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1 BAB 1 PENGENALAN TERHADAP SISTEM INFORMASI Management Information Systems, 10 th edition, By Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George P. Schell © 2008, Prentice.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 BAB 1 PENGENALAN TERHADAP SISTEM INFORMASI Management Information Systems, 10 th edition, By Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George P. Schell © 2008, Prentice."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 BAB 1 PENGENALAN TERHADAP SISTEM INFORMASI Management Information Systems, 10 th edition, By Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George P. Schell © 2008, Prentice Hall, Inc.

2 2 Learning Objectives: Understand how computer hardware has evolved to its present level of sophistication. Understand the basics of computer and communications architectures. Know the distinction between physical and conceptual systems. Understand how business applications have evolved from an initial emphasis on accounting data to the current emphasis on information for problem solving.

3 3 Learning Objectives (cont.): Know how to tailor information systems to managers based on where they are located in the organizational structure and what they do. Know the relationship between problem solving and decision making, and know the basic problem- solving steps. Understand what enterprise resource planning systems are and the reasons for their popularity. Know what innovations to expect in information technology.

4 4 Pendahuluan Komputer pertama di dunia adalah sebesar ruangan dan menggunakan tabung hampa udara seukuran bola lampu kecil untuk sirkuitnya. Vacuum tubes kemudian digantikan oleh transistor dan chip yang dibuat menggunakan teknologi silikon wafer. Hal ini membuat perubahan dramatis dan menurunkan biaya manufaktur yang mengakibatkan permintaan terhadap komputer meningkat.

5 5 Ukuran semakin kecil, Kecepatan semakin besar Kecepatan elektron yg bergerak melalui sirkuit adalah konstan. Jika ukuran sirkuit ½ ukuran semula maka kecepatan menjadi 2 kali lebih cepat. Miniaturisasi menjadi kunci pengurangan biaya dan penambahan performa komputer.

6 6 Sejarah Komputer “mainframe” yg paling awal hanya dapat memproses satu tugas pada satu waktu oleh satu pengguna –1946: ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) was developed –1951: first computer installed by the U.S. Census Bureau –1954: first computer used by G.E. Hardware berkembang menjadi semakin cepat dengan kapasitas yang semakin besar. Aplikasi juga berkembang dari yg hanya program akuntansi sederhana menjadi sistem yang dapat memecahkan berbagai masalah.

7 7 [Insert Figure 1.1 here]

8 8 Multitasking Pada pertengahan tahun 1960, IBM memperkenalkan IBM System/360 yang merupakan komputer pertama yang dapat memproses banyak tugas sekaligus.

9 9 Smaller Computers Komputer skala kecil pertama disebut minicomputers, yg kecil namun tidak terlalu powerful. Komputer yang lebih kecil, microcomputers dirancang untuk penggunaan pribadi oleh Apple and Tandy Corp. Pd thn 1982, IBM memperkenalkan personal computer, or PC, yg berikutnya menjadi standar komputer individu.

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11 11 Moore's Law Dicetuskan pd thn 1960 oleh Gordon Moore, salah seorang pendiri Intel Menyatakan bahwa kerapatan penyimpanan sirkuit terintegrasi dari sebuah chip silikon akan meningkat dua kali lipat setiap 2 tahunnya. Pd thn 1970-an tingkat pelipatgandaan telah meningkat menjadi 18 bulan, suatu tingkat yang terus berlangsung hingga hari ini.

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14 14 Pengantar Arsitektur Komputer Komputer secara umumnya mengkombinasikan software dan hardware. Software meliputi sistem operasi yang mengontrol hardware komputer dan software aplikasi seperti word processing, spreadsheets, etc. Hardware meliputi processors, memory and peripheral devices

15 15 Computer Hardware The processor manages the input and output devices, data storage devices, and operations on the data The central processing unit (CPU) controls all the other components Two types of memory are: –Random access memory (RAM) acts as the temporary workspace for the CPU –Permanent data storage devices such as CD- ROM, floppy and hard disk drives

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17 17 Pengantar Arsitektur Komunikasi Modem: peralatan yang mengirim signal digital melalui gelombang analog Data rates untuk berbagai sistem komunikasi: –Telephone lines: 56 kbps –Cable modem: up to 2 Mbps –WiFi: 11 Mbps –Local Area Networks: 10 to 100 Mbps Wireless sangat umum digunakan sekarang karena murah dan mudah diinstal

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19 19 Evolusi Aplikasi Komputer Sistem informasi adalah sistem virtual yang memungkinkan manajemen mengendalikan operasi fisik perusahaan.

20 20 Transaction Processing Systems A transaction processing systems is shown in Figure 1.8 It gathers data from the firm’s physical system and environment and enters it into its database The software also transforms the data into information for the firm’s managers and other individuals in the firm’s environment

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22 22 Management Information Systems Management information systems (MIS) transform the data in frontline systems, such as transaction processing systems into information useful to managers Typical MIS modules are report-writing software, and models that can simulate firm operations Information from the MIS is then used by organizational problem solvers as an aid in decision- making, as illustrated in Figure 1.9 Firms can also interact with suppliers or others to form inter organizational information systems (IOS), in which the MIS supplies information to the other members of the IOS as well as the firm's users

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24 24 Virtual Office Systems Office automation - the use of electronics to facilitate communication, began with word processing Subsequent applications include electronic mail, voice mail, electronic calendaring, and audio and video conferencing These personal productivity systems now account for a large portion of a firm's use of the computer as a communications vehicle With improvements in networking, the concept of a virtual office has developed, in which office activities can be performed without the need for an employee to be in a specific location

25 25 Decision Support Systems (DSS) A DSS is a system used to assist managers in making decisions to help solve a specific problem Figure 1.10 shows the 3 sources for the information to be delivered to users: a relational database, a knowledge base, and a multidimensional database Two additional types of DSS-related software are: –group decision support systems: used in aiding a group of managers work out decisions, and –artificial intelligence: in which a program is created for a computer to logically analyze a problem on its own

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27 27 Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERP) Over time, firms began to use many different kinds of information systems throughout the firm During the 1990s firms began to see the value in integrating all of these systems so that they could function as a coordinated unit ERP systems are computer-based systems aimed at meeting this need that enable the management of all of a firm’s resources on an organization- wide basis

28 28 Manajer sebagai Pengguna Sistem Informasi Manajer berada pada berbagai tingkatan 3 tingkat manajerial: 1.Strategic planning level, contoh: presdir, direktur 2.Management control level, contoh: kepala divisi, manajer regional, direktur produk 3.Operational control level, contoh: kepala departemen, penyelia, pimpinan proyek

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31 31 What Managers Do Fungsi manajerial: –Plan what they are to do –Organize to meet the plan –Staff their organization with resources – Direct them to execute the plan –Control the resources, keeping them on course (see Figure 1.13) Managerial Roles: –Mintzberg’s framework is made of 10 roles that managers play, grouped into interpersonal, informational, and decisional activities (see Table 1.1)

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34 34 Tahapan Pemecahan Masalah Solusi merupakan hasil dari aktivitas pemecahan masalah Satu keputusan merupakan aksi tertentu yang dipilih Tahap pemecahan masalah menurut Herbert A. Simon: –Intelligence activity –Design activity –Choice activity –Review activity

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36 36 Masa Depan Teknologi Informasi Dipengaruhi oleh 2 tren: –Pengurangan biaya dan penambahan performa dari teknologi informasi –Berpusat pada komputer dan komunikasi Oleh karena itu manajerial harus memasukkan sistem informasi ke dalam tahapan pembuatan keputusan.


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