective route to competitive advantageTechnology choices compete with other alternatives for resources, on the one hand, and among themselves, on the other.The underlying logic of technology strategiy is one of focus: The resources of a firm should be focused on a limited number of choices, where the firm can expect to gain significant competitive advantage based on the availability of profit site and the firm’s strategic position
184 Tipe Strategi Teknologi Technology leadership strategy.Niche (tempat) strategyFollower strategyTechnology rationalization
19Technology leadership strategy Consist: Establishing and maintaining through both technology development and deployment a preeminent position (posisi puncak) in the comptitive domain in all the technologies for a dominant market position.
20Niche StrategyConsist: Focusing on a limited number of critical technologies to seek leadersip. Technology development is selective, and deployment is oriented toward exploiting the technological strength of the firm in selected technologies to create competitive advantage.
21Follower StrategyConsists: Maintaingin technological adequacy in a broad set of technologies. This strategy is focused on deployment, avoiding the risks of basic research. For this firms, technology is not their primary instrument for seeking competitive advantage.
22Technology rationalization Involves: Maintaining adequacy only in a select set of technologies. For these firms, their technology deficit should be compensated by other comptitive strenghts in order for them to survive in many competitive domains.
23TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY TYPE ScopeFullSelectiveFull LineTechnologyLeaderNichePlayerLeadershipLeadershipTechnologyRationalizerTechnologyFollowerFollowershipTECHNOLOGY STRATEGY TYPE
24Appropriateness of Technology Strategy Type In the era of incremental innovation, technology leadership strategy is appropriate for firms that have strong technological and market position. Niche strategy is recommended for technologically strong but competitively moderate positions. Technology followership requeres a strong competitive position in the markets, although the firm may lack technological superiority. If the firm is competitively weak, then it may be forced to adopt a technology rationalization strategyIn the era of technology emergence, the leader strategy is much more broadly applicable, because the technologies and markets tend to be highly fluid. Thus, there are more opportunities to gain competitive advantage.
25ERA OF TECHNOLOGY EMERGENCE LATE STAGES OF INCREMENTAL CHANGECOMPETITIVE POSITIONSTRONGMEDIUMWEAKTE pC OH SN IO TL IO OG NYLEADERFOLLOWERSRONGACQUIZITIONNICHEACQUISITIONMEDIURATIONALIZATIONRATIONLIZATIONJPOINTVENTUREWAKRATIONALZATION
26Diversified Firms Technology-related diversifiers: There are significant sysnergies among the technology strategy of various businessMarket-related (conglomerate) diversiviersThe technology strategies of various businesses tend to be unrelated.
284 Langkah Formulasi Strategic Diagnosis Formulation of Technology StrategyCrafting an implementation approachExecution
291. Strategic DiagnosisFormulation of technology focuses on addressing the technological and the business context ofn the firm Involve two major activity: 1. Environmental assessment, bot technological and competitive, and 2. The competitive position of the firm in both the technologies and market.
302. Formulating of Tech. Strategy Three major areas of decisions are involved:Appropriation of technologyDeployment in productDeployment in the value chain.
313. Crafting an Implementation Approach During implementation, a firm has to address three major questions pertaining to the mode of implementation, ways to protect the value from technology choice, and the organization for implementation:Should we go it alone or should we collaborate with other firms in order to execute the decision?How should we protect the investments in technology choices from being dissipated through varios means?How sould we organize internally for implementation?
324. ExecutionDuring execution, a firm develops detailed operational plans and human fesource deployments necessary for the execution of the technology choices.During this stage, significant interaction needs to take place between implementers of technology strategy and those performing key business functions: marketing, manufacturing, finance, and strategy.