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Theories of International Trade and Investment McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 11/e Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Theories of International Trade and Investment McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 11/e Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 Theories of International Trade and Investment McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 11/e Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. chapter three

3 3-3 Learning Objectives  Explain the theories that attempt to explain why certain goods are traded internationally  Discuss the arguments for imposing trade restrictions  Explain two basic kinds of import restrictions: tariff and nontariff trade barriers

4 3-4 Learning Objectives  Appreciate the relevance of changing status of tariff and nontariff barriers to managers  Explain some of the theories of foreign direct investment

5 3-5 International Trade Theory Mercantilism –Economic philosophy based on belief that (1) a nation’s wealth depends on accumulated treasure, usually gold, and (2) to increase wealth, government policies should promote exports and discourage imports

6 3-6 Theory of Absolute Advantage Absolute advantage –Theory that a nation has absolute advantage when it can produce a larger amount of a good or service for the same amount of inputs as can another country or –When it can produce the same amount of a good or service using fewer inputs than could another country

7 3-7 Absolute Advantage Each Country Specializes Example

8 3-8 Absolute Advantage Terms of Trade (Ratio of International Prices) Gains from Specialization and Trade Asumsikan setelah perdagangan konsumsi domestik atas barang yg diekspor sama dengan sebelum perdagangan. Kelebihan produksi diekspor

9 3-9 Theory of Comparative Advantage Comparative Advantage –A nation having absolute disadvantages in the production of two goods with respect to another nation has a comparative or relative advantage in the production of the good in which its absolute disadvantage is less

10 3-10 Theory of Comparative Advantage Example Each Country Specializes 1/ Di Amerika, biaya peluang produksi per unit kacang kedelai adalah ½ unit baju—setiap penambahan 1 unit baju membutuhkan pengorbanan ½ unit baju. Biaya peluang produksi baju di Amerika adalah 2 unit baju. Keunggulan komparatif Amerika terletak di produksi kacang kedelai

11 3-11 Comparative Advantage Terms of Trade – at a rate of ¾ bolt of cloth for 1 ton of soybeans Terms of Trade – at a rate of 1 bolt of cloth for 1 ton of soybeans Gains from Specialization and Trade

12 3-12 Comparative Advantage Production Possibility Frontiers (figure 3.1) Figure 3.1

13 3-13 How Can Money Change The Direction of Trade? Contoh Harga dalam negeri Kayu dan Baja Gulung di Amerika dan Brazil AmerikaBrazil KayuU$ 15 real BajaU$ 24 Real Konsumen dikedua negara memiliki opsi membeli produk lokal atau produk impor untuk memenuhi kebutuhannya. Pada situasi ini tingkat kurs diantara kedua negara akan menentukan opsi mana yang dipilih oleh konsumen dan oleh karenanya arah perdagangan kedua negara.

14 3-14 How Can Money Change The Direction of Trade? Andaikan nilai kurs 1 U$ = 1 Real, bagaimanakah arah perdagangan? Harga Kayu (per kaki) dan Baja Gulung (per meter) dinyatakan dalam Dollar (1 U$ = 1 Real) Harga Kayu (per kaki) dan Baja Gulung (per meter) dinyatakan dalam Real (1 U$ = 1 Real) AmerikaBrazil AmerikaBrazil KayuU$ 1U$ 5Kayu1 real5 real BajaU$ 2U$ 4Baja2 real4 real Brazil akan mengimpor kedua barang dari Amerika sedangkan Amerika tidak akan mengimpor apa-apa dari Brazil Ketika tingkat kurs adalah 1U$=1real, tingkat harga Amerika lebih rendah dibandingkan Brazil. Harga 1 kaki kayu Brazil adalah 5 real, namun dengan uang yang sama mampu membeli 5 kaki kayu Amerika

15 3-15 How Can Money Change The Direction of Trade? Andaikan nilai kurs 1 U$ = 0.18 Real, bagaimanakah arah perdagangan? Harga Kayu (per kaki) dan Baja Gulung (per meter) dinyatakan dalam Dollar (1 U$ = 5.5 Real) Harga Kayu (per kaki) dan Baja Gulung (per meter) dinyatakan dalam Real (1 Real = 0.18 U$) AmerikaBrazil AmerikaBrazil KayuU$ 1U$ 0.91Kayu5.5 real5 real BajaU$ 2U$ 0.73Baja11 real4 real Amerika akan mengimpor kedua barang dari Brazil sedangkan Brazil tidak akan mengimpor apa-apa dari Amerika Ketika tingkat kurs adalah 1U$=0.18 Real, tingkat harga Brazil lebih rendah dibandingkan Amerika. Harga 1 kaki kayu Amerika adalah 5.5 Real, namun dengan uang yang sama mampu membeli 1.1 kaki kayu Brazil

16 3-16 How Can Money Change The Direction of Trade? Beberapa kemungkinan nilai tukar dan arah perdagangan Tingkat KursBarang Harga Kayu dan Baja Arah Perdagangan Dalam DollarDalam Real AmerikaBrazilAmerikaBrazil 1$ = 1 RealKayu$1.00$5.001 Real5 Real Brazil impor kayu dan baja Amerika Baja$2.00$4.002 Real4 Real 1$ = 2 RealKayu$1.00$2.502 Real5 Real Brazil impor kayu Amerika Baja$ Real 1$ = 4 RealKayu$1.00$1.254 Real5 RealAmerika impor baja Brazil Baja$2.00$1.008 Real4 RealBrazil impor kayu Amerika 1$ = 5 RealKayu$ Real Amerika impor baja Brazil Baja$2.00$ Real4 Real 1$ = 6 RealKayu$1.00$0.836 Real5 Real Amerika impor kayu dan baja Brazil Baja$2.00$ Real4 Real

17 3-17 How Can Money Change The Direction of Trade? Influences of Exchange Rate –Currency devaluation (depreciation) The lowering of a currency’s price in terms of other currencies

18 3-18 Some Newer Explanations For The Direction Of Trade Linder Theory of Overlapping Demand –The more similar the demand structures of countries, the more they will trade with one another (i.e., product differentiation). –Customers’ tastes are strongly affected by income levels; therefore a nation’s income per capita level determines the kinds of goods they will demand

19 3-19 Some Newer Explanations For The Direction Of Trade International Product Life Cycle (IPLC) –Explains why a product that begins as export eventually becomes import (figure 3.2) Introduction  U.S. exports Growth  Foreign production begins (the basis is to reduce production costs) Maturity  Foreign competition in export market (the lowest-cost producer wins) Declining  Import competition in the United States

20 3-20 Figure 3.2 International Product Life Cycle

21 3-21 Some Newer Explanations For The Direction Of Trade Technology Life Cycle –Production technology application of IPLC –Stages: R&D  ascent  maturity  decline Economies of Scale and Experience Curve –As a plant gets larger and output increase, the average cost of producing each unit of output decreases –As firms produce more products, they learn ways to improve production efficiency

22 3-22 Some Newer Explanations For The Direction Of Trade Imperfect Competition –Economies of scale with the existence of differentiated products--Paul Krugman First-Mover Theory –Pattern of trade in goods subject to scale economies may be determined by historical factors

23 3-23 Some Newer Explanations For The Direction Of Trade National Competitive Advantage from Regional Clusters: Porter’s Diamond Model (figure 3.3) –National Competitiveness: a nation’s relative ability to design, produce, distribute, or service products while earning increasing returns on resources Demand conditions Factor Conditions Related and supporting industries Firm strategy, structure, and rivalry

24 3-24 Figure 3.3 Variable Impacting Competitive Advantage: Porter’s Diamond Source: Reprinted by permission of the Harvard Business Review. “The Competitive Advantage of Nations” by Michael E. Porter, March–April 1990, p. 77. Copyright © 1990 by The President and Fellows of Harvard College; all rights reserved.

25 3-25 Trade Restrictions: Arguments For National Defense Sanctions to Punish Offending Nations Protect Infant (or Dying) Industry Protect Domestic Jobs from Cheap Foreign Labor Scientific Tariff or Fair Competition a tariff that is levied in order to bring the price of the imported good up to the level of the domestically produced good

26 3-26 Trade Restrictions Retaliation –Dumping: selling a product abroad for less than the cost of production, the price in the home market, or the price to third countries Social dumping Environmental dumping Financial services dumping Cultural dumping Tax dumping

27 3-27 Trade Restrictions –Subsidies: Financial contributions, provided directly or indirectly by a government, which confer a benefit; include grants, preferential tax treatment, and government assumption of normal business expenses (figure 3.4) –Countervailing duties: Additional import taxes levied on imports that have benefited from export subsidies

28 3-28 Figure 3.4 Value of OECD Member Farm Subsidies Source: “Agriculture: Support Estimates, 2004,” OECD in Figures: Statistics on the Member Countries. Accessed 7/2005 Link:

29 3-29 Tariff Barriers Tariff –Taxes on imported goods for the purpose of raising their price to reduce competition for local producers or stimulate local production Ad Valorem Duty –An import duty levied as a percentage of the invoice value of imported goods Specific Duty –A fixed sum levied on a physical unit of an imported good

30 3-30 Tariff Barriers Compound Duty –A combination of specific and ad valorem duties Official Prices Variable Levy –An import duty set at the difference between world market prices and local government- supported prices Lower Duty for more local Input

31 3-31 Nontariff Barriers Nontariff barriers (NTBs) –All forms of discrimination against imports other than import duties Quantitative –Quotas: numerical limits placed on specific classes of imports –Voluntary export restraints (VERs): Export quotas imposed by exporting nation

32 3-32 Nontariff Barriers Orderly Marketing Arrangements –Formal agreements between exporting and importing countries that stipulate the import or export quotas each nation will have for a good Nonquantitative Nontariff Barriers –Direct government participation in trade –Customs and other administrative procedures –Standards

33 3-33 From Multinational to Globally Integrated Manufacturing Systems Close least efficient plants, and supply their markets with imports from other subsidiaries Change multidomestic manufacturing system to globally integrated system in which each plant performs the activities at which it is most efficient

34 3-34 International Investment Theories Monopolistic Advantage Theory Theory that FDI is made by firms in oligopolistic industries possessing technical and other advantages over indigenous firms Product and Factor Market Imperfections Superior knowledge leads to differentiated products, and they lead to firm control on price and advantage over indigenous firm (Hymer and Caves) Financial Factors Imperfections in the foreign exchange markets (Aliber) International Product Life Cycle

35 3-35 International Investment Theories Follow The Leader Cross Investment –Foreign direct investment by oligopolistic firms in each other’s home countries as a defense measure Internalization Theory –An extension of the market imperfection theory: to obtain a higher return on its investment, a firm will transfer its superior knowledge to a foreign subsidiary rather than sell it in the open market

36 3-36 International Investment Theories Dynamic Capabilities –Theory that for a firm to successfully invest overseas, it must have ownership of unique knowledge or resources and the ability to dynamically create and exploit these capabilities Dunning’s Eclectic Theory Of International Production –Theory that for a firm to invest overseas, it must have three kinds of advantages: ownership- specific, internalization, and location-specific


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