Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 1 Sistem Informasi Pertemuan I – Pendahuluan.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 1 Sistem Informasi Pertemuan I – Pendahuluan."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 1 Sistem Informasi Pertemuan I – Pendahuluan

2 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 2 Sistem Informasi  Sistem Informasi telah menjadi pondasi bagi model dan proses bisnis  Sistem Informasi memungkinkan distribusi pengetahuan: suatu sistem komunikasi antara manusia satu dengan yang lainnya

3 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 3 IT and IS  What is Information Technology (IT)? Segala bentuk teknologi yang digunakan manusia untuk menangani informasi  What are Information Systems (IS)? Kumpulan yang teratur dari orang, informasi, proses bisnis dan teknologi informasi yang didesain untuk mengubah input menjadi output, untuk mencapai tujuan

4 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 4 IT and IS  Examples of IT Hardware (PC, UNIX server) Software ( , Internet, Windows, Word) Consumer devices (mobiles)  Examples of IS File systems e-commerce systems Enterprise business systems, such as student record systems

5 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 5 Data, Informasi, Informatika  Data Aliran-aliran fakta kasar (raw facts)  Informasi Data yang sudah diolah dan diinterpretasikan sehingga mempunyai arti  Pengetahuan/Knowledge Diperoleh ketika seseorang menggabungkan pengalaman dan penilaian dengan informasi

6 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 6 An example of data? a date Ruler measurement

7 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 7 Examples of information Bank statement Sales prediction Telephone directory

8 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 8 Processing data Data Information Knowledge Transformation/ Processing Experience and Judgment

9 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 9 Transformation Selection Choose or discard based on selection criteria Rearranging or sorting Grouping, Ordering Aggregating Averages, totals, sub totals Performing calculations

10 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 10 Knowledge Worker A knowledge worker is a professional who performs knowledge work. Examples of verbs associated with the activities of knowledge workers include describe, compile, consolidate, validate, illustrate, analyze, clarify, modify, evaluate, interpret, simulate and communicate.

11 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 11 Knowledge work Knowledge work is the intellectual activity that is performed by people upon data, information and knowledge in order to discover business options.  Knowledge work produces mature content.  Knowledge work differs from automated work, wherein the human element does not significantly contribute to the output of the process.  From the top-down view of decision- makers, knowledge work is often referred to as decision support.

12 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 12 Knowledge Workers As a manager or other knowledge worker, you will need to:  accomplish knowledge work activities  make sound business decisions  solve problems  communicate your decisions to others  coordinate the efforts of others.

13 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 13 Becoming a Knowledge Worker According to Peter Drucker: knowledge workers are people who:  are at the heart of the new economy  require a good deal of formal education  require the ability to acquire and to apply theoretical and analytical knowledge  require a habit of continuous learning [Drucker, 1994, pages 53-80].

14 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 14 Knowledge Work Knowledge work involves: Discovery Transformation Analysis Synthesis Communication of data, information, and knowledge, and using the results to make sound academic and sound business decisions.

15 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 15 Two Types of Knowledge Explicit knowledge - knowledge that is readily codified such as the knowledge in this textbook. Tacit knowledge - knowledge that is within you that you gained through experience and through insight and discovery.

16 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 16 Value of information Tangible value = Value of information - Cost of gathering information Tangible value is measurable

17 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 17 Value of information Intangible value = Improvements in decision behaviour - Cost of gathering information Intangible value is difficult or impossible to measure

18 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 18 Management Information Systems (SIM)  MIS (SIM) Studi sistem informasi dengan fokus bagaimana menggunakannya untuk bisnis dan manajemen  Pendekatan (Approaches) Technical Behavioural Sociotechnical

19 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 19 Kenapa IS penting?  Agar bisa bertahan dan sejahtera, organisasi perlu: Informasi di lokasi yang berbeda (jaringan/networks) Dukungan untuk pengiriman produk dan jasa Peningkatan efisiensi dan pengurangan biaya untuk memenuhi batasan-batasan legislasi, etik atau moral  Perubahan dunia: Global economy Masyarakat berbasis pengetahuan atau informasi Perusahaan-perusahaan bisnis besar Teknologi

20 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 20 Sistem Informasi - Hardware  ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator)  UNIVAC I  1 st komputer terpasarkan secara luas : mampu melakukan < 2000 perhitungan per detik  Smaller Computer MiniComputer (digunakan u/ perhitungan scientific, small organization) MicroComputer (digunakan oleh perorangan.. IBM release Personal Computer(PC))

21 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 21 Sistem Informasi - Hardware  Moore’s Law Gordon Moore, pendiri Intel, 1960  kepadatan IC (kekuatan komputer) meningkat 2x tiap tahun  meningkat 2x tiap 18 bulan

22 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 22 Sistem Informasi – Tipe Software  Transaction Processing System (TPS) POS, EDP  Management Information System (MIS) Data dari TPS di-olah menjadi laporan2, hasil simulasi  Decision Support System Digunakan membantu manager membuat keputusan (decision making) atas suatu masalah  Enterprise Resource Planning System Sistem yang bisa menangani semua proses bisnis yang saling terkait di semua bagian perusahaan

23 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 23 IS-Type: TPS Transaction Processing System (TPS) What do they do? - Capture and process transactions to make them available to the organization. How does this create business value? – Enables a business to efficiently and accurately track it’s the transactions that are at the heart of all business activities. Captured transaction data can then be used to support decision making.

24 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 24 IS-Type: MIS Management Information System (MIS) What do they do? - Provide timely information to decision-makers through processing and reporting features. How does this create business value? – Timely reporting can enable managers to monitor critical processes and to avoid costly mistakes.

25 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 25 IS-Type: DSS Decision Support System (DSS) What do they do? - Provide analytical and visualization tools to support and enhance decision making. How does this create business value? - Enables decision-makers to make decisions based on data and to discover new business opportunities through the use of tools provided by the IS.

26 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 26 Decision making  Structured Rules and constraints known  Unstructured Rules governing decision are complicated or unknown

27 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 27 Model of decision making Intelligence Design Evaluation Choice Implementation

28 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 28 Tahapan Problem Solving  Aktivitas Intelegensia Mencari kondisi yang membutuhkan solusi di lingkungan  Aktivitas Desain Menemukan, membuat dan menganalisis tindakan2 yang mungkin dilakukan  Aktivitas Pemilihan Memilih tindakan tertentu dari tindakan2 yg mungkin  Aktivitas Pelaksanaan/Implementasi Melaksanakan tindakan yang sudah dipilih  Aktivitas Evaluation/Review Melakukan penilaian terhadap pilihan yang sudah diambil pada masa lalu

29 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 29 Levels of decision making OPERATIONAL TACTICAL STRATEGIC Information flow

30 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 30 Decision characteristics Decision LevelTypeTimescaleImpact on organisatio n Frequency Strategic UnstructuredLongLargeInfrequent Tactical Medium Operational StructuredShortSmallFrequent

31 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 31 Information need for decisions Information Level Time period FrequencySourceCertaintyScopeDetail StrategicWideInfrequentExternal Less Certain WideSummarised Tactical OperationalNarrowFrequentInternal More certain NarrowDetailed

32 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 32 IS-Type: ERP Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) What do they do? - Integrate and standardize processes and centralize and standardize the storage and management of data. How does this create business value? - Can reduce costs associated with duplication of processes and effort. Also, can reduce decision-making mistakes made due to multiple versions of the same data, information, and knowledge.

33 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 33 Other systems  Expert systems (ES) Apply knowledge to problem  Knowledge base  Rules  Draw conclusions  End user computing systems Support individual activity  Create own electronic templates  Strategic information systems Manage competitive environment

34 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 34 Strategic information systems  Business have to cope with New entrants Bargaining power of suppliers Bargaining power of customers Substitute products or services Competition with like producers

35 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 35 Strategic information systems  Cost leadership Providing goods at lowest possible cost  Product differentiation Make products distinct  Innovation Finding new approach to organisational activity Respond to market environment

36 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 36 Strategic information systems  Value chain analysis Series of connected activity that adds value to organisation products Separate primary and support activities Identify areas where value can be added to product

37 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 37 Using information for strategic advantage  Improve operational efficiency E.g. Stock control  Raising barriers to entry Investment in complex systems create entry barrier  Locking in customers and suppliers Strengthening business relationships

38 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 38 Using information for strategic advantage  Promoting business innovation  Increasing switching costs Discourage customers/suppliers from switching to other competitors  Leverage Use information for other product/business

39 Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 39 Masa Depan Teknologi Informasi  Akan di-kendalikan oleh biaya yang semakin berkurang dan meningkatnya kemampuan komputer dan komunikasi  Manager harus belajar untuk menerapkan sistem informasi ke dalam pembuatan keputusan


Download ppt "Copyright ©2008 by M Irwan Afandi 1 Sistem Informasi Pertemuan I – Pendahuluan."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google