3 Pengendalian kimiawi (TIKUS) Rodentisida akut langsung membunuhRodentisida kronis (Anti koagulan) tidak langsungkeracunanDosis tunggalMulti dosisPeletakan tidak terus menerusPengumpanan pada jalur masukFumigasiKelemahan:Rodentisida akut menyebabkan keengganan makan umpanPerlu waktu sampai umpan beracun dimakan tikusBahaya bagi manusia dan hewan piaraanHanya efektif jika diimbangi dengan sanitasi yang baik
4 PENGENDALIAN SERANGGA HAMA Sanitasi gudang dan komoditi (deteksi)PendinginanDisinfestasi dengan panasRotasi stokImpact, pneumatic augersResidual insecticidesFumigasi (metil bromida (CH3Br), Fosfin (PH3))Karbondioksida
14 Acute mammalian toxicities (LD50 - mg/kg body weight) for contact insecticides currently of use in stored-Brain insect control
15 Maximum residue limits (MRL) and acceptable daily intake Levels (ADI) (mg/kg or ppm) recommended by FAD/WHO as at April 1992
16 KEUNGGULAN DAN KELEMAHAN FOSFIN DAN METIL BROMIDA FUMIGASIKEUNGGULAN DAN KELEMAHAN FOSFIN DAN METIL BROMIDAPhosphineMethyl bromideEasy to transportRefillable cylinders are expensive to transportEasy to applyDifficult to apply, requiring special equipment and skillGood penetration and distributionDistribution rather poorTaint, residues and loss of viability in treated seeds are generally negligibleSorption occurs and may cause taint, bromide residues and loss of viability in treated seedsSlow acting, particularly at low temperatures and humidities*Rapidly toxic and widely effective even at lower temperaturesFlammable: spontaneously explosive ignition can occur in some circumstancesNon-flammableHigh acute mammalian toxicity but low chronic toxicityDangerous acute and chronic poison with delayed symptomsFairly easy to detectVery easy to detectRapidly lost by leakage unless fumigation space is well sealed and gas tight soon after applicationNeeds very good seeing before application* Not recommended for use at temperatures below 12°C.Source: Adapted from Pest Control for Food Security, FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 63 (Prepared for FAO by ODNRI), FAO, Rome (1985).
17 Average concentrations of phosphine (mg/l) required to give 100 per cent mortality of all developmental stages of insects under experimental conditions
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