Presentasi berjudul: "Dealing w/ the past (re)konstruksi sejarah, memori kolektif, (komisi) kebenaran, (im)punitas, rekonsiliasi."— Transcript presentasi:
dealing w/ the past (re)konstruksi sejarah, memori kolektif, (komisi) kebenaran, (im)punitas, rekonsiliasi
psp ’08 menggugat! apa / siapa yang ingin anda gugat? mengapa anda ingin menggugatnya? langkah, penyelesaian, kebijakan, atau hukuman apa yang menurut anda tepat diterapkan sehubungan dengan permasalahan atau aktor yang anda gugat?
immanuel wallerstein, in “writing history”: To remember and to forget, to keep secrets or expose them to public glare, is to advocate and refute. It is a scientific, scholarly decision. It is a political decision. It is a moral decision.
kebenaran factual/forensic: obtained through reliable, impartial, objective procedures/measurements; reduce the number of lies that can be circulated unchallenged in public discourse personal/narrative: the truth of victims telling their stories; insights into pain; restoring memory social/dialogue: transcend the divisions of the past by listening carefully to the complex motives and perspectives of all those involved; basis for affirming human dignity and integrity healing/restorative: places facts and what they mean within the context of human relationships, both amongst citizens and between the state and its citizens; not merely about knowledge but about acknowledgment: "Acknowledgment is an affirmation that a person's pain is real and worthy of attention. It is thus central to the restoration of the dignity of victims.“
kebenaran factual/forensic personal/narrative social/dialogue healing/restorative mana yang paling penting? mana yang harus menjadi fokus komisi kebenaran/media/sejarahwan/aparat negara? mana/seberapa banyak yang perlu diungkap ke publik, serta kapan? bagaimana mengkombinasikannya?
lederach on approaches to reconciliation coexistence/ peace/tolerance reconciliation truth mercy/forgivenessjustice
reconciliation after violence (johan galtung, conflict transformation by peaceful means, p. 176) exculpatory factor reparation/restitution apology/forgiveness theological/penitence judicial/punishment codependent organisation/ karma historical/truth commission theatrical/reliving joint sorrow/healing joint reconstruction joint conflict resolution ho’ o pono pono
hot topics punitive system: membuat sadar, membuat jera, melegakan korban, memperbaiki hubungan korban- pelaku, deterrence, rasa keadilan, HAM, extra- ordinary crime Impunity: how far do you go? keadilan vs stabilitas, enough is enough public apology: siapa, kapan, social political ramifications compensation: bentuk, rasa keadilan, who pays? history reconstruction: oleh siapa? versi siapa? kapan? sejauh apa? retributive vs restorative justice human rights vs conflict resolution approach
hola regina! guatemala, 1974, kelas menengah, seniwati: poet & body artist ‘’…a mortal conquest, the maltreatment of indigenous villages and the negation of their rights throughout our entire history, the Gringo intervention, an infernal 36- year war, evil governments, spine-chilling levels of corruption, a murderous army, histories of violence that are a daily nightmare of inequality, hunger, misery…’’
“who can erase the traces?” 2003 jejak darah manusia dari MA ke istana Efrain Rios Montt, penjahat HAM, ketua konggres, calon presiden
“I say that these efforts were necessary, because Guatemala is a country without memory. The people, with little access to education, are easy to mislead with promises and the little gifts that politicians hand out during election campaigns. The official party, to which Ríos Montt belonged and belongs, made a huge effort and had all the power to reach the Guatemalan minorities, who had difficulty connecting the actual Ríos Montt (the presidential candidate) to the past dictator- president who was guilty of the greatest crimes against their own people, their own blood. Every effort was necessary, any help at all, it was all needed to shout out the truth, by whatever means.”
1999: lo voy a gritar al viento no one listens to a women
tingkat femicide di guatemala 1 tahun = di ciudad juarez 10 tahun
sebelum mati, mereka disiksa, diperkosa, dimutilasi, dll 256 whip censor?
breaking the silence: operasi plastik, operasi hymen, buta, gips, pembantu, dll
pameran dan penghargaan dari banyak komunitas seni “… art does not save the world, it saves me… it is a question of survival, it is a matter of resistance…”
forgiven, not forgotten All alone, staring on Watching her life go by When her days are grey And her nights are black Different shades of mundane And the one eyed furry toy That lies upon the bed Has often heard her cry And heard her whisper out a name Long forgiven, but not forgotten You're forgiven not forgotten (3x) You're not forgotten A bleeding heart torn apart Left on an icy grave In the room where they once lay Face to face Nothing could get in their way But now the memories of the man are haunting her days And the craving never fades She's still dreaming of a man Long forgiven, but not forgotten You're forgiven not forgotten (3X) You're not forgotten Still alone, staring on Wishing her life goodbye As she goes searching for the man Long forgiven, but not forgotten You're forgiven not forgotten (8x) You're not forgotten (2X) No, You're not forgotten
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