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Presentasi berjudul: "HASIL-HASIL PENELITIAN GREEN HOSPITAL"— Transcript presentasi:


2 Hospitals push green building standards Business Journal Staff Writer
By Erik Siemers Business Journal Staff Writer Kaiser Permanente is designing its new $360 million westside hospital complex to meet some of the world’s strictest environmental standards. Officials with the health care system believe the Kaiser Westside Medical Center in Tanasbourne will qualify for LEED Gold status, making it one of just 36 health care facilities in the world to earn that designation. "That's no small undertaking," said Susan Mullaney, chief administrator of Kaiser's Sunnyside Medical Center in Clackamas who is overseeing the westside project. "We felt it was the important thing to do." LEED — an acronym for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design — is a system of sustainable design administered by the U.S. Green Building Council. While LEED-certified buildings are becoming more common, few hospitals have been designed to meet the standard. Worldwide, just 128 health care projects are LEED certified, and only 36 of those have met the LEED gold standard that Kaiser expects to reach, said Ashley Katz, a spokeswoman for the U.S. Green Building Council in Washington, D.C. The problematic issue is that hospitals never close. "We're energy intensive and 24/7," said Dan Green, a Kaiser project director overseeing the environmental aspects of the Tanasbourne development. The dearth of LEED hospitals could come to an end starting early next year when the U.S. Green Building Council expects to release a new LEED standard specific to health care facilities. Under the LEED system, buildings are awarded points divided among categories such as sustainable site selection, water efficiency, material sourcing, and energy use. While that won’t change under the LEED health care standard, certain categories will receive more emphasis than others. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

3 Hospitals push green building standards Business Journal Staff Writer
By Erik Siemers Business Journal Staff Writer The new standard is designed to account for a hospital’s round-the-clock operation, its distinct water needs and a host of other health care-specific functions. "If you have a bank building only open during the day hours vs. a hospital open around the clock, it's different energy use, water use, infection control requirements, those are all different," said Kumkum M. Dilwali, senior director of the Green Guide for Health Care, a sustainable design toolkit for the health care sector that serves as the foundation for the new LEED standard. "You can't hold hospitals to the same standard." The new Kaiser hospital, however, is being built to meet the current LEED standard for new construction. The combined project, including the hospital and adjacent eight-level parking structure, will use high-efficiency water boilers and heating, ventilation and air conditioning units. It will use nontoxic carpet, paint and rubber flooring and building materials free of dioxins, lead, cadmium and mercury. Its insulation will be made from recycled denim. It will generate on-site renewable power from solar panels, utilize occupancy sensors in certain areas to preserve electricity and use windows designed to provided natural lighting. The development will provide easy access to public transit, offer electric charging stations and priority parking for low-emissions vehicles, and will set aside a designated area for a farmers market. LEED The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System® encourages and accelerates global adoption of sustainable green building and development practices through the creation and implementation of universally understood and accepted tools and performance criteria. LEED is a third-party certification program and an internationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings. It provides building owners and operators the tools they need to have an immediate and measurable impact on their buildings’ performance. LEED promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in five key areas of human and environmental health: sustainable site development water efficiency energy efficiency materials selection indoor environmental quality Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

4 THE GREEN HEALTH CARE The Green Health Care help the leaders and managers of health care institutions, promoting the health of patients, visitors, employees, community members, and the global community, while operating economically and efficiently. Hope that every medical center, hospital and clinic in the nation gets a knowledge of the Green concept, takes its lessons to heart, and joins the growing movement toward healthier, more environmentally friendly environments in the health care sector. (Howard Frumkin). Green health care is likely to be most compelling because of its potential to protect and promote health, both directly and indirectly. These health benefits may operate on at least three scales: local, community, and global. On the local scale, within the walls of a hospital, research facility, or clinic, green construction and operation can protect patients, workers, and visitors. Global warming has become the most important environmental issue due to its detrimental health effects. Institutional comprehension and involvement which may minimize its detrimental effects is considered insufficient. Based on recent data, there are lot of health care facilities in Indonesia which need the policy to apply the Green concept into management. There is a large and growing body of evidence demonstrating the role of the physical environment in achieving health care quality and safety. For example, associations between the physical environment and patient and staff outcomes in four areas: reduced staff stress and fatigue and increased effectiveness in delivering care; improved patient safety; reduced patient stress and improved health outcomes; and improved overall healthcare quality. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

5 The Green Hospital: from centres of sickness to centres of wellness
The Green Hospital: from centres of sickness to centres of wellness. (Sources: In part – recycled from Planet Green) Graeme Booth Recycling: We all should recycle, but hospitals even more so that others! Hospitals with an environmental bent are recycling alcohol, batteries, light bulbs, old linens, computers, paper, cardboard, packing peanuts and more. They are also saving kitchen oil for bio-diesel processing. Reusing Materials:  Hospitals should make a concerted effort to reuse packing materials, wheelchairs and crutches, envelopes for internal communication, and medical equipment. I used crutches when I tore my ACL ? the hospital never asked for them back, or told me about a recycling opportunity. I'd gladly give them in, rather than keeping them in my closet, taking up space. Reducing Waste: It isn't enough to recycle and reuse. After all, it is 2008, and the basics aren't good enough! Hospitals must also rethink the types of products they purchase. Green hospitals are using energy efficient light bulbs and reusable silverware. Some are even composting and using cloth nappies/diapers. Cleaner Air: Going green also means better air quality. To that end, some hospitals are installing systems that provide better ventilation. They are also using cleaning materials with fewer hazardous materials and paints with fewer VOCs. And to reduce pollution outdoors, some offer electric car charging stations.. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

6 Using Plants as an Alternative to Air Purifiers
Posted on June 3, 2011 How to Use House Plants as Air Purifiers in the Home Expanded concept, further criteria for the creation of the truly "Green Hospital" The green hospital movement is a positive development towards sustainable medical institutions. But to succeed with such an ambition, the green-hospital concept needs to be broadened. The following criteria need to be explored: living-systems design. equitable work-places, socially just/ democratic legitimacy, -the transition to alternative medical and therapeutic practices. Energy autonomous buildings Economising of water use, including the collection and reuse of rain and snow. Ecologically sustainable materials. Ecological and locally produced food. Renewable and energy efficient hospital operation Incorporating natural, - light design, material use in furnishing and décor. The greening of interiors (indoor-planting) and landscaping (with high indoor visibility) around the hospital. Houseplants Do Purify the Air The effectiveness of using green plants for this purpose has even been documented by independent studies conducted by NASA officials. The simple use of houseplants can remove carbon dioxide, ammonia fumes, benzene and even eliminate formaldehyde odors from an enclosed environment. You can refresh the air in a home, garage or other enclosed environment by placing a few green plants on shelves or on the floor. Hanging some plants from the ceiling is another option to consider. How Plants Filter and Clean Indoor Air The leaves, roots and stems of a green plant can serve as air filters. Polluting odors, toxic substances and other contaminating agents can be absorbed into the plant and in return the plant will release clean oxygen into the air. Many people have found that common allergies and breathing ailments are reduced or even resolved once a few green plants are placed in the home. Making Space for Air Purifying Plants It really does not require a lot of extra room for the placement of some houseplants. You can arrange a few plants on a desk, coffee table, kitchen window sill or set them on a shelf. Larger plants can be put into attractive containers and placed in a corner of the room where they will even add visual impact along with those air purifying benefits. Any room can house at least one or two green plants. You should consider placing some plants in the bedrooms, family room, kitchen and workshop. These are all rooms that are prone to the highest amount of toxins and pollutants. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

Another area in the hospitals transition to that of becoming in my mind truly green, must be the adoption and incorporation of alternative diagnosis, therapies and medicine into standard hospital practice. To be truly green requires a shift from treatments that are chiefly pharmaceutically based, destructive to the environment, with benefits that are short-term, focused on symptom suppression, to that of whole-person diagnosis and treatments, strengthening and aiding the individuals own capacity for healing. Placing a larger emphasis on and parallel to the treatment of 'sickness' should be prevention-consultation, with a focus on lifestyle, stress and the environmentally-related, negative side-effects that occur to the psychic/somatic functions of the individual. With the introduction of alternative therapies into hospitals, structural changes would have to follow. One change that I deem advantageous and even necessary would be the introduction of the roll of diagnostic-guide for patients. His/her roll (a jack of all therapies) would be to assess through certain initial verbal analysis and diagnosis, the patients situation and needs, be they in need of acute, chronic or prevention orientated treatments, and guiding said patient to departments within the “traditional” or the many different alternative treatments. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

. GREEN HOSPITAL --- SOCIAL CHANGE The green hospital that is seriously engaged in helping individual patients and catering fully to their possibility for recovery and future wellness, needs even to empower each and everyone of it's co-workers/ practitioners. The function and development of the green hospital must be determined by it's members/staff. Every hospital would develop from the unique combination and gestation of its practitioners/co-workers, community-interdependence and vision. This would call for a foundation of not-for-profit enterprise, an enterprise based on respect, the democratic workplace, individual engagement and responsibility. Cooperation, equality and the possibility for all to learn and grow would need to be a priority. Close interaction and a supportive relationship with the local community would create new possibilities for both. The exploring of new funding and financing systems that would allow all citizens access to help irrespective of their financial situation. The right to help for all who seek a healthier and higher quality of life.] I envisage the new green hospitals as centres for healing and wellness. A part of that roll would be research, inform and educate the community on the multi-faceted area of life-quality from a whole-person perspective. TANAMAN DALAM RUANGAN YANG MEMBERSIHKAN UDARA Anthuriums make lovely gifts because of their exotic-looking blooms, but they ain’t just a pretty face! Their large, dark leaves suck up ammonia, formaldehyde, toluene and xylene, so they’re a thoughtful present for a workplace (especially around copiers, printers or adhesives). Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

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Analisis Kenyamanan Spasial Di Ruang Publik Rumah Sakit Untuk Ibu Hamil Putri, Natalia Gunawan ( ) (2006) Analisis Kenyamanan Spasial Di Ruang Publik Rumah Sakit Untuk Ibu Hamil. Thesis, Universitas Kristen Maranatha. Rumah sakit pada dasarnya merupakan sebuah institusi pelayanan yang bergerak di bidang kesehatan. Citra dari rumah sakit terlihat dari cara pelayanan dan fasilitas yang tersedia, terutama pada ruang tunggu. Ruang tunggu yang baik harus bisa menghindarkan pasien dari stres dan dapat memberi pengaruh positif bagi pasien. Sekarang ini masih banyak ruang tunggu yang tidak memperhatikan beberapa hal yang berhubungan dengan kenyamanan terutama kenyamanan spasial. Kenyamanan spasial merupakan kenyamanan antara pengguna itu sendiri yang berhubungan dengan aktifitas dan skala dalam ruang, termasuk ukuran. Penelitian ini membahas kenyamanan spasial ruang tunggu khusus ibu hamil yang mempunyai kondisi fisik dan psikologis berbeda dengan kondisi orang sakit atau pasien biasa dengan studi kasus adalah area ruang tunggu rumah sakit yang tidak didesain khusus untuk ibu hamil yaitu Rumah Sakit Immanuel dan area ruang tunggu rumah sakit yang didesain khusus untuk ibu hamil yaitu rumah sakit bersalin Melinda Hospital. Eco-House Decoration Ideas Using Garden Plants as Air Filters Simultaneously Whether you are planning adorn the pergola, gazebo or gate with your garden plants? Do not hesitate to launch garden plants design concept for the house has many environmentally friendly and healthier profits. Aside from being a decoration, plants are also useful to filter the dust around the house. If observed, the plants in front of the house must be appropriate leaves coated with dust. Plants also produce oxygen that is also very useful for our breathing. (sumber: Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

Pelayanan publik atau pelayanan umum dapat didefinisikan sebagai segala bentuk jasa pelayanan, baik dalam bentuk barang publik maupun jasa publik yang pada prinsipnya menjadi tanggung jawab dan dilaksanakan oleh Instansi Pemerintah di Pusat, di Daerah, dan di lingkungan Badan Usaha Milik Negara atau Badan Usaha Milik Daerah, dalam rangka upaya pemenuhan kebutuhan masyarakat maupun dalam rangka pelaksanaan ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan. Berdasarkan organisasi yang menyelenggarakannya, pelayanan publik atau pelayanan umum dapat dibedakan menjadi dua, yaitu: Pelayanan publik atau pelayanan umum yang diselenggarakan oleh organisasi privat, adalah semua penyediaan barang atau jasa publik yang diselenggarakan oleh swasta, seperti misalnya rumah sakit swasta, PTS, perusahaan pengangkutan milik swasta. Pelayanan publik atau pelayanan umum yang diselenggarakan oleh organisasi publik. Hal ini dapat dibedakan lagi menjadi : Yang bersifat primer dan,adalah semua penye¬diaan barang/jasa publik yang diselenggarakan oleh pemerintah yang di dalamnya pemerintah merupakan satu-satunya penyelenggara dan pengguna/klien mau tidak mau harus memanfaatkannya. Misalnya adalah pelayanan di kantor imigrasi, pelayanan penjara dan pelayanan perizinan. Yang bersifat sekunder, adalah segala bentuk penyediaan barang/jasa publik yang diselenggarakan oleh pemerintah, tetapi yang di dalamnya pengguna/klien tidak harus mempergunakannya karena adanya beberapa penyelenggara pelayanan. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Pelayanan publik merupakan kegiatan atau rangkaian kegiatan dalam rangka pemenuhan kebutuhan pelayanan sesuai dengan peraturan perundang-undangan bagi setiap warga negara dan penduduk atas barang, jasa, dan/atau pelayanan administratif yang disediakan oleh penyelenggara pelayanan publik, Penyelenggara pelayanan publik atau Penyelenggara merupakan setiap institusi penyelenggara negara, korporasi, lembaga independen yang dibentuk berdasarkan undang-undang untuk kegiatan pelayanan publik, dan badan hukum lain yang dibentuk semata-mata untuk kegiatan pelayanan publik, Atasan satuan kerja Penyelenggara merupakan pimpinan satuan kerja yang membawahi secara langsung satu atau lebih satuan kerja yang melaksanakan pelayanan publik, Organisasi penyelenggara pelayanan publik atau Organisasi Penyelenggara merupakan satuan kerja penyelenggara pelayanan publik yang berada di lingkungan institusi penyelenggara negara, korporasi, lembaga independen yang dibentuk berdasarkan undang-undang untuk kegiatan pelayanan publik, dan badan hukum lain yang dibentuk semata-mata untuk kegiatan pelayanan publik, Pelaksana pelayanan publik atau Pelaksana merupakan pejabat, pegawai, petugas, dan setiap orang yang bekerja di dalam Organisasi Penyelenggara yang bertugas melaksanakan tindakan atau serangkaian tindakan pelayanan publik, Masyarakat merupakan seluruh pihak, baik warga negara maupun penduduk sebagai orang-perseorangan, kelompok, maupun badan hukum yang berkedudukan sebagai penerima manfaat pelayanan publik, baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung, Standar pelayanan merupakan tolak ukur yang dipergunakan sebagai pedoman penyelenggaraan pelayanan dan acuan penilaian kualitas pelayanan sebagai kewajiban dan janji Penyelenggara kepada masyarakat dalam rangka pelayanan yang berkualitas, cepat, mudah, terjangkau, dan terukur. Maklumat pelayanan merupakan pernyataan tertulis yang berisi keseluruhan rincian kewajiban dan janji yang terdapat dalam standar pelayanan. Sistem informasi pelayanan publik atau Sistem Informasi merupakan rangkaian kegiatan yang meliputi penyimpanan dan pengelolaan informasi serta mekanisme penyampaian informasi dari Penyelenggara kepada masyarakat dan sebaliknya dalam bentuk lisan, tulisan Latin, tulisan dalam huruf Braile, bahasa gambar, dan/atau bahasa lokal, serta disajikan secara manual ataupun elektronik. Mediasi merupakan penyelesaian sengketa pelayanan publik antarpara pihak melalui bantuan, baik oleh ombudsman sendiri maupun melalui mediator yang dibentuk oleh ombudsman. Ajudikasi merupakan proses penyelesaian sengketa pelayanan publik antarpara pihak yang diputus oleh ombudsman.

Ada lima karakteristik yang dapat dipakai untuk membedakan ketiga jenis penyelenggaraan pelayanan publik tersebut, yaitu: Adaptabilitas layanan. Ini berarti derajat perubahan layanan sesuai dengan tuntutan perubahan yang diminta oleh pengguna. Posisi tawar pengguna/klien. Semakin tinggi posisi tawar pengguna/klien, maka akan semakin tinggi pula peluang pengguna untuk meminta pelayanan yang lebih baik. Type pasar. Karakteristik ini menggambarkan jumlah penyelenggara pelayanan yang ada, dan hubungannya dengan pengguna/klien. Locus kontrol. Karakteristik ini menjelaskan siapa yang memegang kontrol atas transaksi, apakah pengguna ataukah penyelenggara pelayanan. Sifat pelayanan. Hal ini menunjukkan kepentingan pengguna atau penyelenggara pelayanan yang lebih dominan. Undang-Undang Pelayanan Publik (secara resmi bernama Undang-Undang Nomor 25 Tahun 2009 tentang Pelayanan Publik) adalah undang-undang yang mengatur tentang prinsip-prinsip pemerintahan yang baik yang merupakan efektifitas fungsi-fungsi pemerintahan itu sendiri. perlayanan publik yang dilakukan oleh pemerintahan atau koporasi yang efektif dapat memperkuat demokrasi dan hak asasi manusia, mempromosikan kemakmuran ekonomi, kohesi sosial, mengurangi kemiskinan, meningkatkan perlindungan lingkungan, bijak dalam pemanfaatan sumber daya alam, memperdalam kepercayaan pada pemerintahan dan administrasi publik. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

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. Pengaruh Desain Pencahayaan Terhadap Kenyamanan Dan Pembentukkan Suasana Pada Koridor Dan Ruang Tunggu Rumah Sakit Gallery Hendrawan, Jeremia ( ) (2006) Pengaruh Desain Pencahayaan Terhadap Kenyamanan Dan Pembentukkan Suasana Pada Koridor Dan Ruang Tunggu Rumah Sakit Gallery. Other thesis, Universitas Kristen Maranatha. Melinda Hospital adalah rumah sakit bersalin dengan konsep mix-use (koridor gallery) yang terdapat di kota Bandung. Menurut hasil kuesioner, Melinda Hospital merupakan rumah sakit yang memiliki suasana paling menarik dibandingkan dengan rumah sakit lain yang ada di Bandung. Melinda Hospital memakai gaya modern tradisional dalam mendesain interior dan eksterior bangunannya. Dengan memakai konsep fungsi mix-use, Melinda Hospital membuat terobosan baru dalam perancangan desain rumah sakit di Indonesia, terutama di Bandung. Jika melihat pada masa sebelumnya, koridor rumah sakit merupakan suatu tempat ataupun ruang yang berkesan menyeramkan. Dengan suasana yang gelap, kotor, dan sempit, membuat koridor dianggap ruang yang angker pada bagian rumah sakit. Melinda Hospital membuat konsep yang berbeda dengan rumah sakit sebelumnya, dengan memasukkan fungsi mix-use dengan gaya modern, sehingga membuat masyarakat dapat merubah pola pikirnya mengenai koridor rumah sakit. Dengan teknik pencahayaan buatannya yang memasang lampu hanya pada bagian pinggir tembok, Melinda Hospital memberikan kesan yang berbeda pada koridor dan ruang tunggunya. Tetapi jika diteliti, terdapat beberapa kekurangan dari penyeimbangan fungsi mix-use yang dipakainya. Karena itu penulis melakukan penelitian mengenai pengaruh desain pencahayaan terhadap kenyamanan dan pembentukkan suasana pada koridor dan ruang tunggu rumah sakit gallery dengan objek studi Melinda Hospital. Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui dua metode yaitu kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Penelitian dengan metode kualitatif dilakukan melalui wawancara tak terstruktur dengan pengelola rumah sakit dan pengunjung, dan membandingkan objek studi dengan teori yang ada. Penelitian kuantitatif dilakukan melalui pengukuran kuat cahaya dengan menggunakan lux meter, penghitungan jumlah titik lampu dengan metode DPMB, menghitung penyebaran cahaya dengan perangkat lunak Dialux, dan penyebaran kuesioner. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Melinda Hospital memiliki kekurangan pencahayaan pada koridor dan ruang tunggu gallerynya. Dari pengukuran kuat cahaya pun terdapat kekurangan pada Melinda Hospital jika dibandingkan dengan standar lux yang ada. Setelah melakukan penelitian di Melinda Hospital, pencahayaan yang ada tidak dapat menunjang fungsi mix-use yang selama ini dipakai, baik itu dari sisi jenis lampu yang dipakai, kuat cahaya yang ada, dan jumlah lampunya. Namun para pengunjung Melinda Hospital dapat merasakan suatu suasana yang berbeda dari rumah sakit lain yang ada di Bandung, karena Melinda Hospital telah mendesain interiornya sedemikian rupa, baik itu dari sisi pemilihan warna, material, desain bentukan, dan bukaan-bukaan yang dibuatnya. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

14 Mengukur Kenyamanan Bangunan Berdasarkan Kondisi Tubuh dan Suhu
Rumah yang ideal merupakan rumah yang dapat memberikan kenyamanan bagi penghuninya. Kenyamanan yang Anda dan keluarga rasakan tentunya berimbas pada kondisi tubuh dan suhunya. Selain itu bisa juga kenyamanan rumah berdampak pada mood Anda melakukan aktivitas apapun di rumah, contohnya membaca buku, memasak, dan bersantai di rumah. Dengan demikian rumah memiliki efek psikologis bagi penghuninya. Kondisi tubuh akan dengan mudah merespon atmosfer keadaan rumah, jika rumah tersebut bersih dan wangi maka akan memberikan respon yang positif bagi tubuh Anda. Anda akan merasakan kenyamanan di rumah yang seperti itu. Kondisi tubuh akan berada pada titik ketenangan menikmati suasana rumah yang teratur rapi dan sejuk. Demikian pula dengan suhu tubuh akan berjalan stabil karena berada pada kondisi ruangan rumah yang memberikan sugesti yang menyejukkan pikiran dan hati apalagi jika rumah Anda dihiasi dengan desain interior yang indah dan menawan pasti Anda dan keluarga akan betah tinggal di sana terlebih lagi tamu-tamu yang berkunjung akan merasa nyaman sekali bertamu ke rumah Anda. Dengan demikian, indikator kenyamanan sebuah rumah dapat diukur dari kondisi dan suhu tubuh para penghuninya. Secara biologis, tubuh manusia mempunyai tingkat adaptasi dan respon terhadap lingkungan sekitarnya, maka kondisi tubuh dengan suhu manusia akan berbanding seimbang dengan keadaan lingkungannya termasuk rumah. Berbeda halnya jika rumah kurang terawat dan sangat berantakan, maka kenyamanan pun akan hilang. Anda mungkin akan segera keluar dari kondisi rumah yang seperti itu. Dengan rumah yang tidak sehat maka kondisi tubuh pun akan rentan terhadap penyakit dan suhu tubuh akan tidak normal, misalnya demam yang tinggi, atau malah dingin yang sangat menggigil. Rumah seperti itu dipastikan karena kurangnya fasilitas sanitasi sehingga menimbulkan rumah yang kumuh dan sirkulasi udara tidak lancar. Ditambah pengadaan air bersih yang kurang akan mengakibatkan kesehatan tubuh memburuk. Setelah melihat perbandingan di atas, maka kenyamanan bangunan dapat diindikasikan dari tata letak ruangan yang akan menghasilkan kerapihan, dan sanitasi serta sirkulasi yang membuat kesehatan penghuni terjaga. Dengan struktur bangunan yang rapi dan bersih, maka akan menstabilkan kondisi dan suhu tubuh. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

15 Mengukur Kenyamanan Bangunan Berdasarkan Kondisi Tubuh dan Suhu
Sirkulasi udara yang lancar melalui ventilasi ruangan yang cukup akan menciptakan kondisi sejuk di dalam ruangan tanpa harus menggunakan air conditioner (AC) dan pencahayaan dari matahari yang masuk ke dalam bangunan membuat kondisi ruangan terang dan tidak lembab. Itulah salah satu yang membuat rumah menjadi nyaman, yakni dari tata ruang dan letak bangunan. Maka tidak ada salahnya jika Anda menghubungi arsitektur untuk mewujudkan bangunan yang nyaman. Berdasarkan kondisi lingkungan tempat bangunan Anda akan berdiri, pihak arsitektur bisa merancang bangunan seperti apa yang cocok dan nyaman bagi Anda dan keluarga, di samping Anda pun punya rancangan sendiri yang nantinya dikolaborasikan dengan ketentuan-ketentuan arsitektur sehingga tercipta bangunan yang memberikan kenyamanan bagi Anda. Jika bangunan rumah Anda sudah ada tetapi Anda kurang merasa nyaman tinggal di dalamnya berdasarkan kondisi tubuh dan suhu Anda dan keluarga yang sangat rentan sakit, seperti flu, pusing, dan gangguan pencernaan semacam dia. Maka Anda harus melakukan tata letak dan ruang ulang yang benar melalui renovasi kecil misalnya membuat ventilasi udara yang cukup bagi ukuran ruangan rumah Anda, ingatlah prinsip renovasi yang mengutamakan asas prioritas jadi jangan merenovasi bagian rumah yang dipAndang tidak terlalu penting untuk dirombak. Akan tetapi jika finansial belum memungkinkan Anda melakukan renovasi, jalan lain yang sebenarnya tidak mengeluarkan biaya adalah Anda melakukan perawatan dan menjaga kebersihan banguanan rumah Anda. Dengan membersihkan rumah seperti menyapu dan mengepel lantai memakai pewangi, membuka jendela setiap pagi, merapikan barang-barang, menguras bak, dan rajin membuang sampah ke tempat penampungan sampah di luar rumah setiap hari agar sampah tidak menumpuk di dalam rumah dan udara menjadi segar. Kenyamanan bangunan tidak diukur diukur dari kemewahan rumah, tetapi dari perawatan lanjutan setelah mempunyai rumah yang membuat kondisi dan suhu tubuh Anda dan keluarga stabil. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

16 Konsep Green Architecture / Arsitektur Hijau Secara Umum
. Konsep green architecture atau arsitektur hijau saat ini menjadi topik yang ramai diperbincangkan, selain kesadaran masyarakat yang makin tinggi akan pentingnya melestarikan alam hal ini juga untuk menghemat sumber daya alam yang tak terbarukan. Berbagai pemikiran tentang green arsitektur pun bermunculan seiring persaingan di dunia arsitek. Green architecture ialah sebuah konsep arsitektur yang berusaha meminimalkan pengaruh buruk terhadap lingkungan alam maupun manusia dan menghasilkan tempat hidup yang lebih baik dan lebih sehat, yang dilakukan dengan cara memanfaatkan sumber energi dan sumber daya alam secara efisien. Konsep arsitektur ini pada dasarnya lebih bertanggung jawab terhadap lingkungan sekitar, penggunaan bahan daur ulang dan juga ramah lingkungan. Green architecture  diharapkan akan digunakan di masa kini dan masa yang akan datang, demi kelangsungan hidup yang lebih baik, di bawah ini beberapa prinsip dari green architecture : Hemat energi, Pengoperasian bangunan meminimalkan penggunaan bahan baker dan energi listrik. Memperhatikan kondisi iklim, mendesain bangunan harus disesuaikan dengan kondisi iklim setempat. Meminimalkan pemakaian sumber daya baru, seperti menggunakan bahan daur ulang atau penggunaan material bangunan yang tidak berbahaya bagi ekosistem dan sumber daya alam. Tidak berdampak negative bagi kesehatan dan kenyamanan penghuni bangunan tersebut, bangunan yang akan dibuat nantinya tidak merusak alam sekitarnya sehingga pada saat bangunan tersebut sudah tidak digunakan, lingkunagn sekitar akan tetap tampak aslinya Merespon  keadaan tapak dari bangunan, dalam merancang bangunan harus memperhatikan semua pengguna bangunan dan memenuhi semua kebutuhannya. Menetapkan seluruh prinsip – prinsip green architecture secara keseluruhan, ketentuan di atas tidak baku dan kita dapat menyesuaikannya dengan kebutuhan. Green architecture (arsitektur hijau) mulai tumbuh sejalan dengan kesadaran dari para arsitek akan keterbatasan alam dalam menyuplai material yang mulai menipis.Alasan lain digunakannya arsitektur hijau adalah untuk memaksimalkan potensi alam. Penggunaan material-material yang bisa didaur-ulang juga mendukung konsep arsitektur hijau, sehingga penggunaan material dapat dihemat. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

17 Konsep Green Architecture / Arsitektur Hijau Secara Umum
Green dapat diinterpretasikan sebagai sustainable (berkelanjutan), earthfriendly (ramah lingkungan), dan high performance building (bangunan dengan performa sangat baik). A.Sustainable ( Berkelanjutan ). Yang berarti bangunan green architecture tetap bertahan dan berfungsi seiring zaman, konsisten terhadap konsepnya yang menyatu dengan alam tanpa adanya perubahan – perubuhan yang signifikan tanpa merusak alam sekitar. B. Earthfriendly ( Ramah lingkungan ). Suatu bangunan belum bisa dianggap sebagai bangunan berkonsep green architecture apabila bangunan tersebut tidak bersifat ramah lingkungan, artinya bukan hanya desain tetapi juga dalam implementasinya dalam penggunaan bahan atau material untuk bangunan. C. High performance building. Bangunan yang disebut green arsitektur juga harus memiliki sifat ini, artinya memanfaatkan tenaga alam dengan didukung teknologi tinggi . Contohnya : 1.Penggunaan panel surya ( Solar cell ) untuk memanfaatkan energi panas matahari sebagai sumber pembangkit tenaga listrik rumahan. 2.Penggunaan material – material yang dapat di daur ulang. Secara sederhana konsep green architecture ini bisa kita terapkan di dalam rancangan rumah sederhana sekalipun, hanya saja semua kembali pada kesadaran diri kita sendiri, apakah ada niat baik untuk menuju ke sana, demi kelangsungan hidup anak cucu kita di masa depan yang lebih baik Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

18 Menggunakan Tanaman Gantung Untuk Memperindah Teras
. anaman gantung bisa digunakan untuk mempercantik tampilan teras. Selain itu juga bisa dijadikan sebagai alternatif untuk memunculkan suasana sejuk jika tidak punya lahan yang cukup untuk membuat taman. Apalagi tanaman gantug dengan susunan daunnya yang menjuntai ke arah bawah juga bisa dijadikan media untuk mengatur sistem pencahayaan yang masuk ke dalam ruang serta sistem sirkulasi udara. Sehingga bukan hanya mendapat tampilan teras makin cantik, namun suasana sejuk dan segar bisa diperoleh sekaligus. Jenis tanaman gantung yang bisa digunakan atau dipasang diteras ada dua macam yaitu jenis tanaman yang membutuhkan banyak sinar matahari serta tanaman lain yang tidak begitu membutuhkan. Jenis tanaman yang tahan dan butuh banyak sinar matahari ditempatkan di teras secara langsung. Lokasinya berada di bagian pinggir bawah atap atau plafon. Di tempat seperti ini matahari bisa memberikan sinarnya secara langsung kepada tanaman tersebut. Sedangkan untuk jenis tanaman yang tidak tahan dengan sinar matahari bisa diletakan pada ranting atau cabang pohon yang besar. Jika mau menggunakannya untuk mempercantik tampilan teras alat yang digunakan untuk menanam adalah pot tempel yang dipasang di bagian dinding dalam teras. Jadi tanaman tidak tidak akan terkena sinar matahari secara langsung. Jenis pot untuk tempat tanaman juga bermacam-macam terutama dari bahan yang digunakan. Ada yang terbuat dari plastik, keramik, tanah liat, besi dan kayu. Masing-masing punya kelebihan dan kekurangan tersendiri. Untuk yang menggunakan plastik, kelebihannya adalah bahan tersebut ringan, awet dan mudah dibersihkan. Pada umumnya warna yang digunakan adalah hitam dan merah marun. Kekurangan dari pot jenis ini adalah bentuk desain yang tersedia tidak begitu banyak sehingga kurang dapat menambah nilai estetika. Sedangkan untuk keramik dan tanah liat punya kelebihan banyak desain, model dan bentuk. Bahkan jika kita pergi ke tempat pembuatannya langsung dapat memesan bentuk dan ukuran yang disesuaikan dengan konsep desain rumah atau teras. Demikian pula dengan modelnya. Khusus tanah liat, warnanya juga bisa dipilih sesuka hati dengan menggunakan cat warna. Adapun kelemahan dari kedua bahan ini adalah lebih berat dari plastik dan mudah pecah. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

19 Menggunakan Tanaman Gantung Untuk Memperindah Teras
Untuk kayu dan besi punya kelebihan yang sama dengan bahan tanah liat dan keramik. Adapun kekurangannya adalah untuk kayu mudah keropos dan berjamur sedang untuk besi gampang berkarat. Dua kelemahan ini punya efek yang sama yaitu pot menjadi cepat rusak dan tidak kuat menahan beban tanah yang digunakan sebagai media tanam. Akibatnya tanah bisa ambrol atau jatuh keluar. Bahan untuk tali yang digunakan sebagai gantungan juga ada beberapa macam yaitu kawat, tali plastik, rantai besi dan sebagainya. Khusus untuk yang menggunakan pot besi, keramik dan tanah liat gunakan tali yang ukurannya lebih besar dan kuat sehingga bisa menanggung beban yang berat pula. Sebaiknya tali yang digunakan juga memilih jenis tali yang memang dibuat khusus untuk menempatkan pot gantung. Karena tali seperti ini teknik pembuatannya juga menggunakan desain dan gaya yang menarik. Bukan sekedar di pasangkan pada pot gantung begitu saja. Sehingga tampilan ruang dan tanaman gantung beserta potnya ini bisa makin menarik. Di toko-toko tanaman hias tali gantung seperti ini sudah banyak dijual. Hanging Plants Hanging plants are a smart choice for apartments and generally for small spaces. The idea is that you can bring the green inside it without wasting your apartment space. What can you grow in hanging baskets? You can actually, cultivate any plant adaptable to the atmosphere and low light of an enclosed space such as “Philodendron” , “English Ivy” or “Pothos”. Options are more numerous in case of a bright apartment with an opening to the South. However, you can plant even, vegetables and fruits in these hanging baskets such as “cherry tomatoes” or “strawberries”. On the other hand, if you prefer an exotic atmosphere, consider plants such as “Hoya plants” ( ) Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

. Selain di luar ruang, sebuah taman juga bisa dibuat di dalam ruang untuk menambah keanggunan tampilan ruang tersebut. Selain itu dengan menempatkan taman di dalam ruang akan membuat penghuni rumah akan merasa satu dengan alam. Untuk membuat taman di dalam ruang, pertama kali yang harus dilakukan adalah mencari lokasi yang cocok. Pilihlah lokasi yang bisa terkena sinar matahari secara langsung. Sehingga meski berada di dalam ruang, kebutuhan sinar tanaman bisa tetap terpenuhi. Jika sinar yang masuk kedalam ruang tidak maksimal, ketika memilih tanaman pilihlah jenis tanaman yang tidak begitu membutuhkan sinar matahari. Lokasi taman juga perlu memperhitungkan apakah letak taman tesebut benar-benar aman. Maksudnya adalah, pada waktu siang hari tanaman akan menguluarkan zat oksigen yang sangat berguna bagi tubuh. Namun pada malam hari pada umumnya tanaman akan mengeluarkan zat lain yang justru akan membahayakan tubuh. Jadi pilihlah lokasi taman yang tidak begitu dekat dengan tempat istirahat malam terutama ruang tidur. Sirkulasi udara dan kelembaban juga perlu dicermati agar tanaman tidak terlalu kepanasan atau justru terlalu kedinginan. Jika terlalu panas tanaman akan mudah kering dan jika terlalu dingin akan menyebabkan busuk. Untuk pemilihan jenis tanaman, pilihlah jenis tanaman yang lebih mudah beradaptasi dalam segala kondisi dan cuaca. Kemudian untuk media penempatan, yang terbaik tentu saja adalah pot. Karena dengan menggunakan pot perawatan akan lebih mudah dilakukan dan kemungkinan untuk memunculkan kotoran pada lantai juga lebih kecil.  Disarankan pula pada bagian bawah pot tersebut diberi wadah untuk menampung air siraman yang tersisa atau tanah yang larut terkena air siraman. Agar nampak indah pilihlah jenis pot yang sesuai dengan jenis tanaman yang digunakan. Beri juga pewarnaan pada pot tersebut yang diselaraskan dengan nuansa yang ada pada ruangan. Kemudian agar nampak lebih bersih pada media tanah dalam pot bisa ditutup dengan batu-batuan, terutama jenis batu koral. Selain memperindah tampilan, batu koral juga berfungsi untuk memperkecil kemungkinan tanah didalam pot akan keluar dan membuat kotor lantai. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Batu koral juga bisa ditempatkan pada lantai di sekitar tanaman pot. Hal ini sangat bagus dilakukan jika tanaman dikumpulkan menjadi satu secara bergerombol, namun dengan penataan yang rapi dan seksama. Jika menginginkan media tanam tanpa menggunakan pot, maka perhitungkan jaminan kebersihan dari taman tersebut.  Jangan sampai terjadi taman tersebut justru menimbulkan kesan yang kotor dan tidak rapi. Tempat yang paling bagus untuk menempatkan taman jenis ini adalah di bagian pinggir atau pojok ruang. Agar tetap terlihat bersih, pada bagian luar taman tersebut juga ditutup dengan bahan yang sama yaitu batu koral atau batu alam yang lain. Perhitungkan pula dengan cermat arah aliran air ketika melakukan penyiraman. Jangan sampai air meluber hingga masuk ke lantai. Perhatikan dengan seksama terutaman pada bagian daun suatu tanaman. Jika warnanya berubah menjadi pucat atau kusam, itu pertanda jika tanaman tersebut sudah mulai tidak sehat sehingga perlu mendapat kesegaran yang baru. Keluarkan tanaman dan biarkan selama dua atau tiga hari di luar ruang.  Jika warna daunnya sudah kembali cerah, tanaman bisa dibawa masuk kembali. Untuk tanaman yang ditanam secara langsung dalam ruang, tentu pekerjaan ini sulit dilakukan. Maka jalan terbaiknya adalah lebih sering membuka jendela atau pintu kamar , terutama yang secara langsung bisa memasukan sinar matahari dan udara ke dalam ruang. Factors In Choosing The Best Indoor Plants: Lighting Temperature Humidity Space availability Time availability When searching for the best indoor plants for low light conditions, find a plant with a light but expansive root system and stem structure. Possibilities include the Ficus and Chinese Evergreen. Both of these plants grow well with limited or indirect lighting. They are also very easy to maintain. Simply keep the soil moist and enjoy the benefits. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

22 TIPS MEMILIH CAT RUMAH . Apa pentingnya memilih cat rumah? Jangan anggap sepele cat rumah . Cat atau polesan terhadap dinding rumah bukan hanya berfungsi untuk menjaga keawetan bangunan rumah, namun yang lebih penting adalah fungsi estetika yang akan muncul dari ketangkasan Anda dalam memilih cat warna rumah yang sesuai. Banyak rumah yang dibangun dengan harga cukup mahal namun pada akhirnya terlihat sebagai bangunan kuno yang tidak menarik, hal ini salah satunya disebabkan oleh ketidak tahuan Anda  mengenai tips memilih cat rumah yang sesuai. Atau terkadang sebuah bangunan rumah mungil sederhana, namun tampak indah dan asri hanya karena kepintaran si pemilik rumah dalam memilih cat rumah yang sesuai untuk tempat huniannya. Oleh karenanya, jika Anda ingin mendirikan sebuah rumah, hal yang cukup penting untuk dipikirkan adalah soal warna cat yang akan Anda pilih seperti apa, bagus atau tidak kualitasnya. Untuk bisa menghasilkan sebuah bangunan rumah dengan warna cat yang baik, tentunya diperlukan tips memilih cat rumah agar Anda tidak salah pilih cat. Pada bahan-bahan alami bangunan rumah seperti papan, bambu, atau bahkan besi, cat digunakan untuk menjaga keawetan bahan, oleh karenanya Anda juga harus cerdas memilih cat rumah dengan beragam fungsinya. Nah, berikut disajikan beberapa tips memilih cat rumah yang sesuai untuk rumah Anda: 1. Memilih warna-warna senada Perbedaan yang mencolok antara bangunan rumah di daerah perkotaan dengan pedesaan, atau bangunan rumah yang dirancang oleh seorang arsitek dengan rancangan pribadi pemilik rumah terkadang soal memilih cat. Rumah-rumah di pedesaan cenderung memilih warna serabutan yang tidak saling berhubungan satu sama lain alias tabrak warna. Misalnya warna hijau dikombinasikan dengan biru. Hal ini jelas sangat merusak pemandangan. Lain halnya jika pemilihan warna tak selaras tersebut dimunculkan pada gaya desain ruangan minimalis modern . Itu pun biasanya perpaduan warna mencolok diletakkan pada warna asesoris atau furniture ruangan, bukan pada dinding. Pilih lah warna dinding yang senada satu sama lain, sehingga kesan yang muncul cukup memberi kenyamanan pada mata. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

23 Deluxe Indoor Flowering Plant
TIPS MEMILIH CAT RUMAH 2. Pilih lah cat warna dinding yang lebih muda dari lantai ruangan Sama hal nya dengan memilih baju, memilih cat rumah juga diusahakan untuk bagian atas lebih muda dari pada bagian bawah. Pilih lah warna lantai rumah yang lebih tua di banding warna dinding rumah, atau carilah warna cat dinding rumah yang lebih muda dibanding warna lantai. Misalnya jika Anda memilih warna ubin coklat, maka pilih lah cat dinding rumah warna coklat muda yang lebih muda dibandingkan warna lantai. Penggunaan warna ini akan lebih memberi kesan indah dibanding jika Anda memposisikan warna cat sebaliknya, yakni warna lantai jauh lebih muda dari pada dinding, maka nuansa ruangan akan terasa gelap. 3. Carilah kualitas cat terbaik Memilih cat rumah juga tidak terlepas dari soal kualitas. Carilah kualitas cat terbaik yang sesuai dengan kondisi keuangan Anda. Namun memiliki cat dengan kualitas yang bagus akan membuat dinding rumah lebih awet dan Anda juga akan bertahan cukup lama tidak melakukan pengecatan ulang. Apabila Anda memilih cat rumah dengan kualitas rendah maka warna cat akan cepat rusak dan Anda diharuskan mengecat ulang. Hal ini justru jauh lebih sulit bukan dibanding dengan Anda langsung saja memilih cat rumah dengan kualitas terbaik. Deluxe Indoor Flowering Plant For the best seasonal selection, such as an azalea, hydrangea, or cyclamen. The seasonal varieties may include kalanchoes, gloxinias, persion violets. ( Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Rumah sehat, tentunya menjadi harapan kita semua, baik bagi pemilik dan penghuninya ataupun bagi lingkungan dan masyarakat di sekitarnya. Apa saja kah yang perlu kita perhatikan untuk mewujudkan rumah sehat yang akan kita tinggali, berikut ini 5 prinsip dari rumah sehat : 1. Pencahayaan Alami Posisi bangunan sangat berpengaruh pada pencahayaan alami ini, karena satu-satunya sumber cahaya alami adalah matahari, jadi kita tidak bisa menentukannya sendiri tetapi posisi bangunan atau rumah yang akan kita bangun lah yang harus menyesuaikan pada cahaya matahari yang nantinya akan masuk, atau jika anda terlanjur membangun rumah dengan posisi yang tidak memungkinkan masuknya cahaya matahari, anda bisa mengakalinya dengan membuat skylight, misalnya buatlah kaca transparan di langit-langit rumah anda., bisa juga dengan memasang kaca jendela transparan, ruang tanpa sekat massif dan cat ruangan berwarna putih untuk memantulkan cahaya lampu sehingga bisa menerangi ruangan dengan maksimal. Selain untuk alas an kesehatan, pencahayaan alami yang cukup juga akan banyak bermanfaat untuk menghemat listrik, kita tidak perlu menyalakan lampu untuk menerangi bagian dalam rumah, karena semuanya sudah terpenuhi oleh cahaya matahari yang masuk. Cahaya matahari bisa dimanfaatkan dengan optimal sebagai sumber cahaya alami untuk rumah sehat, dengan pedoman: a. Orientasi Bangunan Bangunan sebaiknya menghadap Utara-Selatan agar terhindar dari panas langsung matahari, karena bagaimanapun pentingnya sinar matahari jika terkena langsung dalam waktu terus-menerus akan berakibat kurang baik. b. Ukuran Ruangan dan Bukaan Agar cahaya matahari yang masuk mencukupi, dan dapat menerangi ruangan dengan maksimal, sebaiknya ukuran lebar ruangan dibuat 2 kali ukuran tinggi bukaannya. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

2. Ventilasi Alami Pada prinsipnya ventilasi alami adalah menciptakan sirkulasi udara dengan membuat lubang-lubang pada bagian dinding bangunan untuk memasukan udara segar dari luar sehingga udara panas yang ada di dalam bisa digantikan dengan baik. 3. Sistem Manajemen Limbah Sistem manajemen limbah yang baik sangat penting demi terciptanya lingkungan rumah yang bersih dan sehat, untuk dapat menangani limbah tentu saja kita harus mengetahui terlebih dahulu jenis-jenis smpah itu sendiri, agar memudahkan kita melakukan pembersihan, penyortiran, pengemasan serta melakukan pembuangan akhir. Kenapa harus seperti itu? Karena untuk setiap jenih limbah yang berbeda akan memerlukan penanganan yang berbeda juga, seperti adanya sampah organik dan non organic yang perlu kita pilah dan pisah ketika ingin membuangnya, dan lingkungan kita pun akan lebih sehat. 4. Penampungan Air Hujan Untuk memanfaatkan air hujan, bisa kita tampung ke dalam kolam atau tong besar. Tentunya air hujan yang kita tampung tadi bisa kita manfaatkan untuk kebutuhan sehari-hari, seperti menyiram tanaman mencuci mobil atau menyiram toilet, tapi perlu diperhatikan juga ketika air hujan dalam penampungan tersebut terlalu lama tersimpan biasanya akan jadi rumah nyamuk untuk bertelur dan akan sangat berbahaya bagi kesehatan anda dan keluarga, jadi solusinya anda bisa menggunakan abate ke dalam bak penampungan, atau jika media penampungan tersebut berupa kolam, anda bisa memelihara ikan di sana sebagai predator dari jentik-jentik nyamuk yang mungkin ada. 5. Lapisan Tembus Air Halaman rumah sebaiknya tidak kita buat dengan menutupinya dengan tembok atau cor beton seluruhnya, daerah resapan air pun sangat perlu kita buat di sekitar rumah, selain untuk menghindari genangan air juga sebagai media seni sehingga rumah kita akan terlihat lebih cantik jika kita bisa mengaturnya sedemikian rupa. Kita bisa menanami rumput, grass block ataupun tanaman lain di halaman rumah, agar air dapat mengalir dan proses peresapan ke dalam tanah bisa lancar, sehingga bila semua rumah menerapkannya, maka akan tercipta lingkungan yang bebas banjir. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Stres pada masa kini seringkali menjadi masalah yang serius dalam kehidupan manusia modern yang semakin sibuk dan penuh tekanan. Selain menghindari polusi, atau situasi yang membuat stres rumah pun merupakan tempat yang paling tepat untuk membantu menanggulangi stres. Rapi dan Terorganisasi Rumah yang rapi dapat mengurangi stres. Kurangilah benda-benda yang tidak trepakai agar rumah tidak tampak penuh dan berantakan. Rumah yang acak-acakan menggambarkan kemalasan, tidak bersih, dan kurang mencintai diri sendri. Anda tidak perlu memajang semua benda kesayangan sekaligus, tetapi simpanlah beberapa diantaranya dan tukarlah selang setiap waktu tertentu. Kegiatan ini akan membantu Anda dalam menanggulangi stres karena kegiatan Anda akan terpaku pada hal-hal yang Anda senangi. Warna kuning muda atau kuning emas pada dinding dapat merangsang otak untuk berpikir jernih dan mengurangi stres. Berilah ruang gerak yang cukup dalam rumah untuk memastikan Anda menyimpan barang-barang di tempat alternatif, misalnya dengan menyimpan di bawah tempat tidur, atau gudang bawah atap. Mengatasi Sulit Tidur Sulit tidur adalah salah satu akibat yang paling umum dari stres. Untuk menguranginya pastikan ruang tidur, berada jauh dari kebisingan seperti jalan, dan sebaiknya dekat dengan taman belakang. Beri warna dinding yang membuat pikiran menjadi rileks seperti warna pink, oranye paste muda, biru atau hijau lembut. Lampu tidur berwarna hijau juga akan menenangkan pikiran. Bakarlah lilin wangi atau minyak esensial sebelum tidur. Terlevisi, atau benda-beda elektronik sebaiknya tidak berada dalam kamar tidur . Terpaku menonton semua program justru akan menambah stres, mengurangi motivasi hidup, dan vitalitas fisik Anda. Selain itu ruang tidur sebaiknya terpisah dari ruang kerja. Benda-Benda Kecil yang Penting Seringkali kita kehilangan benda-benda kecil yang penting di dalam rumah, seperti kunci, kacamata, dompet, dan lain-lain. Oleh karena itu Anda dapat mensiasatinya dengan membeli rak unik dan letakkan di depan dekat pintu, dan biasakanlah untuk menyimpan semua benda-benda kecil tadi di dalamnya. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Sosialisasi Hal yang sangat disayangkan bila saat ini menjamu tamu di rumah sudah sangat jarang dilakukan, sebaliknya menjamu tamu di restoran tampaknya menjadi favorit banyak orang. Padahal bersosialisasi dengan menjamu tamu di rumah sendiri ini lebih rileks, akrab, dan menciptakan kehangatan bagi penghuni maupun tamu yang Anda jamu. Sekali-sekali undanglah sahabat untuk makan malam di rumah Anda. Menjamu tamu di rumah akan membuat Anda terpacu untuk lebih memperhatikan tatanan interior rumah . Anda juga jadi alasan untuk membeli alat-alat baru, dan kegiatan ini akan terasa menenangkan. Ciptakan kegiatan yang santai setelah makan, misalnya nonton video bersama, melakukan permainan, atau mendengarkan musik untuk mengobrol. Tatalah rumah dengan atmosfer yang menyenangkan dan hangat seperti penerangan lilin-lilin, serta bunga segar. Warna cerah akan menambah kehangatan jamuan. Tata furniture dengan lay out yang akrab, kursi, dan sofa hendaknya dalam posisi berdekatan. Perpustakaan Mini Membaca buku akan membuat hidup Anda lebih berarti. Selain menambah pengetahuan, dan kekayaan pikiran, buku-buku yang tersusun rapi di rumah Anda akan memberikan kesan bersahabat dan hangat dalam rumah Anda. Rumah tanpa buku akan terasa kosong, dan terasa kaku serta kurang bersahabat. Oleh karena itu bila memungkinkan ciptakanlah taman membaca di salah satu sudut pada rumah Anda. Membaca beberapa lembar buku sebelum tidur juga akan merangsang imajinasi serta kreatifitas Anda. Letakkan beberapa buku di meja sisi, tempat tidur sehingga Anda selalu ingat untuk membaca sebelum tidur. Indoor plant = Filtering the Air Any lingering volatile organic compounds can be filtered from the air to improve indoor air quality. In studies intended to find ways to purify air for extended stays on space stations, NASA discovered that many common household plants also remove toxic volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene, benzene and formaldehyde from the air. The study also showed that some plants are better at removing chemicals from the air. Below is a list of plants and the volatile organic compounds, and other indoor toxins they remove. Philodendrons, Spider plants, Pothos and Money plants remove formaldehyde present in carpets, and furniture (particularly flat pack particleboard furniture and foam insulation). English Ivy and Boston Ferns remove airborne mold. The Areca palm removes indoor chemicals and acts as a humidifier. Gerbera Daisies and Chrysanthemums clear benzene and trichloroethylene found in plastics, synthetic fibers, detergents, varnishes, adhesives and dry cleaning from indoor air. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Sanitasi merupakan bagian penting dalam pembangunan sebuah bangunan atau rumah, tapi kadang banyak dari kita yang kurang menyadarinya, karena melihat begitu pentingnya sanitasi bahkan tokoh dunia sekelas Mahatma Ghandi pernah berkata ‘sanitation is more important than independence’, bagi bangunan atau rumah tinggal modern sat ini mungkin kata-kata itu ada benarnya, sanitasi yang baik bisa lebih berharga dari kemerdekaan, bayangkan ketika kita memasuki sebuah bangunan modern tiba-tiba saja tercium aroma kurang sedap dari toilet atau bau busuk dari saluran pembuangan limbah yang tersendat, tentu saja citra si pemilik bangunan akan langsung jelek di mata kita, sepertinya memang hal sepele, tetapi jika kita abaikan itu bisa jadi sebuah bencana bagi sang pemilik. Ada beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merancang sebuah system sanitasi di rumah, di antaranya penyediaan air bersih dan pengolahan limbah. 1.Instalasi Air Bersih Tersedianya air bersih yang cukup tentu saja menjadi factor utama dalam sanitasi pada rumah, apapun kegiatan sanitasi yang kita lakukan di rumah biasanya memakai air bersih, baik itu penggunaan secara langsung maupun sebagai pelengkap saja. Untuk itu perlu diperhatikan dalam membuat instalasi untuk air bersih, paling tidak ada 2 model instalasi yang dapat diterapkan untuk rumah : a.Instalasi Terbuka Saluran utama mengalir lurus dari tangki utama ke titik-titik disepanjang pipa dan berakhir pada satu titik. b.Instalasi tertutup Saluran utama mengalir dari pompa atau tangki air ke titik-titik percabangan saluran anak, ujung saluran utama ini berakhir di dekat pompa atau tangki air. 2.Instalasi Limbah Saluran pipa ganda di sisi kanan dan kiri rumah adalah alternative terbaik untuk system pembuangan air limbah, tapi system ini juga tetap memiliki untung dan rugi. Keuntungannya, jika salah satu saluran pipa pembuangan mampet atau tersendat maka saluran pembuangan lainnya masih bisa berfungsi, hanya saja untuk saluran pipa ganda pemakaian pipa PVC menjadi boros karena memakai pipa dengan jumlah 2 kali lebih banyak daripada memakai saluran pipa tunggal. Jika ingin hemat, anda bisa menggunakan system saluran pipa tunggal, pipa utama bisa di tempatkan di salah satu sisi bangunan atau rumah, untuk menghindari mampet sebaiknya pipa yang digunakan berukuran tidak kurang dari 4 inchi. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

3.Septic Tank Untuk pembuatan septic tank pun sebenarnya ada Standar Nasional Indonesia nya.. Standar ini mencakup sistem, ukuran, dan prosedur pembuatannya. Dalam SNI, ukuran dimensi septic tank ditetapkan berdasar jumlah penghuni rumah. Untuk rumah dengan lima penghuni, volume septic tank bisa dihitung berikut ini : ruang basah 1,2m3, ruang lumpur 0,45m3, dan ruang ambang batas bebas 0,4m3. Jika dibuat dalam rumus panjang x lebar x tinggi yaitu : 1,6m, x 0,8m, x 1,6m. Dengan volume tersebut, septic tank bisa bertahan selama 3 tahun tanpa pengurasan. Dalam membuat atau memilih tangki yang sudah jadi, kita juga harus memperhatikan kekuatannya. Tangki harus tahan terhadap asam, dan kedap air, tidak boleh ada rembesan dari tangki sehingga dapat mencemari lingkungan sekitar. Untuk itu, tangki dapat dibuat dari batu kali, bata merah, batako, atau beton. Bisa juga menggunakan tangki dari keramik, pvc, plastik, atau besi. Jarak tangki ke bangunan juga perlu diperhatikan, yaitu 1,5m, sedangkan jaran tangki ke sumur air bersih 10m, dan 5m untuk jarak tangki ke sumur resapan air hujan. Aneka tanaman hias yang cocok untuk lingkungan di luar ruangan Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

30 Green Hospital and Inspiring Action
In  RSJ Dr.Radjiman Wediodiningrat Lawang Intruksi Menteri Dalam Negeri No. 14 Tahun 1988 mengemukakan bahwa ruang terbuka hijau memberikan manfaat sebagai berikut : Memberikan kesegaran, kenyamanan dan keindahan lingkungan Memberikan lingkungan bersih dan sehat Memberikan hasil produksi berupa kayu, daun bunga, biji, serta buah atau hasil lainnya. Udara alami yang bersih sering dikotori oleh debu, baik yang dihasilkan oleh kegiatan alami maupun kegiatan manusia. Langkah nyata dan kongkret mewujudkan Green Hospital sedang dirintis RSJ Dr. Radjiman Wediodiningrat Lawang. Salah satu dari konsep yang sedang digagas adalah rencana memaksimalkan lahan tidur milik RSJ Dr. Radjiman Wediodiningrat Lawang yang jumlah total luasnya mencapai 295 hektare, dan sementara ini yang termanfaatkan hanya 20 persennya saja.     Konsep Green Hospital adalah lingkungan untuk mewujudkan kenyamanan ekologis bagi pasien serta warga masyarakat yang tinggal di sekitar lingkungan RSJ. Green Hospital adalah Rumah Sakit yang berwawasan lingkungan dan merupakan jawaban atas tuntutan kebutuhan pelayanan dari pelanggan Rumah Sakit yang telah bergeser ke arah pelayanan paripurna serta berbasis kenyamanan dan keamanan lingkungan rumah sakit.     Penghijauan adalah salah satu kegiatan penting yang harus dilaksanakan secara konseptual dalam menangani krisis lingkungan. Kegiatan menambah ruang terbuka hijau dengan penanaman bibit tanaman di seluruh lahan milik RSJ dan di area sekitar mata air yang berlokasi ± 5 km dari RSJ Dr. Radjiman Wediodiningrat Lawang pada hari Rabu, 25 Januari 2012 dilakukan Dr. Bambang Eko Sunaryanto, Sp.KJ selaku Direktur Utama, bersama pasien yang masuk masa pemulihan, dokter, perawat, dan anggota dewan pengawas RSJ dilakukan sebagai upaya untuk menyongsong penerapan konsep Green Hospital di RSJ Dr. Radjiman Wediodiningrat Lawang untuk mewujudkan lingkungan yang sehat dan aman, disamping itu terpenuhinya unsur kenyamanan ekologis dan estetika juga merupakan salah satu pertimbangan pasien dalam pemilihan rumah sakit.     Semoga melalui konsep Green Hospital di RSJ Dr. Radjiman Wediodiningrat Lawang dapat menginspirasi lebih banyak orang untuk lebih tergugah sebagai wujud keperdulian lingkungan. Let’s keep our world green forever. (srs) Lawang, 9 Februari 2012 Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

31 MUTU PELAYANAN RUMAH SAKIT b. Aspek efisiensi dan efektifitas
Mutu pelayanan rumah sakit dapat dilihat dari segi aspek yang berpengaruh. Aspek berarti hal-hal yang secara langsung atau tidak berpengaruh terhadap penilaian. Keempat aspek tersebut adalah seperti berikut : a. Aspek klinis Menyangkut pelayanan dokter, perawat dan terkait dengan teknis medis. (Indikator klinis terdiri dari : Angka infeki nosokomial; Angka kematian rumah sakit; Kasus kelainan neurology yang timbul selama pasien dirawat; Timbulnya dekubitus selama perawatan; Indikasi operasi tidak tepat; Salah yang dioperasi; Kesalahan teknik operasi; Komplikasi pembedahan; Perbedaan antara diagosa pra bedah dengan penemuan patologi anatomi pasca bedah; Operasi ulang untuk menanggulangi penyulit; Infeksi pasca bedah; Kematian karena operasi; Reaksi obat; Komplikasi pengobatan intravena; Reaksi tranfusi; Angka section Caesar yang tidak wajar tingginya; Angka kematian ibu melahirkan. b. Aspek efisiensi dan efektifitas Pelayanan yang murah, tepat guna, tak ada diagnosa dan terapi berlebihan. (Indicator aspek efisiensi dan efektifitas terdiri dari : Pasien menunggu terlalu lama di kamar operasi, kamar rontgen dan lain-lain sebelum ditolong; Persiapan dikamar bedah, kamar bersalin tidak baik; Masalah dengan logistik kamar bedah, ruang perawatan, kamar bersalin; Masalah pemakaian obat; Masalah lamanya pasien dirawat; Masalah dengan prasarana (listrik, air, instalasi gas); Masalah teknis dengan alat-alat dan perlengkapan; Masalah dengan sumber daya manusia; Prosedur administrasi yang rumit. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

Mutu pelayanan rumah sakit dapat dilihat dari segi aspek yang berpengaruh. Aspek berarti hal-hal yang secara langsung atau tidak berpengaruh terhadap penilaian. Keempat aspek tersebut adalah seperti berikut : c. Aspek keselamatan pasien Upaya perlindungan terhadap pasien, misalnya perlindungan jatuh dari tempat tidur, kebakaran. (Indicator keselamatan pasien terdiri dari : Pasien terjatuh dari tempat tidur, dikamar mandi, toilet; Pasien diberi obat yang salah; Pasien lupa diberi obat; Tidak ada alat atau obat emergency ketika dibutuhkan; Tidak dilakukan cross match pada pasien yang ditranfusi; Tidak ada oksigen ketika dibutuhkan; Infeksi nosokomial; Alat penyedot lendir yang tidak berfungsi dengan baik; Alat anesthesia tidak berfungsi baik; Alat pemadam kebakaran tidak tersedia; Tidak ada rencana penanggulangan bencana. d. Aspek kepuasan pasien Berhubungan dengan kenyamanan, keramahan dan kecepatan pelayanan. (Indikator aspek kepuasan pasien terdiri dari : Jumlah keluhan dari pasien dan keluarga; Hasil penilaian dengan kuisener atau survay tentang derajat kepuasan pasien; Kritik dalam kolom surat pembaca Koran; Pengaduan mal praktek; Laporan dari staf medik dan perawatan tentang kepuasan pasien) Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

Pelayanan keperawatan merupakan bagian integral dari pelayanan kesehatan. Di rumah sakit, keperawatn menjadi salah satu profesi yang berperan dalam quality assurance (Aditama, 2003) yang dilakukan dengan pengelolaan asuhan keperawatan secara professional yang memfokuskan pada kebutuhan pasien dan keluarganya (klien) dengan intervensi yang melandaskan pada ilmu keperawatan (Nurachmah, 2001). Asuhan keperawatan yang berkualitas merupakan asuhan manusiawi yang diberikan kepada klien, memenuhi standart dan criteria profesi keperawatan, sesuai dengan standart biaya dan kualitas yang diharapkan rumah sakit serta mampu mencapai tingkat kepuasan dan memenuhi harapan klien. Kualitas tersebut dipengaruhi oleh kondisi pasien, tenaga keperawatan, system manajerial, kemampuan rumah sakit dalam memenuhi sarana dan prasarana, serta harapan masyarakat terhadap pelayanan kesehatan/ keperawatan rumah sakit. Untuk menciptakan kualitas tersebut diatas, perlu diperhatikan komponen berikut : Terlihat sikap caring ketika memberikan asuhan keperawatan kepada klien. Sikap ini diyakini sebagai esensi keperawatan. Merupakan tindakan yang bertujuan memberikan asuhan fisik dan memperhatikan emosi sambil meningkatkan rasa aman dan keselamatan klien (Carruth et al. cit. Nurachmah, 2001). Perawat menawarkan sebuah kejujuran, kepercayaan dan niat baik untuk meningkatkan perubahan positif klien dalam aspek fisik, psikologis, spiritual dan social (Nurachmah, 2001). Hubungan perawat-klien yang terapeutik dan timbal balik agar efektifitas intervensi meningkat. Hubungan dibentuk melalui proses pembinaan dan pemahaman dua belah pihak. Perawat memprakarsai sikap empati dan keinginan berespon serta keinginan menolong klien. Keberhasilan ini menentukan keberhasilan hasil tindakan yang diharapkan (Nurachmah,2001). Kemampuan dalam memenuhi kebutuhan klien, karena rangkaian kegiatan keperawatan diorientasikan kepada klien. Hal ini dipengaruhi kemampuan perawat dalam berrespon terhadap keluhan dan masalah klien serta upaya menanganinya sesuai kebutuhan klien (Nurachmah, 2001). Kolaborasi dengan anggota tim kesehatan lain. Quality assurance, yaitu membandingkan antara standart yang telah ditetapkan dengan hasil yang dicapai yang dilakukan dengan menilai, memantau,atau mengatur pelayanan yang berorientasi pada klien meliputi aspek struktur, proses dan outcome (Nurachmah, 2001).

34 KEPUASAN PASIEN 1. Pengertian Kepuasan Pasien
Tingkat kepuasan merupakan evaluasi purnabeli dimana alternatif yang dipilih minimal memberikan hasil sama atau melampaui harapan (Engel et al., 1990 Tjiptono, 2000). Kotler (1994) mengungkapkan kepuasan sebagai tingkat perasaan seseorang setelah embandingkan kinerja (hasil) yang dirasakan dengan harapannya. Sehingga dapat dinyatakan bahwa harapan dan kinerja yang dirasakan merupakan komponen pokok kepuasan konsumen/ pelanggan. Harapan merupakan perkiraan atau keyakinan konsumen tentang apa yang akan diterimanya bila ia membeli atau mengkonsumsi barang atau jasa. Sedangkan kinerja yang dirasakan merupakan persepsi konsumen terhadap apa yang ia terima setelah mengkonsumsi produk atau jasa yang dibeli. Dalam menggunakan suatu jasa (pelayanan), konsumen seringkali mempunyai skenario tentang apa yang akan diterimanya, berupa : Jasa ideal, (2) jasa yang diantisipasi atau harapan, (3) Jasa yang selayaknya diterima, (4) Jasa minimum yang dapat ditoleransi. Apabila jasa minimal yang diharapkan adalah ”jasa yang dapat ditoleransi”, lalu yang terjadi sama dengan atau bahkan melampaui harapan tersebut, maka konsumen akan merasakan kepuasan. Sedangkan apabila jasa yang diharapkan adalah ”jasa ideal”, tetapi yang terjadi kurang dari harapan tersebut, maka konsumen akan merasakan ketidakpuasan. Dari penjelasan tersebut terlihat jelas bahwa konsumen memiliki peran besar sebagai standart perbandingan evaluasi kualitas maupun kepuasan. Kepuasan pasien adalah nilai subyektif terhadap kualitas pelayanan yang diberikan. Walaupun subyektif tetap ada dasar obyektifnya, artinya walaupun penilaian itu dilandasi oleh hal dibawah ini : Pengalaman masa lalu; Pendidikan; Situasi psikis waktu itu; Pengaruh lingkungan waktu itu.

35 ASPEK KEPUASAN PASIEN Mother In Law's Tongue
Kepuasan pasien meliputi empat aspek dibawah ini : a. Kenyamanan meliputi ; Lokasi rumah sakit, kebersihan rumah sakit, kenyamanan ruangan, makanan dan peralatan ruangan. b. Hubungan pasien dengan petugas rumah sakit meliputi ; Keramahan, informasi, komunikatif, responatif, suportif dan cekatan. c. Kompetensi teknis petugas meliputi ; Keberanian bertindak, pengalaman, gelar dan terkenal. d. Biaya meliputi ; Mahalnya pelayanan, sebandingnya, terjangkau tidaknya dan ada tidaknya keringanan. Walaupun demikian keempat hal ini tidak selamanya mudah dinilai dan dipertanyakan dalam quisoner. A lot of people count us lucky to always have flowers in the house.  And we are.  But today, we would like to highlight plants as well. There’s something delightful about going inside a home filled with plants. The air’s a little bouncier, and you can actually breathe easy. And since you spend most of your time indoors, it helps to have a breath of fresh air especially when you live right smack in the middle of smoke city. In fact, indoor plants not only produce oxygen, they also absorb benzene, formaldehyde,  xylene, toluene and trichlor. Mother In Law's Tongue Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

Salah satu metode yang digunakan untuk mengukur kepuasan konsumen adalah mengajukan pertanyaan kepada pelanggan menyangkut dua hal utama, yaitu harapan dan persepsi (kinerja) yang dirasakan (Kotler, 1994). Metode lain yang dapat digunakan adalah dengan pendekatan hipotesis bahwa pelayanan ditentukan oleh perbedaan harapan dan persepsi (Hart, 1999). Rubber Plant You supposedly need 1 plant for every 1 square meter of floor space. You need not keep these plants near the window all the time nor do they need direct sun.  Bi-weekly by the window with some filtered sun does the trick.  I also water only once or twice a week. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

37 Evaluasi kenyamanan pada beberapa taman kota di Jakarta Pusat
Putra, Priambudi Trie. . Date: 2011 . Keberadaan taman kota merupakan hal mutlak untuk menjamin kelangsungan ekologis kota serta menjadi ruang interaksi sosial bagi warga kota. Fungsi taman kota adalah untuk ameliorasi iklim serta merekayasa lingkungan. Fungsi ameliorasi iklim yaitu berupa menurunkan suhu dan memodifikasi kelembaban iklim mikro kota. Fungsi rekayasa lingkungan yaitu berupa mengurangi erosi, meningkatkan kualitas udara kota, menjadi tempat habitat satwa liar, dan mengurangi kebisingan. Kenyamanan merupakan hal yang ingin dicapai dengan adanya taman kota. Selain menyajikan kenyamanan, taman kota sebagai bagian dari ruang terbuka hijau (RTH) akan mampu meningkatkan kualitas kehidupan lingkungan perkotaan yang umumnya didominasi oleh struktur bangunan Kawasan Menteng di Jakarta Pusat merupakan kota taman pertama di Indonesia yang memiliki beberapa taman kota seperti Taman Menteng, Taman Suropati, dan Taman Situ Lembang. Kawasan Menteng merupakan model dari kota taman yang mengharmonisasikan penggunaan ruang sehingga dapat menciptakan lanskap kota yang nyaman. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi kenyamanan Taman Menteng, Taman Suropati, dan Taman Situ Lembang berdasarkan pengambilan data langsung (suhu dan kelembaban) serta responden dari masing-masing taman. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu metode grid berukuran 20 meter x 20 meter untuk mengetahui sebaran suhu dan kelembaban di masing-masing taman. Di tiap grid dilakukan pengambilan data suhu dan kelembaban aktual dengan tiga kali ulangan. Pengambilan data dilakukan pada siang hari terik pukul di bulan April-Mei Data berupa luas tutupan kanopi pohon dilakukan dengan melakukan digitasi citra taman menggunakan Google Earth Digitasi kanopi pohon menggunakan software AutoCAD Dari data luas tutupan kanopi pohon dicari hubungannya dengan data suhu dan kelembaban menggunakan persamaan regresi linier. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

38 Kelembaban Udara Di Ruangan
. Berdasarkan data suhu udara dan kelembaban rata-rata pengamatan, dilakukan analisis menggunakan persamaan regresi linier. Analisis regresi linier digunakan untuk menilai hubungan antara faktor suhu udara maupun faktor kelembaban dengan luas kanopi pohon tiap grid dalam taman yang menghasilkan persamaan y = ax + b serta R2. Koefisien regresi yang dilambangkan dengan a, menunjukkan pengaruh luas tutupan kanopi pohon terhadap perubahan nilai suhu udara atau kelembaban dalam taman. R2 (koefisien determinasi) menunjukkan besarnya pengaruh luas tutupan kanopi pohon terhadap perubahan suhu udara atau kelembaban dalam taman. Nilai suhu udara dan kelembaban yang didapat kemudian dianalisis dengan rumus Temperature Humidity Index (THI): THI = 0,8T + (RH x T)/500 RH = kelembaban rata-rata harian (%) T = suhu udara rata-rata harian (°C) Nilai THI yang didapat dari setiap taman kemudian dianalisis menggunakan standar dari Laurie (1990) yang menyatakan bahwa lingkungan ideal memiliki suhu udara 27 – 28°C dan kelembaban 40 – 75%. Data suhu udara dan kelembaban dari tiap taman juga dispasialkan menjadi peta isoterm dan peta isohigro untuk memudahkan interpretasi mengenai sebaran titik suhu udara dan kelembaban dalam taman. Most of the commonly available indoor plants are commonly available because they have proven their ability to adapt to the very dry environments found indoors in winter. Although most indoor plants, succulents excepted, come from naturally humid habitats, many can survive quite well in low humidity, as long as they receive adequate moisture through their roots. ( Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

39 Iklim Mikro Kenyamanan
Keberadaan bukaan pada lanskap kota dalam bentuk Ruang Terbuka Hijau secara langsung akan memengaruhi iklim mikro pada lokasi di sekitar tapak itu berada. Pengertian iklim mikro sendiri adalah iklim disekitar ruang antara perakaran hingga sekitar pucuk tajuk tanaman. Unsur-unsur iklim mikro terdiri dari suhu udara, kelembaban udara, angin, dan radiasi matahari. Unsur-unsur iklim tersebut akan mudah terpengaruh oleh perubahan pemanasan dan pendinginan permukaan tanah dan benda atau tumbuhan setempat. Dengan adanya tanaman, akan terbentuk iklim mikro dengan gejala penurunan suhu udara sekitar, kelembaban yang cukup, dan kadar oksigen yang bertambah. Hal ini terjadi karena adanya proses evapotranspirasi dari tanaman. Kondisi iklim mikro taman dapat dimodifikasi salah satunya adalah dengan melakukan penempatan vegetasi yang memerhatikan arah angin dan radiasi matahari. Kenyamanan Menurut Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Depdiknas, 2008), kenyamanan berarti suatu keadaan yang nyaman, sejuk, dan segar. Kenyamanan suatu taman kota ditunjukkan dengan kemampuan taman untuk dapat mengurangi pencemaran udara, menjaga kestabilan suhu udara kota, dan menjaga ketersediaan air (DPU, 2008). Dengan adanya taman kota diharapkan dapat membantu meningkatkan kenyamanan lingkungan kota dan mencegah kenaikan suhu udara kota (Frick dan Suskiyanto, 2007). Kenyamanan dapat dihadirkan dengan penggunaan jenis vegetasi seperti pohon sebagai pengontrol iklim mikro (Carpenter, Walker, dan Lanphear, 1975). [DPU] Dinas Pekerjaan Umum Peraturan Menteri Pekerjaan Umum No: 05/PRT/M/2008 tentang Pedoman Penyediaan Ruang Terbuka Hijau di Kawasan Perkotaan. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Penataan Ruang Departemen Pekerjaan Umum. Frick H dan Suskiyanto FXB Dasar-dasar Arsitektur Ekologis. Bandung: Penerbit ITB. Carpenter PL, Walker TD, dan Lanphear FO Plants in the Landscape. San Francisco: WH Freeman and Company.

40 Taman Menambah Keindahan dan Kenyamanan Rumah
. Sabtu, 7 April 2012 Taman Menambah Keindahan dan Kenyamanan Rumah Ditulis oleh admin pada 19 Oct :04 . Kehadiran taman dalam rumah dapat menjadi tempat bersantai bagi penghuni rumah. Taman dapat membuat sebuah rumah tampak lebih sejuk, indah dan nyaman. Terlebih lagi di daerah perkotaan yang marak dengan pembangunan rumah atau gedung, semakin sedikit daerah hijau yang masih ada. Tingkat kesibukan yang tinggi dan polusi udara dari asap kendaraan pada daerah perkotaan akan membuat kehadiran taman di rumah sebagai oasis untuk melepaskan lelah setiap hari. Apa saja yang harus diperhatikan ketika akan membuat taman? Dalam membuat sebuah taman, ada beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan agar taman yang tercipta terlihat indah dan teratur. Berikut ini beberapa hal yang harus diperhatikan saat Anda akan membuat taman. Tentukan Tema Taman Sebelum menentukan jenis tanaman yang akan dibeli, Anda harus menentukan tema keseluruhan taman. Tema taman yang dapat dipilih misalnya taman dengan tema Bali, Paris, Jepang, tropis, minimalis atau tema lainnya. Tema yang dipilih sebaiknya disesuaikan dengan luas lahan taman. Jika luas tidak terlalu besar, sebaiknya dipilih tema yang lebih sederhana, misalnya tema minimalis yang sedikit detail pada desainnya. Setelah tema ditentukan, Anda dapat memilih tanaman-tanaman, bunga atau ornamen lainnya yang mendukung tema taman.   Persiapkan Instalasi Taman dan Lahan Pada awal pembuatan taman, jangan lupakan untuk membuat instalasi terlebih dahulu. Instalasi dan penempatan posisi listrik dan air harus diperhatikan agar ada pada tempat yang aman dan tidak mengganggu aktivitas saat berada di taman. Instalasi listrik dan air khususnya perlu mendapat perhatian apabila Anda berniat untuk membuat sebuah kolam dengan pancuran air. Hal yang tidak boleh ketinggalan untuk dipersiapkan adalah persiapan lahan. Sebagai media tanam, lahan yang akan dijadikan taman harus dibersihkan dari tanaman pengganggu atau gulma. Tanah juga perlu digemburkan dan dipupuk agar tanaman bisa tumbuh subur.   Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

41 Taman Menambah Keindahan dan Kenyamanan Rumah
. Sabtu, 7 April 2012 Taman Menambah Keindahan dan Kenyamanan Rumah Ditulis oleh admin pada 19 Oct :04 Ciptakan Harmonisasi Tanaman Agar terlihat menarik, pilih tanaman yang bervariasi. Pilih tanaman yang berbeda ukuran, jenis, atau warna sehingga taman tidak monoton. Warna pada tanaman bisa didapat dari warna bunga atau warna daunnya. Tetapi, penting untuk tetap memperhatikan keserasian taman agar taman terlihat rapi dan menarik. Keserasian taman akan tercipta dengan menentukan tanaman yang akan ditanam dan posisinya. Tanaman secara umum terbagi atas pohon yang berukuran tinggi, semak atau perdu yang lebih rendah, rumput-rumputan dan tanaman penutup tanah. Biasanya, pohon diletakkan di bagian belakang, disusul dengan tanaman perdu kemudian penanaman rumput-rumputan dan tanaman penutup tanah pada bagian depan. Atau untuk desain taman terpusat, pohon diletakkan pada bagian tengah, disusul dengan tanaman perdu yang mengitarinya dan tanaman yang lebih rendah yaitu rumput-rumputan di bagian terluar. Harmonisasi tanaman penting untuk keindahan dan kerapian taman.   Pemilihan Material Taman Taman tidak hanya terdiri dari tanaman saja. Taman yang indah perlu juga didukung oleh benda-benda keras seperti pot tanaman, kolam, batu-batuan, pasir, atau benda pendukung lainnya Bagian pendukung ini disebut sebagai hardscape yang akan memberi kesan lebih dalam pada taman. Sedangkan tanaman sendiri disebut sebagai softscape. Anda perlu menyesuaikan hardscape apa saja yang akan digunakan dan seberapa banyak. Ini berkaitan dengan desain taman. Anda juga bisa menambahkan kursi taman, ayunan atau hal lain untuk menambah kenyamanan saat berada di taman. Setelah menentukan model taman, penggunaan softscape dan hardscape akan lebih mudah ditentukan.   Pemilihan Tanaman Agar tanaman dapat tumbuh dengan baik, harus disesuaikan dengan keadaan dan kondisi lahan taman sendiri. Apakah tempat yang akan dijadikan tanaman akan banyak terkena matahari atau tidak? Sesuaikan juga dengan kondisi lingkungan. Apakah rumah Anda berada di daerah yang sejuk atau panas? Jika taman akan banyak terkena sinar matahari, maka dapat dipilih tanaman-tanaman yang kuat terhadap sinar matahari karena jika tanaman cocok akan menyebabkan tanaman tidak berkembang atau mati. Berdasarkan kondisi taman, Anda dapat menentukan jenis tanaman apa saja yang akan menghuni taman Anda. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

42 Taman Menambah Keindahan dan Kenyamanan Rumah
Sabtu, 7 April 2012 Taman Menambah Keindahan dan Kenyamanan Rumah Ditulis oleh admin pada 19 Oct :04 Pencahayaan Untuk menambah keindahan taman, tambahan pencahayaan yang baik pada taman menjadi hal yang diperlukan. Misalnya dengan memasang lampu taman atau lampu sorot taman yang mengeksploitasi suatu tanaman sebagai fokusnya. Lampu-lampu ini sangat berperan pada malam hari,sehingga pada malam hari Anda tetap dapat menikmati keindahan taman Anda dengan suasana yang romantis. Selain itu, kehadiran lampu taman dengan berbagai model akan menjadi aksesoris pemanis taman Anda. Kehadiran taman dapat menjadi hal yang penting terutama di tengah issue pemanasan global. Taman dapat membantu mengurangi polusi udara, mengurangi panas dan meningkatkan persediaan oksigen sehingga Anda dapat menikmati udara yang segar. Jika terawat dengan baik, Anda juga akan dimanjakan pemandangan yang indah di rumah sendiri. Menghabiskan waktu di taman tentu akan menyenangkan. What Kind of Lighting Should Be Used for Indoor Growng? Sunlight contains the full spectrum of light that plants need to grow, but plants growing indoors need lighting supplements to provide the energy for photosynthesis. Blue and red light waves are the two primary colors that your indoor plants need to thrive; different plants require different levels of each. Select your indoor lighting based on the types of plants you are growing in combination with the amount of daily sunlight your plants receive. Fluorescent Fluorescent grow lights are the most common options for homeowners growing plants indoors. You can purchase different types of fluorescent bulbs that are higher in red output for growing flowers or full spectrum with a blue emphasis for promoting foliage. Fluorescent lighting works best for indoor plants when they are placed no more than two feet away from the plant. ( Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

43 TAMAN KOTA (SURABAYA) Taman-taman kota Surabaya kian dipercantik. Kondisi ruang terbuka hijau makin bisa dirasakan manfaatnya oleh warga kota. Taman-taman itu menyuguhkan keindahan sekaligus kenyaman buat rekreasi keluarga warga kota. Nyaris tak ada taman kota yang dibiarkan terbengkalai. Bahkan, sebagian besar taman itu dilengkapi bermacam fasilitas untuk kenyamanan wisata keluarga, seperti jogging track, taman bermain anak, air mancur, dan lampu-lampu hias. Bahkan taman kota ini tidak saja nyaman bagi yang normal secara fisik, tapi juga bagi mereka para penyandang cacat. Tidak saja orang dewasa tapi juga anak-anak. Termasuk tidak hanya di siang hari, tapi juga malam hari tetap bisa dirasakan kenyamanan dan keelokannya. Cengkerama dan rekreasi keluarga warga kota makin memiliki banyak alternatif. Bahkan, sederet taman itu bakal dilengkapi fasilitas Hot Spot Wi-Fi untuk rekreasi dunia maya. Sejak diresmikan tanggal 21 Maret 2007, Taman Bungkul dilengkapi fasilitas skateboard & BMX track, jogging track, serta akses internet nirkabel Fungsi taman kota Surabaya sebagai tempat olahraga, rekreasi warga kota, hang out, dan menghirup udara segar jauh dari polusi, makin banyak alternatif. Surabaya bahkan telah memiliki taman lanjut usia atau taman lansia. Area yang dimanfaatkan sebagai taman alternatif untuk para lanjut usia itu berlokasi di Jalan Kalimantan. Area seluas sekira m2 eks SPBU Kalimantan itu, di set up menjadi taman yang cantik sekaligus segar. Beragam tanaman dan bunga cantik menghiasi. Di sela warna-warni tanaman indah itu tersedia track yang khusus dibuat untuk kenyamanan kursi roda para lansia. Ada pula tempat duduk untuk pengantar saat menemani para lansia menikmati suasana kota di pagi atau sore hari. Kesejukan suasana di taman ini kian segar oleh keberadaan air mancur di tengah taman. Kesegaran itu tentu bisa memecah kepekatan polusi udara dari kendaran bermotor yang cukup padat melewati bilangan ini. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

44 TAMAN PRESTASI SURABAYA Interiorscapes and Indoor Plant Services
. Berada di Taman Prestasi bagai menemukan sebuah oase di tengah kota. Taman seluas m2 ini dihiasi sekitar 21 jenis tanaman sehingga terasa nyaman untuk melepas penat. Anak-anak pun dapat bermain sambil belajar mengenal lingkungannya. Area ini dilengkapi panggung terbuka, panggung teater, dan sarana permainan anak. Di sini, kita juga dapat menyaksikan replika penghargaan yang pernah diraih Kota Surabaya, seperti Wahana Tata Nugraha, Adipura Kencana, dan lain-lain. Obyek wisata ini juga menawarkan petualangan lain, seperti menyusuri Kalimas dengan perahu naga atau perahu dayung. Bahkan, bagi keluarga yang ingin menikmati suasana asri taman dengan menunggang kuda, telah tersedia kuda-kuda anak-anak. kekar yang siap mengantar. Interiorscapes and Indoor Plant Services David J. Frank Interiorscapes is division dedicated to the design, installation and maintenance of green and blooming plants for indoor environments. Adding indoors plants has an immediate positive impact, making it one of the easiest ways to create a more vibrant atmosphere within your professional, retail or residential property. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

45 Pengantar arsitektur Lanskap Taman Kota Malang
Standar Taman Kota yang berlaku di Dunia. Taman merupakan salah satu obyek yang terpenting bagi orang- orang yang merasa sangat jenuh akan kesibukan kesehariannya. Kehidupan masyarakat dikota-kota besar saat ini sangat menguras tenaga dan pikiran. Masyarakat kota tersebut dipusingkan dengan keadaan yang terjadi saat ini, seperti padatnya lalu lintas akibat pengguna kendaraan meningkat sedangkan jalan yang dilalui tidak ada pelebaran, ditambah dengan pekerjaan yang terkadang membuat pikiran terkuras. Hal tersebutlah yang membuat masyarakat kota menjadi jenuh dengan rutinitas seperti itu, yang hampir setiap hari mereka hadapi. Hal tersebut akan membuat masyarakat menjadi stres dan jenuh, yang berdampak pada produktivitas mereka. Tempat terbuka dapat membantu mereka untuk santai dan sejenak melupakan permasalahan. Tempat terbuka dalam hal ini berupa taman kota. Tempat tersebut adalah taman. Taman yang ditumbuhi dengan berbagai jenis tanaman yang memiliki berbagai macam warna, hamparan rumput seperti permadani-permadani yang dapat diinjak dan ditiduri, kolam-kolam ikan yang bersih, air mancur yang indah, dan lain-lain dapat membuat kita menjadi santai, tenang, fresh, dan kembali bersemangat membuat kita siap kembali menghadapi dunia luar. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

1. Fungsi Hidrologi Taman kotaa merupakan lahan terbuka hijau yang dapat berperan dalam membantu fungsi hidrologi dalam hal penyerapan air agar pasokan air dalam tanah (water saving) semakin meningkat dan mereduksi potensi banjir dengan megurangi jumlah aliran limpasan air. Pepohonan yang ada di taman, mampu meresapkan air ke dalam tanah melalui perakarannya. Diperkirakan untuk setiap hektar ruang terbuka hijau, mampu menyimpan 900 m3 air tanah per tahun, sehingga kekeringan sumur penduduk di musim kemarau dapat diatasi. 2. Fungsi Pengaturan Iklim (Klimatologis) Taman dapat melindungi dari panas matahari dan tekanan suhu panas serta sebagai peneduh. Taman mampu menyerap panas dari atmosfer yang dekat dengan permukaan tanah disekitar tanaman, sehingga daerah disekitarnya menjadi nyaman. Penghijauan dapat memperkecil amplitudo variasi yang lebih besar dari kondisi udara panas ke kondisi udara sejuk. 3. Fungsi Psikis (Kejiwaan) Taman kota dapat membawa dan memberikan suasana sejuk dan tentram,serta damai bagi jiwa manusia. Hal ini dapat mengurangi gangguan syaraf dan kejiwaan manusia, sehingga dengan adanya taman tersebut dapat mengalihkan perhatian kita dari suasana tegang serta pengaruh kejiwaan kita menjadi tenang, karena adanya sirkulasi udara dalam kota. 4. Fungsi Kesehatan Tanaman sebagai jantungnya paru-paru kota merupakan penghasil oksigen (O2) terbesar dan penyerap karbon dioksida (CO2) dan zat pencemar udara lain, khusus di siang hari, merupakan pembersih udara yang sangat efektif melalui mekanisme penyerapan (absorbsi) dan penjerapan (adsorbsi) dalam proses fisiologis, yang terjadi terutama pada daun, dan permukaan tumbuhan (batang, bunga, dan buah). Setiap 1 hektar ruang terbuka hijau , yang ditanami pepohonan, perdu, semak dan penutup tanah, dengan jumlah permukaan daun seluas 5 hektar, maka sekitar 900 Kg CO2 akan dihisap dari udara, dan melepaskan sekitar 600 Kg O2 dalam waktu 12 jam 5. Fungsi Ekologis dan Penyeimbang Alam Secara ekologis taman kota berfungsi sebagai penjaga kualitas lingkungan kota. Dengan rindangnya taman serta banyak buah dan biji-bijian merupakan habitat yang baik bagi burung-burung untuk tinggal dan serangga untuk berkembang mambantu keseimbangan alam. Taman kota juga dapat berfungsi sebagai filter berbagai gas pencemar dan debu, pengikat karbon, pengatur iklim mikro. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

47 COMFORT NOISE Comfort noise (or comfort tone) is synthetic background noise used in radio and wireless communications to fill the artificial silence in a transmission resulting from voice activity detection or from the audio clarity of modern digital lines. Some modern telephone systems (such as wireless and VoIP) use voice activity detection (VAD), a form of squelching where low volume levels are ignored by the transmitting device. In digital audio transmissions, this saves bandwidth of the communications channel by transmitting nothing when the source volume is under a certain threshold, leaving only louder sounds (such as the speaker's voice) to be sent. However, improvements in background noise reduction technologies can occasionally result in the complete removal of all noise. Although maximizing call quality is a primary importance, exhaustive removal of noise may not properly simulate the typical behavior of terminals on the PSTN system. The result of receiving total silence, especially for a prolonged period, has a number of unwanted effects on the listener, including the following: the listener may believe that the transmission has been lost, and therefore hang up prematurely. the speech may sound "choppy" (see noise gate) and difficult to understand. the sudden change in sound level can be jarring to the listener. To counteract these effects, comfort noise is added, usually on the receiving end in wireless or VoIP systems, to fill in the silent portions of transmissions with artificial noise. The noise generated is at a low but audible volume level, and can vary based on the average volume level of received signals to minimize jarring transitions. In modern VoIP products, users may control whether they want comfort noise enabled or disabled. As part of the RTP audio video profile, RFC 3389 defines a standard for distributing comfort noise information in VoIP systems. A similar concept is that of sidetone, the effect of sound that is picked up by a telephone's mouthpiece and introduced (at low level) into the earpiece of the same handset, acting as feedback. During the siege of Leningrad, the beat of a metronome was used as comfort noise on the Leningrad radio network, indicating that the network was still functioning.[1] Many radio stations broadcast birdsong, city-traffic or other atmospheric comfort noise during periods of deliberate silence. For example, in the United Kingdom, silence is observed on Remembrance Sunday, and London's quiet city ambiance is used. This is to reassure the listener that the station is still on-air, but primarily to prevent silence detection systems at transmitters from automatically starting backup tapes of music (designed to be broadcast in the case of transmission link failure). Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

48 BACKGROUND NOISE In acoustics and specifically in acoustical engineering, background noise or ambient noise is any sound other than the sound being monitored(primary sound). Background noise is a form of noise pollution or interference. Background noise is an important concept in setting noise regulations. Examples of background noises are environmental noises such as waves, traffic noise, alarms, people talking, bioacoustic noise from animals or birds and mechanical noise from devices such as refrigerators or air conditioning, power supplies or motors. The prevention or reduction of background noise is important in the field of active noise control. It is an important consideration with the use of ultrasound (e.g. for medical diagnosis or imaging), sonar and sound reproduction. In astronomy, background noise or cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation from the sky with no discernible source. In information architecture, irrelevant, duplicate or incorrect information may be called background noise. In physics and telecommunication, background signal noise can be detrimental or in some cases beneficial. The study of avoiding, reducing or using signal noise is information theory. In telephony, artificial comfort noise is used as a substitute for natural background noise, to fill in artificial silence created by discontinuous transmission systems using voice activity detection. Background noise cam also affect concentration Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

49 NOISE POLLUTION Human health
Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal, or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. The word noise may be from the Latin word nauseas, metaphorically meaning disgust or discomfort . The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems, including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise, and rail noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area. Human health Noise health effects describe problems in both health and behavior. Unwanted sound (noise) can damage physiological and psychological health. Noise pollution can cause annoyance and aggression, hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects. Furthermore, stress and hypertension are the leading causes to health problems, whereas tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness, severe depression and at times panic attacks. Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. Older males exposed to significant occupational noise demonstrate significantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their non-exposed peers, though differences in hearing sensitivity decrease with time and the two groups are indistinguishable by age 79. A comparison of Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise, to a typical U.S. population showed that chronic exposure to moderately high levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing loss. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten points and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood pressure noted above as well as to increased incidence of coronary artery disease. Noise pollution is also a cause of annoyance. A study by Spanish researchers found that in urban areas households are willing to pay approximately four Euros per decibel per year for noise reduction. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Noise health effects are the health consequences of elevated sound levels. Elevated workplace or other noise can cause hearing impairment, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, annoyance and sleep disturbance. Changes in the immune system and birth defects have been attributed to noise exposure. Although some presbycusis may occur naturally with age, in many developed nations the cumulative impact of noise is sufficient to impair the hearing of a large fraction of the population over the course of a lifetime. Noise exposure has also been known to induce tinnitus, hypertension, vasoconstriction and other cardiovascular impacts. Beyond these effects, elevated noise levels can create stress, increase workplace accident rates, and stimulate aggression and other anti-social behaviors. The most significant causes are vehicle and aircraft noise, prolonged exposure to loud music, and industrial noise. Road traffic causes almost 80% of the noise annoyances in Norway. There may be psychological definitions of noise as well. Firecrackers may upset some animals or noise-traumatized individuals. The most common noise traumatized persons are those exposed to military conflicts, but often loud groups of people can trigger complaints and other behaviors about noise. The social costs of traffic noise in EU22 are over €40 billion per year, and passenger cars and lorries (trucks) are responsible for bulk of costs. Traffic noise alone is harming the health of almost every third person in the WHO European Region. One in five Europeans is regularly exposed to sound levels at night that could significantly damage health. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

51 Sumber:….. Diunduh 6/4/2012
NOISE CONTROL Noise control is an active or passive means of reducing sound emissions, often incentivised by personal comfort, environmental considerations or legal compliance. Practical and efficient noise control is wholly reliant on an accurate diagnosis of what is causing the noise, which first involves finding the source of noise. Once the source of noise has been found, the focus is reducing the noise at source by engineering means. The most common noise sources can be divided into aerodynamic (fans, pneumatics, combustion, etc) and mechanical (impacts, friction, etc). Effective noise control focuses on reducing the noise from these sources as close to the source as possible. Noise control for aerodynamic sources include quiet air nozzles, pneumatic silencers and quiet fan technology. In architectural acoustics and environmental acoustics, noise control refers to the set of practices employed for noise mitigation. Within architectural acoustics these practices include: interior sound reverberation reduction, inter-room noise transfer mitigation and exterior building skin augmentation. “More specific architectural noise control methods include the installation of thicker and/ or double-glazed windows,” acoustical gypsum, ceiling tiles, ceiling panels, carpet and draperies. In the field of environmental sound, common noise control practices include: design of noise barriers, development and enforcement of noise abatement legal codes and urban design. Types of noise control There are four basic principles of noise control: Sound insulation: prevent the transmission of noise by the introduction of a mass barrier. Common materials have high-density properties such as brick, thick glass, concrete, metal etc. Sound absorption: a porous material which acts as a ‘noise sponge’ by converting the sound energy into heat within the material. Common sound absorption materials include decoupled lead-based tiles, open cell foams and fiberglass Vibration damping: applicable for large vibrating surfaces. The damping mechanism works by extracting the vibration energy from the thin sheet and dissipating it as heat. A common material is sound deadened steel. Vibration isolation: prevents transmission of vibration energy from a source to a receiver by introducing a flexible element or a physical break. Common vibration isolators are springs, rubber mounts, cork etc. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Acoustical engineering is the branch of engineering dealing with sound and vibration. It is the application of acoustics, the science of sound and vibration, in technology. Acoustical engineers are typically concerned with the manipulation and control of sound. The primary goal of acoustical engineering is the reduction of unwanted sounds, which is referred to as noise control. Sound can have significant impacts on human health and well being, and is therefore important to control. Noise control principles are implemented into technology and design in a variety of ways. Applications include the design of noise barriers, sound absorbers, silencers, and buffer zones. The implementation of noise control technology differs in indoor and outdoor environments. In addition to reducing unwanted sounds, acoustical engineers sometimes produce useful sounds or analyze sound waves to collect information. Examples of this include applications of ultrasonics and infrasonics, which make use of sound that cannot be heard by humans. Ultrasonic waves are acoustic waves with frequencies above the audible range (approximately 20 kHz). Applications of ultrasonics include sonar and medical imaging. Infrasonic waves are acoustic waves with frequencies below the audible range (approximately 20 Hz). Applications of infrasonics include the detection of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Although acoustical engineering most commonly involves reducing noise, it also applies to these other important applications as well. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

After spending time in a hospital, patients may realize that some of their restlessness at night might have something to do with additional noise that does not exist at home. This article in the Boston Globe from a few months ago indicates that noise from alarms on patient monitors, other equipment, and conversations is so loud that patients end up heading home exhausted. But what can be done to reduce this noise? Or more importantly, what can be done to give patients a better night of rest? The video above describes some of the actions that hospitals can take to reduce extra noise especially during nighttime hours when most patients are trying to sleep. There are also certain measures that architects, engineers, and designers can take and in some states MUST take to improve the acoustics of healthcare facilities. In 2010, the Facilities Guidelines Institute implemented new acoustical requirements for healthcare facilities. States such as Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Massachusetts have already adopted the guidelines, which the department of health in each state is in charge of determining compliance. Other states such as New York and Ohio write their own codes, which often reference the FGI Guidelines. In the 2012 release of LEED for Healthcare to be issued this year, there will 2 IEQ (Indoor Environmental Quality) credits available for complying with these acoustical guidelines. Healthcare facilities should always be working towards a quieter more restful environment for patients. Often, patient rooms might be too quiet so that an alarm with a moderate volume will wake someone. There is still an ongoing debate among acousticians about whether sound masking is an appropriate alternative to improving patients’ auditory comfort. However, there seems to be consensus that it is appropriate if the noise level of the masking signal is at an appropriate level within patient rooms and other patient care areas. Hospital administrators and designers are responsible for determining the best solution for improving patient comfort with respect to noise. A careful balance between appropriate architectural design and ambient noise level is necessary. REDUCING NOISE IN OFFICES Research has found that plants absorb, diffract and reflect sound waves so that noise is reduced, producing a calmer and more productive working environment. The reduction of noise by plants is most noticeable in spaces with hard surfaces. (sumber: Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

According to the researcher, Julian Treasure, there are four major ways that sound affects us: physiologically, psychologically, cognitively, and behaviorally. Sounds affect mood and productivity. Julian mentions that people are 1/3 as much as productive in open plan environments as in closed offices. He recommended using headphones when trying to work in open plan offices, which I did frequently when I was working in this environment. (Sound masking systems utilizing white noise are the best way to improve speech privacy in an open office environment.) Music is very powerful and is a way to affect attitudes and behaviors. Soothing music is used in hospital corridors and public spaces hides or masks unpleasant noises — such as alarms and monitors. There is a delicate balance since medical professionals need to hear the alarms and monitors. Soundscapes may not be appropriate inside a person’s room — for example, it may interfere with the television or telephone. As designers, I think soundscapes can be employed to help the healing process. They are also appropriate in retail and other spaces where speech intelligibility is not crucial. However, I agree with the researcher in the video that the soundscapes need to be tested and retested in order to be implemented properly. Excellent Indoor Plants Pot Covering Solution – Commercial Interior Design C ommercial spaces are often designed with practicality in mind for business efficiency. This often leads to an interior spaces that are void of warmth and life.  A perfect fix for cold industrial spaces is to add life energy with the use of  live plants.  It has also been proven that interior plants clean and filter toxic chemicals from the air and produce oxygen for a more pleasant office environment, which in-turn boosts work productivity.  Green plants also improve our mood and give rest to our eyes. (sumber: Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

55 Combined Effects of Noise and Temperature on Human Comfort and Performance
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ( Published in ASHRAE Transactions (2010, Vol. 116, Part 2). This paper summarizes results from an experiment designed to investigate the combined effects of noise and temperature on human thermal comfort and task performance. Thirty subjects (16 females, 14 males) were exposed to all combinations of five thermal conditions (PMV +1 [79.6°F:26.4°C], PMV +0.5 [75.8°F:24.3°C], PMV 0 [72.1°F:22.3°C], PMV -0.5 [68.3°F:20.2°C], and PMV -1 [64.6°F:18.1°C]), three RC noise levels (RC-30, RC-40, and RC-50), and two sound qualities (neutral and rumbly): all sounds mimicked noise from building ventilation systems. After a one-hour adaptation period at each condition, subjects rated their thermal comfort using the ASHRAE Thermal Comfort Scale and the Tenant Survey Questionnaire, and then completed typing and number-checking tasks. There were no statistically significant effects of thermal condition, RC level, or sound quality on performance of the typing or numberchecking tasks. Statistical analyses showed that thermal comfort was affected by RC noise level, while ratings of building or office noise were not affected by the ambient temperature. There were also differences in the way males and females experienced the thermal and acoustical environments. Females rated lower temperatures colder than males, and higher temperatures more pleasant than males: thermal comfort composite ratings from males and females converged at about 72°F (22°C). Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

56 GREEN BUILDING Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to a structure and using process that is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This requires close cooperation of the design team, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages. The Green Building practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Although new technologies are constantly being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by: Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation. Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. IAQ can be affected by gases (including carbon monoxide, radon, volatile organic compounds), particulates, microbial contaminants (mould, bacteria) or any mass or energy stressor that can induce adverse health conditions. Source control, filtration and the use of ventilation to dilute contaminants are the primary methods for improving indoor air quality in most buildings. Determination of IAQ involves the collection of air samples, monitoring human exposure to pollutants, collection of samples on building surfaces and computer modelling of air flow inside buildings. (SUMBER: Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Second-hand smoke Second-hand smoke is tobacco smoke which affects persons other than the 'active' smoker. Second-hand tobacco smoke includes both a gaseous and a particulate phase, with particular hazards arising from levels of carbon monoxide (as indicated below) and very small particulates (at PM2.5 size) which get past the lung's natural defences. The only certain method to improve indoor air quality as regards second-hand smoke is the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free laws. Radon Radon is an invisible, radioactive atomic gas that results from the radioactive decay of radium, which may be found in rock formations beneath buildings or in certain building materials themselves. Radon is probably the most pervasive serious hazard for indoor air in the United States and Europe, probably responsible for tens of thousands of deaths from lung cancer each year. There are relatively simple tests for radon gas, but these tests are not commonly made available, even in areas of known systematic hazards. Radon is a heavy gas and thus will tend to accumulate at the floor level. Building materials can actually be a significant source of radon, but little testing is carried out for stone, rock or tile products brought into building sites; radon accumulation is greatest for well insulated homes.[2] The half life for radon is 3.8 days, indicating that once the source is removed, the hazard will be greatly reduced within a few weeks. However, annually thousands of people go to radon contaminated mines for purposeful exposure to help with the symptoms of arthritis without any serious known health effects, though lung cancer can take many years to develop. Radon mitigation methods include sealing concrete slab floors, basement foundations, water drainage systems, or by increasing ventilation. They are usually cost effective and can greatly reduce or even eliminate the contamination and the associated health risks. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

58 POLUTAN UDARA DALAM RUANGAN Moulds and other allergens
These biological chemicals can arise from a host of means, but there are two common classes: (a) moisture induced growth of mold colonies and (b) natural substances released into the air such as animal dander and plant pollen. Moisture buildup inside buildings may arise from water penetrating compromised areas of the building envelope or skin, from plumbing leaks, from condensation due to improper ventilation, or from ground moisture penetrating a building part. In areas where cellulosic materials (paper and wood, including drywall) become moist and fail to dry within 48 hours, mold mildew can propagate and release allergenic spores into the air. In many cases, if materials have failed to dry out several days after the suspected water event, mould growth is suspected within wall cavities even if it is not immediately visible. Through a mould investigation, which may include destructive inspection, one should be able to determine the presence or absence of mould. In a situation where there is visible mould and the indoor air quality may have been compromised, mould remediation may be needed. Mould testing and inspections should be carried out by an independent investigator to avoid any conflict of interest and to insure accurate results; free mould testing offered by remediation companies is not recommended. There are some varieties of mould that contain toxic compounds (mycotoxins). However, exposure to hazardous levels of mycotoxin via inhalation is not possible in most cases, as toxins are produced by the fungal body and are not at significant levels in the released spores. The primary hazard of mould growth, as it relates to indoor air quality, comes from the allergenic properties of the spore cell wall. More serious than most allergenic properties is the ability of mold to trigger episodes in persons that already have asthma, a serious respiratory disease. Mould is always associated with moisture, and its growth can be inhibited by keeping humidity levels below 50%. Moisture problems causing mould growth can be direct such as a water leaks and/or indirect such as condensation due to humidity levels. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

59 POLUTAN UDARA DALAM RUANGAN Dangers of Carbon Monoxide
One of the most acutely toxic indoor air contaminants is carbon monoxide (CO), a colourless, odourless gas that is a byproduct of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Common sources of carbon monoxide are tobacco smoke, space heaters using fossil fuels, defective central heating furnaces and automobile exhaust. Improvements in indoor levels of CO are systematically improving from increasing implementation of smoke-free laws. By depriving the brain of oxygen, high levels of carbon monoxide can lead to nausea, unconsciousness and death. According to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), the time-weighted average (TWA) limit for carbon monoxide ( ) is 25 ppm. (Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012) Dangers of Carbon Monoxide Carbon Monoxide – (CO) Carbon monoxide is a very dangerous gas for human beings. It is extremely toxic yet it is invisible and odourless making it even more dangerous as it can only be detected by measuring devices. CO is formed as a result of incomplete combustion of carbon fuel e.g. gas/coal. It may be formed due to a lack of air, too much excess air or flames cooling too quickly. It can get into rooms via defect, badly maintained, falsely adjusted heating systems. Just 0.16% (1600ppm) can lead to death within 2 hours and only 1.28% (12800pp,) can cause death within 1-3 minutes. Thus it is highly important that concentrations are measured often and thoroughly. The recommended exposure limit from the HSE is just 0.005% (50ppm). Carbon Monoxide Detectors In industry Carbon monoxide is usually measured using electrochemical sensors in either a single or in a multi gas meter, but carbon monoxide can also be a problem in the home thus there are also several types of detection devices for the home. Early CO detectors are very basic white or beige elements that fade to a brownish blackish colour if CO is present. These are still widely available but now there are more advanced audible detectors available. The detector will set off an alarm if the levels of carbon monoxide get too high. Detectors should be placed near the floor or the ceiling as CO has a density very close to that of air. Alarms should be installed according to the instructions & they should be checked regularly. CO detectors work differently to smoke detectors in that they don’t simply have an alarm level where they will go off but they work on a concentration-time function. For example at low concentrations such as 100 parts per million (ppm) the detector may not sound an alarm for many tens of minutes but if the concentration reaches high levels e.g. 400ppm the alarm will go off within a few minutes. Sumber:

60 POLUTAN UDARA DALAM RUANGAN Volatile organic compounds
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently higher indoors (up to ten times higher) than outdoors. VOCs are emitted by a wide array of products numbering in the thousands. Examples include: paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and furnishings, office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper, graphics and craft materials including glues and adhesives, permanent markers, and photographic solutions. Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Paints, varnishes, and wax all contain organic solvents, as do many cleaning, disinfecting, cosmetic, degreasing, and hobby products. Fuels are made up of organic chemicals. All of these products can release organic compounds during usage, and, to some degree, when they are stored. Testing emissions from building materials used indoors has become increasingly common for floor coverings, paints, and many other important indoor building materials and finishes. Several initiatives envisage to reduce indoor air contamination by limiting VOC emissions from products. There are regulations in France and in Germany, and numerous voluntary ecolabels and rating systems containing low VOC emissions criteria such as EMICODE, M1, Blue Angel[9] and Indoor Air Comfort in Europe, as well as California Standard CDPH Section 01350[11] and several others in the USA. These initiatives changed the marketplace where an increasing number of low-emitting products has become available during the last decades. At least 18 Microbial VOCs (MVOCs) have been characterised[12][13] including 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methyl furan, 2-pentanol, 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 2-octen-1-ol, 1-octene, 2-pentanone, 2-nonanone, Borneol, Geosmin, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-2-butanol, and thujopsene. The first of these compounds is called mushroom alcohol. The last four are products of Stachybotrys chartarum, which has been linked with sick building syndrome. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

: POLUTAN UDARA DALAM RUANGAN DEBU SERAT ASBES The U.S. Federal Government ( and some States have set standards for acceptable levels of asbestos fibres in indoor air. Many common building materials used before 1975 contain asbestos, such as some floor tiles, ceiling tiles, taping muds, pipe wrap, mastics and other insulation materials. Normally significant releases of asbestos fiber do not occur unless the building materials are disturbed, such as by cutting, sanding, drilling or building remodelling. There are particularly stringent regulations applicable to schools. Inhalation of asbestos fibres over long exposure times is associated with increased incidence of lung cancer, in particular the specific form mesothelioma. Asbestos is found in older homes and buildings, but it is most dangerous in schools and industrial settings. It was once widely used in shingles, fireproofing, heating systems and floor and ceiling, tiles in older buildings. When asbestos-containing material is damaged or disintegrates, microscopic fibres are dispersed into the air. The risk of lung cancer from inhaling asbestos fibres is also greater to smokers. The symptoms of the disease do not usually appear until about 20 to 30 years after the first exposure to asbestos. Removal of asbestos-containing materials is not always optimal because the fibers can be spread into the air during the removal process. A management program for intact asbestos-containing materials is often recommended instead. Reed Palm Botanical Name- Chamaedorea sefritzii Another name of this plant is Bamboo Palm. It is a long-lasting, small or medium sized plant and can grow to a height of six meters. The plant can flourish best in medium light and high humidity. The palm should be planted in a pot which has a hole so that the soil is uniformly moist and continuous drainage takes place. Rain water is best for watering this plant. Palms are easily infected by mites and bugs indoor. The plant should be fertilized regularly during its growing season. Reed plant purifies the indoor air against trichloroethane, benzene and toluene. (sumber: Reed Palm: Houseplants are commonly grown for decorative purposes, positive psychological effects, or health reasons such as indoor air purification Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a surrogate for indoor pollutants emitted by humans and correlates with human metabolic activity. Carbon dioxide at levels that are unusually high indoors may cause occupants to grow drowsy, get headaches, or function at lower activity levels. Humans are the main indoor source of carbon dioxide. Indoor levels are an indicator of the adequacy of outdoor air ventilation relative to indoor occupant density and metabolic activity. To eliminate most Indoor Air Quality complaints, total indoor carbon dioxide should be reduced a difference of less than 600 ppm above outdoor levels. NIOSH considers that indoor air concentrations of carbon dioxide that exceed 1,000 ppm are a marker suggesting inadequate ventilation. ASHRAE recommends that carbon dioxide levels not exceed 700 ppm above outdoor ambient levels. The UK standards for schools say that carbon dioxide in all teaching and learning spaces, when measured at seated head height and averaged over the whole day should not exceed 1,500 ppm. The whole day refers to normal school hours (i.e. 9.00am to 3.30pm) and includes unoccupied periods such as lunch breaks. European standards limit carbon dioxide to 3500 ppm. OSHA limits carbon dioxide concentration in the workplace to 5,000 ppm for prolonged periods, and 35,000 ppm for 15 minutes. Ozone Ozone is produced by ultraviolet light from the Sun hitting the Earth's atmosphere (especially in the ozone layer), lightning, certain electric devices (such as air ionisers), and as a by-product of other types of pollution. Ozone exists in greater concentrations at altitudes commonly flown by passenger jets. Reactions between ozone and onboard substances, including skin oils and cosmetics, can produce toxic chemicals as by-products. Ozone itself is also irritating to lung tissue and harmful to human health. Larger jets have ozone filters to reduce the cabin concentration to safer and more comfortable levels. Outdoor air used for ventilation may have sufficient ozone to react with common indoor pollutants as well as skin oils and other common indoor air chemicals or surfaces. Particular concern is warranted when using "green" cleaning products based on citrus or terpene extracts as these chemicals react very quickly with ozone to form toxic and irritating chemicals as well as fine and ultrafine particles. Ventilation with outdoor air containing elevated ozone concentrations may complicate remediation attempts. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Measurement The concentration of carbon dioxide is used as an indicator when assessing indoor air quality. The limit value for CO2 is 1000 ppm, if levels are too high it can make the air “stuffy or stale” . Effects of CO2 Rooms with poor air quality may result in tiredness and a lack of concentration or even in some cases illness otherwise known as sick building syndrome (SBS). Symptoms include: headaches, eye, nose and throat irritation, itchy skin, nausea, dizziness, fatigue and difficulty concentrating. Poor air quality is usually caused by insufficient ventilation. Normally the CO2 concentration in demand controlled ventilating (DCV) is used to control the fresh air supply. Stationary CO2 transmitters are used and should be checked regularly with a hand-held measuring device. A Capnograph is an instrument which is used to measure the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) within an air sample by measuring the absorption of inferred light as it is absorbed particularly well by carbon dioxide. Capnographs are mainly used in medicine to measure the amount of CO2 in inspired and expired air. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

Houseplants together with the medium in which they are grown can reduce components of indoor air pollution, particularly volatile organic compounds (VOC) such as benzene, toluene, and xylene. Plants can also remove CO2, which is correlated with lower work performance, from indoor areas. The effect was investigated in one study by NASA for use in space colonies. Plants also appear to reduce airborne microbes, moulds, and increase humidity. However, the presence of plants indoors has also been associated with higher humidity and airborne fungal concentrations. When CO2 concentrations are elevated indoors relative to outdoor concentrations, it is only an indicator that ventilation is inadequate to remove metabolic products associated with human occupancy. Plants require CO2 to grow and release oxygen when they consume CO2. A study published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology considered uptake rates of ketones and aldehydes by the peace lily (Spathiphyllum clevelandii) and golden pothos (Epipremnum aureum.) Akira Tani and C. Nicholas Hewitt found "Longer-term fumigation results revealed that the total uptake amounts were 30−100 times as much as the amounts dissolved in the leaf, suggesting that volatile organic carbons are metabolized in the leaf and/or translocated through the petiole.“ It is worth noting the researchers sealed the plants in Teflon bags. "No VOC loss was detected from the bag when the plants were absent. However, when the plants were in the bag, the levels of aldehydes and ketones both decreased slowly but continuously, indicating removal by the plants” While results do indicate house plants may be effective at removing some VOCs from air supplies, a review of studies between 1989 and 2006 on the performance of houseplants as air cleaners, presented at the Healthy Buildings 2009 conference in Syracuse, NY, concluded "...indoor plants have little, if any, benefit for removing indoor air of VOC in residential and commercial buildings.“ Since high humidity is associated with increased mould growth, allergic responses, and respiratory responses, the presence of additional moisture from houseplants may not be desirable in all indoor settings. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Environmentally Sustainable Design concepts also include aspects related to the commercial and residential heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry. Among several considerations, one of the topics to attended to is the issue of indoor air quality throughout the design and construction stages of a building's life. One technique to reduce energy consumption while maintaining adequate air quality, is demand controlled ventilation. Instead of setting throughput at a fixed air replacement rate, carbon dioxide sensors are used to control the rate dynamically, based on the emissions of actual building occupants. For the past several years, there have been many debates among indoor air quality specialists about the proper definition of indoor air quality and specifically what constitutes "acceptable" indoor air quality. One way of quantitatively ensuring the health of indoor air is by the frequency of effective turnover of interior air by replacement with outside air. In the UK, for example, classrooms are required to have 2.5 outdoor air changes per hour. In halls, gym, dining, and physiotherapy spaces, the ventilation should be sufficient to limit carbon dioxide to 1,500 ppm. In the USA, and according to ASHRAE Standards, ventilation in classrooms is based on the amount of outdoor air per occupant plus the amount of outdoor air per unit of floor area, not air changes per hour. Since carbon dioxide indoors comes from occupants and outdoor air, the adequacy of ventilation per occupant is indicated by the concentration indoors minus the concentration outdoors. The value of 615 ppm above the outdoor concentration indicates approximately 15 cubic feet per minute of outdoor air per adult occupant doing sedentary office work where outdoor air contains 385 ppm, the current global average atmospheric CO2 concentration. In classrooms, the requirements in the ASHRAE standard 62.1, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, would typically result in about 3 air changes per hour, depending on the occupant density. Of course the occupants aren't the only source of pollutants, so outdoor air ventilation may need to be higher when unusual or strong sources of pollution exist indoors. When outdoor air is polluted, then bringing in more outdoor air can actually worsen the overall quality of the indoor air and exacerbate some occupant symptoms related to outdoor air pollution. Generally, outdoor country air is better than indoor city air. Exhaust gas leakages can occur from furnace metal exhaust pipes that lead to the chimney when there are leaks in the pipe and the pipe gas flow area diameter has been reduced. The use of air filters can trap some of the air pollutants. The Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy section wrote "[Air] Filtration should have a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) of 13 as determined by ASHRAE ” Air filters are used to reduce the amount of dust that reaches the wet coils. Dust can serve as food to grow molds on the wet coils and ducts and can reduce the efficiency of the coils. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

Moisture management and humidity control requires operating HVAC systems as designed. Moisture management and humidity control may conflict with efforts to try to optimize the operation to conserve energy. For example, Moisture management and humidity control requires systems to be set to supply Make Up Air at lower temperatures (design levels), instead of the higher temperatures sometimes used to conserve energy in cooling-dominated climate conditions. However, for most of the US and many parts of Europe and Japan, during the majority of hours of the year, outdoor air temperatures are cool enough that the air does not need further cooling to provide thermal comfort indoors. However, high humidity outdoors creates the need for careful attention to humidity levels indoors. High humidities give rise to mold growth and moisture indoors is associated with a higher prevalence of occupant respiratory problems. The "dew point temperature" is an absolute measure of the moisture in air. Some facilities are being designed with the design dew points in the lower 50's °F, and some in the upper and lower 40's °F. Some facilities are being designed using desiccant wheels with gas fired heater to dry out the wheel enough to get the required dew points. On those systems, after the moisture is removed from the make up air, a cooling coil is used to lower the temperature to the desired level. Commercial buildings, and sometimes residential, are often kept under slightly-positive air pressure relative to the outdoors to reduce infiltration. Limiting infiltration helps with moisture management and humidity control. Dilution of indoor pollutants with outdoor air is effective to the extent that outdoor air is free of harmful pollutants. Ozone in outdoor air occurs indoors at reduced concentrations because ozone is highly reactive with many chemicals found indoors. The products of the reactions between ozone and many common indoor pollutants include organic compounds that may be more odorous, irritating, or toxic than those from which they are formed. These products of ozone chemistry include formaldehyde, higher molecular weight aldehydes, acidic aerosols, and fine and ultrafine particles, among others. The higher the outdoor ventilation rate, the higher the indoor ozone concentration and the more likely the reactions will occur, but even at low levels, the reactions will take place. This suggests that ozone should be removed from ventilation air, especially in areas where outdoor ozone levels are frequently high. Recent research has shown that mortality and morbidity increase in the general population during periods of higher outdoor ozone and that the threshold for this effect is around 20 parts per billion (ppb). Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

67 Factors influencing indoor bioaerosol generation
Bioaerosols are natural or artificial particles of biological (microbial, plant, or animal) origin suspended in the air. These particles are also referred to as organic dust. Bioaerosols may consist of bacteria, fungi (and spores and cell fragments of fungi), viruses, microbial toxins, pollen, plant fibers, etc.[1] Size of bioaerosol particles varies from below 1 µm to 100 µm in aerodynamic diameter[2]; viable bioaerosol particles can be suspended in air as single cells or aggregates of microorganism as small as 1-10 µm in size.[3] Since bioaerosols are potentially related to various human health effects[4] [5][6][7]and the indoor environment provides a unique exposure situation[7], concerns about indoor bioaerosols have increased over the last decade. Factors influencing indoor bioaerosol generation According to previous studies[4][9][14][15][16], major indoor environmental factors influencing bioaerosol concentration include relative humidity, characteristics of air ventilation systems, seasonal variation, temperature, and chemical composition of the air. Other factors, such as the type of home, building material, geographical factors, do not seem to have significant impacts on respirable fungi and bacteria (important constituents of bioaerosols).[3] Relative humidity is one of the most widely studied influencing factors for indoor bioaerosols. Concentrations of two categories of bioaerosols, endotoxin and airborne fungi, are both positively related to indoor relative humidity (higher concentration associated with higher relative humidity).[4][9][15][16] Relative humidity also affects the infectivity of airborne viruses.[14] Regarding the characterization of air ventilation system, increased use of central air conditioning is found to be associated with lower fungal bioaerosol concentration Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

68 INDOOR BIOAEROSOL Human Health Effects
Adverse health effects/diseases related to indoor bioaerosol exposure can be divided into two categories: those confirmed to be associated with bioaerosol and those suspected but not confirmed to be associated with bioaerosol. Bioaerosols have been revealed to cause certain human diseases, such as tuberculosis, Legionnaires' disease and different forms of bacterial pneumonia, coccidioidomycosis, influenza, measles, and gastrointestinal illness.[7][17] Bioaerosols are also associated with some noninfectious airway diseases, such as allergies and asthma.[5] As a known component of indoor bioaerosol, β(1→3)-glucan (cell wall components of most fungi) is proposed to be the causative agent of mold-induced nonallergic inflammatory reactions.[6] It is reported that 25%-30% of allergenic asthma cases in industrialized countries are induced by fungi , which has been the focus of concerns about human exposure to airborne microorganisms in recent years. Some other human diseases and symptoms have been proposed to be associated with indoor bioaerosol, but no deterministic conclusions could be drawn due to the insufficiency of evidence. One example is the well-known sick building syndrome (SBS). SBS refers to non-specific complaints, such as upper-respiratory irritative symptoms, headaches, fatigue, and rash, which cannot be related to an identifiable cause but are building related. Over the last two decades, there have been many studies indicating association of indoor bioaerosol with sick building syndrome. However, most of the related studies based their conclusions on statistical correlation between concentrations of certain types of bioaerosols and incidence of complaints, which has various drawbacks methodologically. For example, some studies have a small sample size , which critically undermines the validity of speculations based on the statistical results. Also, many studies were not able to exclude the influences of other factors beside bioaerosol in their analysis, which makes the statistical correlation theoretically inappropriate to support association of SBS with bioaerosols. Additional studies revealed that bioaerosol is unlikely to be the cause of SBS. Recent epidemiological and toxicological studies continued to suggest a possible link between bioaerosol exposure and sick building syndrome, but methodological limitations remained in these studies. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

69 Bioaerosols and Bioaerosol Dynamics
INDOOR BIOAEROSOL Human Health Effects The ability of bioaerosols to cause human disease depend not only on their chemical composition and biological characteristics, but also on the quantity of bioaerosol inhaled and their size distribution, which determines the site of bioaerosol deposition to human respiratory systems. Bioaerosols larger than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter are generally blocked by the nasal region of the respiratory tract, those between 5-10 µm mainly deposit in the upper respiratory system and usually induce symptoms like allergic rhinitis, and particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 5 µm can reach the alveoli and hence lead to serious illnesses such as allergic alveolitis. Because of the confirmed and potential adverse health effects associated with indoor bioaerosol, some concentration limits for total number of bioaerosol particles are recommended by different agencies and organizations as follow: 1000 CFUs/m3 (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)), 1000 CFUs/m3 (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)) with the culturable count for total bacteria not exceeding 500 CFUs/m3. Note that for certain types of indoor bioaerosols, it might be hard to establish a specific concentration limit or acceptance level, due to the differences on sampling and analysis method. Bioaerosols and Bioaerosol Dynamics Bioaerosols are defined by the ACGIH as airborne particles, large molecules or volatile compounds that are living, contain living organisms or were released from living organisms. The size of a bioaerosol particle may vary from 100 micons to 0.01 micron. The behaviour of bioaerosols is governed by the principles of gravitation, electromagnetism, turbulence and diffusion. BIOAEROSOL DYNAMICS Brownian Motion Bioaerosol particles are subject to Brownian motion according to Einstein's equation where X = root mean square particle displacement, cm t = time, s r = particle radius, cm Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

70 Approaches to Control Indoor Bioaerosols
Based on the sources and the influencing factors for indoor bioaerosols discussed in the section on Sources and Influencing Factors, corresponding remedial actions could be taken to control related contamination. Potentially effective strategies include: 1) limiting entrance of outdoor aerosols; 2) keeping the relative humidity level below high levels (<60%)[7]; 3) installing appropriate filtration devices to air ventilation system to inlet filtered outdoor air into indoor environment; 4) reducing/removing contaminant sources (i.e., indoor organic waste). As in the U.S., due to the increase in tuberculosis in the mid-1980s, indoor air treatment has developed substantially during the past two decades.[5] Current or developing indoor air purification technologies include filtration, aerosol ultraviolet irradiation, electrostatic precipitation, unipolar ion emission, and photocatalytic oxidation. INDOOR PLANT We offer the finest quality of in door plants. The Indoor Gardening Plants grown by us in our nursery comprises of philodendron, alpania, moneyplants etc. Our range of Indoor Tree Plants is used to enhance the beauty of the home with their lush green color. They make you feel near to the nature. These Indoor Flower Plants also give healthy surroundings to breathe in. In addition to this, the company is counted as a leading name among the foremost Indoor Plants Suppliers in the market. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

71 List of air-filtering plants
. The first list of air filtering plants was compiled by NASA as part of the NASA Clean Air Study,[1][2] which researched ways to clean air in space stations. As well as absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen, as all plants do, these plants also eliminate significant amounts of benzene, formaldehyde and/or trichloroethylene. The second and third list are from Dr. B.C. Wolverton's book[3] and paper [4] and focus on removal of specific chemicals. The recommendation of NASA is to use 15 to 18 good-sized houseplants in six- to eight-inch (203 mm) diameter containers in a 1,800-square-foot (170 m2) house Phoenix roebelenii (Pygmy Date Palm or Miniature Date Palm) is a species of date palm native to southeastern Asia from southwestern China (Yunnan Province), northern Laos and northern Vietnam, (in Dien Bien Province, Ha Giang Province, Cao Bang Province, Lang Son Province).[1][2] The name is sometimes mistakenly cited as roebelinii. It is a small to medium size, slow-growing slender tree growing to 2-3 meters or 6-10 feet tall. The plant likes partial shade to full sun, but local climate must be taken into account when deciding where to plant. In the southwest desert areas, morning sun is recommended for best growth. It requires little pruning to develop a strong structure, is resistant to pests, is tolerant to soil variation, and is moderately drought tolerant. The leaves are  cm long, pinnate with around 100 leaflets arranged in a single plane (unlike the related P. loureiroi where the leaflets are in two planes). Each leaflet is 15-25 cm long and 1 cm broad, slightly drooping, and grey-green in colour with scurfy pubescence below. The flowers are small, yellowish, produced on a 45 cm inflorescence. The fruit is a 1 cm drupe resembling a small, thin-fleshed date.[3] Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Dypsis lutescens, also known as golden cane palm, areca palm, or butterfly palm, is a plant in the Arecaceae family. It is native to Madagascar.[1] According to NASA and Dr. B. C. Wolverton, the areca palm filters xylene and toluene from the air. Wolverton also specifies that, at 1.8 meters in height, the plant will transpire 1 liter of water per 24 hours, thereby making it an effective humidifier. D. lutescens is a small to medium-sized palm, growing to a height of 6 to 12 meters. It has multiple stems emerging from the base. The leaves are arched, 2-3 m long, and pinnate, with pairs of leaflets. It produces offsets, and these can be cut off, when mature enough, as a propagation method. Psychological Benefits Any indoor plants have been shown to have a psychological benefit. A study conducted by “Live Science” magazine concluded that people who had plants in their homes and offices experienced fewer headaches and less stress. Plants have also been known to contribute to lower blood pressure. In a work environment, employers have noted an increase in productivity and creativity when plants are introduced to the office space. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

The Sword Fern (Nephrolepis exaltata) is a species of fern in the family Lomariopsidaceae (sometimes treated in the families Davalliaceae or Oleandraceae, or in its own family, Nephrolepidaceae), native to tropical regions throughout the world. The Boston fern is a very popular house plant, often grown in hanging baskets or similar conditions. It is a perennial plant hardy in USDA plant hardiness zones Although the fern may appear totally dead due to frost, it will re-emerge in the spring. In general, the Boston fern likes damp, but not soggy soil that is rich in nutrients. Of the common cultivated ferns, the Boston fern is the most tolerant to drought. The fern thrives best in humid conditions, so when grown as a house plant it becomes necessary to mist the plant when relative humidity falls below around 80%. Although outdoors this plant prefers partial shade or full shade, inside it grows best in bright filtered light. This plant is usually propagated by division of the rooted runners, as named cultivars will not produce true spores. DECORATING WITH PLANTS Plants bring any room alive while adding warmth and style to the decor.  They are also inexpensive to rent for a weekend event. Plants can be used in a variety of ways.  Below are just a few ideas on using plants in your decor. Cozy up and soften a room by placing plants in the corners or along the sides.  Hanging and trailing foliage are useful for hiding or softening sharp corners of furniture or jutting walls.  Or, add a sense of height to a long wall with small trees like dracaena or weeping fig. Use plants to create a focal point.  For instance, on a stage, around a lectern or for highlighting where the bride and groom will be standing at a wedding. Plants can be used to screen out the more unsightly parts of a room.  Or, to filter light coming through a window. If clustered in a group, vary plant heights for added interest.  Choose the heights and fullness based on the space and the height of other elements in the room, such as windows and doors.  If a certain plant isn't tall enough, place it on a decorative stool or bench. Use plants to control foot traffic by encouraging people to walk around them. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Plant, Top remover of: benzene (NASA)[1] formaldehyde (NASA)[1] (Wolverton)[3] trichloroethylene (NASA)[1] xylene and toluene[3][4] ammonia[4] Poisonous or Edible? Dwarf date palm (Phoenix roebelenii) No Wolverton Yes  ? Areca palm (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens) Boston fern (Nephrolepis exaltata "Bostoniensis") Kimberly queen fern (Nephrolepis obliterata) English Ivy (Hedera helix) Lilyturf (Liriope spicata) Spider plant (Chlorophytum comosum) NASA Golden pothos or Devil's ivy (Scindapsus aures or Epipremnum aureum) Poisonous if eaten or chewed by pets or children[5] Peace lily (Spathiphyllum 'Mauna Loa') Flamingo lily (Anthurium andraeanum) Poisonous[6] Chinese evergreen (Aglaonema modestum) Wolverton[7] Bamboo palm or reed palm (Chamaedorea sefritzii) NASA, Wolverton Broadleaf Lady Palm (Rhapis excelsa) Snake plant or mother-in-law's tongue (Sansevieria trifasciata 'Laurentii') Toxic to cats and dogs [8] Heartleaf philodendron (Philodendron oxycardium, syn. Philodendron cordatum) Selloum philodendron (Philodendron bipinnatifidum, syn. Philodendron selloum) Elephant ear philodendron (Philodendron domesticum) Red-edged dracaena (Dracaena marginata) Toxic to Dogs and Cats [9] Cornstalk dracaena (Dracaena fragans 'Massangeana') Janet Craig dracaena (Dracaena deremensis 'Janet Craig') Poisonous if eaten or chewed on by dogs[10] Warneck dracaena (Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii') Weeping Fig (Ficus benjamina)[11] Poisonous if eaten or chewed by dogs, cats and horses[12] Gerbera Daisy or Barberton daisy (Gerbera jamesonii) Pot Mum or Florist's Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) Poisonous if eaten or chewed by dogs, cats and horses[13] Rubber Plant (Ficus elastica) Dendrobium orchid (Dendrobium sp.) Dumb cane (Camilla) (Dieffenbachia) Mildly toxic to children and pets if eaten or chewed[14] Dumb cane (Exotica) (Dieffenbachia) King of hearts (Homalomena wallisii) Moth orchid (Phalenopsis sp.) Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Chlorophytum comosum, often called the spider plant, is a herbaceous plant. It is native to tropical and southern Africa, but has become naturalized in other parts of the world, including western Australia[2] and San Francisco, California.[3] Variegated forms in particular are used as house plants. Chlorophytum comosum is a popular houseplant. The species, with all-green leaves, forms only a small proportion of plants sold. More common are two variegated cultivars:[8] C. comosum 'Vittatum' has mid-green leaves with a broad central white stripe. It is often sold in hanging baskets to display the plantlets.[8] The long stems are white. C.comosum 'Variegatum' has darker green leaves with white margins. It is generally smaller than the previous cultivar.[8] The long stems are green. Spider plants are easy to grow, being able to thrive in a wide range of conditions. They will tolerate temperatures down to 35 °F (2 °C), but grow best at temperatures between 65 °F (18 °C) and 90 °F (32 °C). Plants can be damaged by high fluoride or boron levels.[8] Spider plants have also been shown to reduce indoor air pollution in the form of formaldehyde, and approximately 15 plants would neutralize formaldehyde production in a representative energy-efficient house. Chlorophytum comosum is a herbaceous perennial, growing to about 60 centimetres (24 in) high. It has fleshy, tuberous roots, about 5–10 centimetres (2–4 in) long. The long narrow leaves reach a length of 20–45 centimetres (8–18 in) and are around 6–25 millimetres (0.2–1.0 in) wide.[4] Flowers are produced in a long branched inflorescence, which can reach a length of up to 75 centimetres (30 in) and eventually bends downwards. Flowers initially occur in clusters of 1–6 at intervals along the stem (scape) of the inflorescence. Each cluster is at the base of a bract, which ranges from 2–8 centimetres (0.8–3.1 in) in length, becoming smaller towards the end of the inflorescence. Most of the flowers which are produced initially die off, so that the inflorescences are relatively sparsely flowered. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Epipremnum aureum, also known as the Pothos (once classified under the genus Pothos), Money Plant, Silver Vine, Centipede tongavine, Devil's Ivy and Solomon Islands' Ivy, is an aroid native to southeastern Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia) and New Guinea. It is sometimes mistakenly labeled as a Philodendron in plant stores. It is an epiphyte growing to 20 m tall, with stems up to 4 cm diameter, climbing by means of aerial roots which hook over tree branches. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, heart-shaped, entire on juvenile plants, but irregularly pinnatifid on mature plants, up to 100 cm long and 45 cm broad (juvenile leaves much smaller, typically under 20 cm long). The flowers are produced in a spathe up to 23 cm long. This plant produces trailing stems when it climbs up trees and these take root when they reach the ground and grow along it. The leaves on these trailing stems grow up to 10cm long and are the ones normally seen on this plant when it is cultivated as a pot plant. It is a popular houseplant with numerous cultivars selected for leaves with white, yellow, or light green variegation. It is often used in decorative displays in shopping centers, offices, and other public locations largely because it is a very hardy plant that requires little care and is also attractively leafy. It is also efficient at removing indoor pollutants such as formaldehyde, xylene, and benzene.[1] A study found that this effect lessened the higher the molecular weight of the polluting substance. As a houseplant it can reach a height of two meters or more, given suitable support. For best results it requires medium indirect light; bright light is tolerated, but lengthy spells of direct sun will scorch the leaves. The plant prefers a temperature of between 17 to 30 °C (63 to 86 °F). Generally it only needs water when the soil begins to feel dry to the touch. For best results a liquid fertilizer can be added in spring, and they should be repotted every couple of years. However, this is a robust plant that can stand a very high degree of abuse. It will grow hydroponically quite readily. The plant is sometimes used in aquariums, placed on top of the aquarium and allowed to grow roots in the water. This is beneficial to the plant and the aquarium as is absorbs many nitrates and uses them for growth. The plant is listed as "toxic to cats, toxic to dogs" by the ASPCA, because of the presence of insoluble raphides. Care should be taken to ensure the plant is not consumed by house pets or children. Symptoms may include oral irritation, vomiting, and difficulty swallowing. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Spathiphyllum is a genus of about 40 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas and southeastern Asia. Certain species of Spathiphyllum are commonly known as Spath or Peace Lilies. They are evergreen herbaceous perennial plants with large leaves 12–65 cm long and 3–25 cm broad. The flowers are produced in a spadix, surrounded by a 10–30 cm long, white, yellowish, or greenish spathe. The plant does not need excessive light or water to survive. Several species are popular indoor houseplants. Spathiphyllum cleans indoor air of many environmental contaminants, including benzene, formaldehyde, and other pollutants.[1][2] It cleans best at one plant per 10 m².[3] It lives best in shade and needs little sunlight to thrive. It is watered approximately once a week. The soil is best left moist but only needs watering if the soil is dry.[4] Spathiphyllum is mildly toxic to humans and animals when ingested.[5][6] The Peace Lily is not a true lily from the Liliaceae family. True lilies, as well as onions and garlic, are much more toxic to cats and dogs. The Peace Lily contains calcium oxalate crystals which can cause skin irritation, burning sensation in the mouth, difficulty swallowing, and nausea. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Aglaonema is a genus of about 40 species of foliage plants in the family Araceae, native to the tropical swamps and rainforests of southeastern Asia, from Bangladesh east to the Philippines, and north to southern China. No common name is widely used, though they are sometimes called "Chinese Evergreens". They are herbaceous perennial plants growing to  cm in height. The leaves are alternate on the stems, lanceolate to narrowly ovate, dark to medium green, 10-45 cm long and 4-16 cm broad, depending on the species. The flowers are relatively inconspicuous, white or greenish-white spathes that can give way to red berries. The sap of this plant is poisonous to health. It causes skin irritation. If ingested, the sap causes irritation of the mouth, lips, throat and tongue. They are popular houseplants and ornamental plants for offices and shopping malls because they are among the easiest houseplants to grow. Numerous cultivars have been selected, including plants with variegated leaves. They tolerate a wide range of light, as well as neglect, and are relatively resistant to pests. Aglaonema flourish for years. They prefer indirect light and partial shade. They do best in shadow-less light, such as a north window. They prefer heavy soil, which should be kept moist but not soggy. They do not tolerate the cold; they should not be exposed to temperatures below 0°C (32°F), with optimal growing conditions between 20°C (68°F) and 30°C (86°F). High air humidity is also important. They are easy to propagate from cuttings, which will root in a glass of water, or from divisions. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Rhapis excelsa also known as Broadleaf Lady Palm is a species of fan palm (Arecaceae subfamily Coryphoideae, tribe Corypheae) in the genus Rhapis, probably native to southern China and Taiwan. They were first collected by the Japanese for Tokugawa shogunate palaces, then popularity spread to Europe, and later to America where its low light and humidity requirements make it a common feature in malls and offices. R. excelsa grows up to 4 m in height and 30 mm in diameter in multi-stemmed clumps with glossy, palmate leaves divided into broad, ribbed segments. Leaf segments are single or few in young plants and increase to a dozen or more in mature plants; segments are divided to the petiole. Leaf-ends are saw-toothed unlike most other palms, occurring on slender petioles ranging from 20 to 60 cm in length. New foliage emerges from a fibrous sheath which remains attached to the base. As the plants age, the sheaths fall, revealing the bamboo-like trunks. This usually dioecious palm species produces a small inflorescence at the top of the plant with spirally-arranged, fleshy flowers containing three petals fused at the base. Ripe fruit are fleshy and white, though R. excelsa more readily propagates via underground rhizome offshoots. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Sansevieria trifasciata is a species of Sansevieria, native to tropical West Africa from Nigeria east to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is an evergreen herbaceous perennial plant forming dense stands, spreading by way of its creeping rhizome, which is sometimes above ground, sometimes underground. Its stiff leaves grow vertically from a basal rosette. Mature leaves are dark green with light gray-green cross-banding and usually range between 70–90 cm (27–36 in) long and 5–6 cm (2–2.5 in) wide. Like some other members of its genus, S. trifasciata yields bowstring hemp, a strong plant fiber once used to make bowstrings. It is now used predominantly as an ornamental plant, outdoors in warmer climates, and indoors as a houseplant in cooler climates. It is popular as a houseplant as it is tolerant of low light levels and irregular watering; during winter it needs only one watering every couple of months. It will rot easily if overwatered.[1] A study by NASA found that it is one of the best plants for improving indoor air quality by passively absorbing toxins such as nitrogen oxides and formaldehyde[2]. Numerous cultivars have been selected, many of them for variegated foliage with yellow or silvery-white stripes on the leaf margins. Popular cultivars include 'Compacta', 'Goldiana', 'Hahnii', 'Laurentii', 'Silbersee', and 'Silver Hahnii'. It can be propagated by cuttings or by dividing the rhizome. The first method has the disadvantage that the variegation is likely to be lost. S. trifasciata is considered by some authorities as a potential weed in Australia, although widely used as an ornamental, in both the tropics outdoors in both pots and garden beds and as an indoor plant in temperate areas. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Philodendron is a large genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family. Many are grown as ornamental and indoor plants. The name derives from the Greek words philo or "love" and dendron or "tree". The resin produced during the flowering of Monstera and Philodendron are known to be used by Trigona bees in the construction of their nests.[38][39] Subsequently native Indians from South America take the resin from the bees' nests and use it to make their blowguns air and watertight. Even though philodendron contain calcium oxalate crystals the berries of some species are eaten by the locals. For example, in the case of Philodendron bipinnatifidum the white sweet berries are known to be used in such a fashion. Additionally, the aerial roots are also used for rope in this particular species. The leaves of philodendron are also known to be eaten by Venezuelan Red Howler monkeys making up 3.1% of all the leaves they eat.[40] Also, in the making of a particular recipe for curare by the Amazonian Taiwanos, the leaves and stems of an unknown philodendron species is used. The leaves and stems are mixed with the bark of Vochysia ferruginea and with some parts of a species in the genus Strychnos. Yet another use of philodendron is for the purpose of catching fish. A tribe in the Colombian Amazon are known to use Philodendron craspedodromum to add poison to the water, temporarily stunning the fish, which rise up to the surface where they can be easily scooped up. To add the poison to the water, the leaves are cut into pieces and tied together to form bundles, which are allowed to ferment for a few days. The bundles are crushed and added to the water into which the poison will dissipate. Although the toxicity of Philodendron craspedodromum is not fully known, it is possible that the active ingredients in the poisoning of the fish are coumarins which are formed during the fermentation process.[41] Some philodendron are also used for ceremonial purposes.[42] Among the Kubeo tribe, native to Colombia, Philodendron insigne is used by witch doctors when they are treating ill patients. They use the juice of the spathe to stain their hands red since many such tribes view the color red as a sign of power. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

Dracaena reflexa is a popular ornamental plant, both in the landscape and the home. It can be enjoyed as a specimen plant, accent, or pruned to create a border. Several cultivars have been selected, particularly variegated clones with cream and yellow-green margins. It performs well as a houseplant, tolerating infrequent waterings. It prefers bright, filtered light, without direct sun exposure, restricted outdoors to zones 10–11. It has average water needs and should be fertilized bi-weekly when actively growing. Although it can survive in relatively low light levels, the plant may grow spindly if given insufficient light. When grown indoors, temperatures of 18 °C to 25 °C should be maintained. It can be propagated via herbaceous stem cuttings. It has been widely confused with other species of Dracaena, and many or most of the plants in cultivation under this name may actually be D. cincta or D. concinna (Huxley 1992). It is one of the plants used in the NASA Clean Air Study and has shown to help remove formaldehyde.[8] It is an effective air cleaner and is said to be among the best plants for removing xylene and trichloroethylene [9] Traditional medicine practitioners of Madagascar have long believed Dracaena reflexa to cure malarial symptoms, poisoning, dysentery, diarrhea, dysmenorrhea, and to be useful as an antipyretic and hemostatic agent. The leaves and bark are mixed with parts of a number of other native plants and brewed into a herbal tea. Its effectiveness in any such treatment remains unproven.[4] The fruit of D. reflexa is also important to the diet of the Malagasy Black-and-White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia variegata variegata).[5] The Frégate beetle (Polposipus herculeanus), an endangered species endemic to Frégate Island (Seychelles), is also known to associate with this plant.[ Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Dracaena fragrans (Cornstalk Dracaena) is a flowering plant species that is native throughout tropical Africa, from Sudan south to Mozambique, west to Côte d'Ivoire and southwest to Angola, growing in upland regions at 600–2,250 m (2,000–7,380 ft) altitude. The leaves are glossy green, lanceolate, 20–150 cm (7.9–59 in) long and 2–12 cm (0.79–4.7 in) wide; small leaves are erect to spreading, and larger leaves usually drooping under their weight. The flowers are produced in panicles 15–160 cm (5.9–63 in) long, the individual flowers are 2.5 cm (0.98 in) diameter, with a six-lobed corolla, pink at first, opening white with a fine red or purple central line on each of the 7–12 mm (0.28–0.47 in) lobes; they are highly fragrant, and popular with pollinating insects. The fruit is an orange-red berry 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) diameter, containing several seeds. In Africa, Cornstalk Dracaena is widely grown as a hedge plant;[1] it is suited to frost-free climates, in USDA zones Elsewhere, it is primarily popular as a houseplant, valued for its tolerance of a wide range of indoor conditions from full sun to low light conditions.[3] It is also very tolerant of neglect, and has been shown by the NASA Clean Air Study to help remove indoor pollutants such as formaldehyde, xylene and toluene.[4] Several cultivars are available with the leaves variegated with longitudinal white or yellow stripes. The most popular cultivar is 'Massangeana', which has a bright yellow central stripe on the leaves. The cultivar 'Compacta' is more compact, for indoor locations. Other popular cultivars include 'Janet Craig' and 'Warneckii', these often sold under the synonym D. deremensis.[3] In cultivation in the Neotropics, the flowers are visited by a few generalist hummingbird species like the Sapphire-spangled Emerald (Amazilia lactea). Dracaena fragrans is propagated by cutting segments of old stems 10–20 cm (3.9–7.9 in) long. These are allowed to dry off, and then inserted into moist sand until they have rooted. New growth, typically two or three shoots, comes from old leaf scars at the top of the stem. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Ficus benjamina, commonly known as the Weeping Fig, Benjamin's Fig, or the Ficus Tree and often sold in stores as just a "Ficus", is a species of fig tree, native to south and southeast Asia and Australia. It is the official tree of Bangkok, Thailand. It is a topiary tree reaching 30 metres (98 ft) tall in natural conditions, with gracefully drooping branchlets and glossy leaves 6–13 cm (2–5 in) long, oval with an acuminate tip. It is a very popular house plant in temperate areas, due to its elegant growth and tolerance of poor growing conditions; it does best under bright, sunny conditions but will also tolerate considerable shade. It requires a moderate amount of watering in summer, and only enough to keep it from drying out in the winter. It does not need to be misted. The plant is sensitive to cold and should be protected from strong drafts. When grown indoors, it can grow too large for its situation, and may need drastic pruning or replacing. The leaves are very sensitive to small changes in light. When it is turned around or re-located it reacts by dropping many of its leaves and replacing them with new leaves adapted to the new light intensity. Used as decorative plant in gardens in Hyderabad, India There are numerous cultivars available (e.g. 'Danielle', 'Naomi', 'Exotica', and 'Golden King'). Some cultivars include different patterns of colouration on the leaves, ranging from light green to dark green, and various forms of white variegation. The miniature cultivars, especially 'Too Little', are among the most popular plant for indoor bonsai. Full-sized, artificial versions are also commonly found in North America and Europe. Weeping Fig has been shown by NASA to effectively filter indoor air toxins. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Chrysanthemums, often called mums or chrysanths, are of the genus (Chrysanthemum) constituting approximately 30 species of perennial flowering plants in the family Asteraceae which is native to Asia and northeastern Europe. Modern chrysanthemums are much more showy than their wild relatives. The flowers occur in various forms, and can be daisy-like, decorative, pompons or buttons. This genus contains many hybrids and thousands of cultivars developed for horticultural purposes. In addition to the traditional yellow, other colors are available, such as white, purple, and red. The most important hybrid is Chrysanthemum × morifolium (syn. C. × grandiflorum), derived primarily from C. indicum but also involving other species. Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum [or Tanacetum] cinerariaefolium) is economically important as a natural source of insecticide. The flowers are pulverized, and the active components called pyrethrins, contained in the seed cases, are extracted and sold in the form of an oleoresin. This is applied as a suspension in water or oil, or as a powder. Pyrethrins attack the nervous systems of all insects, and inhibit female mosquitoes from biting. When not present in amounts fatal to insects, they still appear to have an insect repellent effect. They are harmful to fish, but are far less toxic to mammals and birds than many synthetic insecticides, except in consumer airborne backyard applications. They are non-persistent, being biodegradable and also breaking down easily on exposure to light. They are considered to be amongst the safest insecticides for use around food. (Pyrethroids are synthetic insecticides based on natural pyrethrum, e.g., permethrin.) Chrysanthemum plants have been shown to reduce indoor air pollution by the NASA Clean Air Study. Extracts of Chrysanthemum plants (stem and flower) have been shown to have a wide variety of potential medicinal properties, including anti-HIV-1, antibacterial and antimycotic. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

86 INDOOR AIR FILTERING PLANTS NASA research focuses on living plants.
The indoor plant does its bit for cleaner air. Those plants in your office or home are not only decorative but scientists are finding them to be surprisingly useful in absorbing potentially harmful gases and cleaning the air inside modern buildings. Tightly sealed offices with their beautiful furnishings are proving to be hostile environments. All sorts of dangers lurk inside ­- formaldehyde and benzene fumes released from building materials, furniture and carpeting; ozone from copying machines; fumes from cleaning solvents; radon and secondhand smoke. NASA research focuses on living plants. We all may be breathing a lot easier thanks to promising National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) research on a most sophisticated pollution-absorbing device: the common indoor office plant. The Interior Plantscape Division of the Associated Landscape Contractors of America has joined with NASA in a two-year program to study the effectiveness of popular office plants in cleaning indoor air. NASA's research on indoor plants has found that living plants are so efficient at absorbing contaminants in the air that some will be launched into space as part of the biological life support system aboard future orbiting space stations. Dr. Bill Wolverton, a NASA research scientist, believes that NASA's findings about indoor plants have some down-to-earth applications for cleaning dirty indoor air. He estimates that 15 to 20 Golden Pothos and Spider Plants can clean and refresh the air in the average 1,800 square foot area. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

. INDOOR AIR FILTERING PLANTS Indoor plants help for better breathing. In the initial NASA studies over a dozen varieties of common interior plants were placed in sealed, plexiglas chambers. Formaldehyde, a toxic chemical with the greatest exposure on humans, was introduced. Within 24 hours, the plants - Philodendron, Spider Plant and Golden Pothos - removed 80% of the formaldehyde molecules from the chamber. NASA research identifies the most effective pollution fighters. Recent findings reveal that flowering plants such as the Gerbera Daisy and Chrysanthemum are extremely potent in purifying interior air. Other good performers are Dracaena Massangeana (Corn Cane), Spathiphyllum (Peace Lily), and Golden Live Plants can clean the air in your environment. NASA research has consistently shown that living green and flowering plants can remove several toxic chemicals from the air in building interiors. You can use plants in your office to improve the quality of air to make it a more pleasant place to work - where people feel better, perform better. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Indoor environments and poor indoor air quality appear to have a direct link to the development and/or exacerbation of Asthma in people. When you enter you safe home you will be surprised to find that the indoor pollutants in your home can be between 2 and 100 times higher than outdoor levels. To add to the concern of indoor air pollution most of us spend up to 90% of our time indoors. Listed below are the top ten most effective purifying plants for removing air pollutants: Bamboo Palm – Chamaedorea Seifritzii Chinese Evergreen – Aglaonema Modestum English Ivy Hedera Helix Gerbera Daisy Gerbera Jamesonii Janet Craig – Dracaena “Janet Craig” Marginata – Dracaena Marginata Mass cane/Corn Plant – Dracaena Massangeana Mother-in-Law’s Tongue Sansevieria Laurentii Pot Mum – Chrysantheium morifolium Peace Lily – Spathiphyllum Warneckii – Dracaena “Warneckii” . In the Journal of Health Professional (an internationally peer reviewed journal) they found that most individual VOC’s appeared to be significant risk factors for Asthma with the highest odds ratio being found associated with benzene,, ethylbenzene and toluene. And where can you find these VOC’s, well they can be found in things like cigarette smoke, cleaning products, room fresheners, polishes, fitted carpets, solvents, paints and floor adhesives and so on. Now that I have scared you about the harsh chemicals in your home literally killing you, you are probably wondering “How do I get rid of them?” Well you could go out and spend thousands on a new state of the art air filtration and purification system to attach to your furnace or you could spend a lot less and just put some air filtering plants in your home. That’s right plants!! Cheap, simple and brought to you by nature. NASA conducted a 2 year study that has shown that common indoor landscaping plants can remove certain pollutants from the indoor environment. NASA found that these common indoor landscaping plants take substances out of the air through tiny opening in their leaves, roots, and soil bacteria. Leaving your home with clean purified oxygen and while leaving you feeling better. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

A-Frame Plant Stand Set It is constantly cleaning water off any floor after watering plants. This planter has industrial looking metal trays to protect any floors inside and can be moved outside in the warmer months because the wood has been treated , it's eco-friendly and non-toxic. Specifications at a Glance: Weather-resistant ACQ-treated Chinese fir Trays are galvanized steel 39-1/4" W x 15" D x 43-1/4" H overall 3 shelves. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012 MANFAAT KESEHATAN Indoor plants have measurable health benefit for people who come in contact with them. . Through the natural plant processes of photosynthesis and transpiration, plants add oxygen to the air and also add humidity. They filter the air by removing carbon dioxide and other toxins like formaldehyde and benzene. Indoor plants also help filter the pollutants from a fireplace or furnace, and may even improve the smell of the air, even if  they are not a fragrant plant. (sumber:

3-Tier Round Display This tiered display is made of recycled wood and looks like an antique. It's a clever way to take multiple smaller pots and create a colorful display of kitchen herbs that will look great and serve a very practical use. Materials: recycled wood Dimensions (20 x 28) MANFAAT ESTETIKA Perhaps the most obvious benefit of indoor plants is their decorative value. Plants are often beautiful additions to a room and can help create a sense of comfort. Plants are especially useful at breaking up the monotony of a sparsely furnished home or an office where reminders of nature may be rare. Interior decorators may choose plants of a specific color to complement the color scheme of a room or add a secondary accent color. Designers may also arrange these plants in decorative containers. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Indoor plants for freshness and beauty in your home. Indoor Plants bring in freshness and beauty to any home, they add to the character the living spaces. Having indoor plants is a welcome treat for those who do not have the space for a garden and city dwellers confined to the small spaces of an apartment. If you are good with plants it is an easy job to have a variety of house plants or indoor plants and keep changing them at regular intervals. It is for those who do not have the so called green thumb but love to have indoor plants that it is a difficult task. Do not despair yet, I have a few plants to recommend that are easy to handle and don’t need much fussing around. The colorful foliage and flowers of indoor plants can dramatically change and define your living spaces. Begonia: Tanaman bunga dalam ruangan These colourful plants are absolutely fabulous in hanging baskets and containers. They prefer partial shade but need plenty of light and air. Just a small cutting is enough to start your begonia garden. The wide variety of begonias can be combined to make your garden as colourful as possible without too much difficulty. The Rex Begonia is stunning with its colourful and textured foliage. These need high humidity and could become dormant in winter. Providing high humidity under a transparent plastic container or bag for a little while could keep your plants healthy. The Wax begonias, the fibrous begonias and the ever blooming begonias are easy to grow from their rhizomes. Their foliage and flowers are a treat on any given day. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012

Ten easy to grow indoor plants - Pothos or Devil’s ivy (Epipremnum aureum) Pothos commonly called the devil's ivy, is the easiest of plants to handle. They just need pruning and need moderate sunlight. They make for one of the most excellent of indoor plants and look wonderful hanging from baskets or climbing up the moss sticks and winding around your trellis Just get some stem cuttings and put them in some well drained pots. Over watering the plants can cause the leaves to become yellow and fall off, so make sure that the pot has enough drainage to allow drying between watering. There are so many varieties of pothos- the golden pothos, the marble queen (which is heavily marbled with white streaks), jade (which is solid green) and neon (which is a bright yellow-green). These plants can be grow in beautiful glass container with just some tap water and light, though they take time to grow they are an excellent addition on your coffee table or dining table. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

Ficus Benajamina The Ficus (Ficus benjamina) - easy to grow large indoor plants The ficus commonly known as the weeping fig is a beautiful indoor plant. It can reach up to 30 feet in height, so you really need to prune and trim it regularly. This indoor plant is elegant and its velvety luxuriant foliage makes enhances any space you put it in. It does well in light, but can also take a lot of shade. It needs a bit of watering and it is sensitive to cold. It is very sensitive to change and drops off its leaves in new surroundings. It is a very effective air filter and is pretty hardy and easy to grow. This plant needs humidity and a little misting would do it some good. For indoor use, make sure that you do not over-fertilise your plant. They become the centre of attraction if trimmed and kept in shape. Good lighting could turn their tips creamy yellow, making them absolute stunners in your house. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

Bring a Green Atmosphere into Your House with Indoor Plants Indoor plants are not only decorative but offer a load of benefits, as well. It is not an encouraging trend that people turn to artificial plastic foliage for the sake of watering and maintaining indoor plants. These are not hard task and can be accomplished easily, only if the numerous benefits of indoor plants are considered. Let us first look at the psychological advantages. The very sight of green plants is capable of enhancing the mental health of a person. When you are depressed or feel lonely, these plants add color to your life and can even act as a substitute for pets, which are not allowed in certain residential areas. The task of watering, trimming and fertilizing the plants is, in fact, very beneficial for those who suffer from mental health problems. Aside, it is a known fact that green plants give out oxygen and take in carbon dioxide, which purifies the air around us. In addition, they can also filter the pollutants and the harmful toxins that surround us, which will make the family healthier. Studies point out that, indoor plant can prevent allergies that usually children are prone to. Looking at the spiritual side, it is good to care for another living thing and it will offer peace, by silently sitting in the corner of the house. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

Best plants that remove chemical vapors from indoor air. Bamboo Palm (Chamaedorea seifrizii) Boston Fern (Nephrolepis exaltata "Bostoniensis") Dwarf Date Palm (Phoenix roebelenii) English Ivy (Hedera helix) Florist's Mum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) Kimberley Queen (Nephrolepis obliterata) Rubber Plant (Ficus robusta) Areca Palm (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens) Corn/Happy plant (Dracaena fragrans "Massangeana") Dracaena "Janet Craig" (Dracaena deremensis "Janet Craig") Schefflera/Umbrella Tree (Brassaia actinophylla) Peace/Madonna Lily (Spathiphyllum sp.) Weeping Fig (Ficus benjamina) Dendrobium Orchid (Dendrobiumsp.) Dumb Cane (Dieffenbachia"Exotica compacta") Ficus Alii (Ficus macleilandii"Alii") King of hearts (Homalomena wallisii) Lady palm (Rhapis excelsa) Lily turf (Liriope spicata) Source: Dr. B. C. Wolverton, Eco-friendly house plants, 1996 Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

Indoor plants are good for your health and well being! There is an abundance of scientific research and a wealth of information that confirms what all house plant lovers have known for generations – plants are good for you! At Mars Plantcare, we develop our products to ensure that they are all about enhancing the health and beauty of plants for the happiness and well being of their owners. Whether it’s for cleaner air, peace and ambience or just simply for a more balanced environment, you don’t need many indoor plants to make a difference to the quality of life.  One plant for every 10 square yards is all that it takes to make for a more healthy room space – that’s only 2 or 3 plants needed in the average living space! Having indoor plants in your environment, provide for many benefits, and making sure your house plants and orchids are potted in SERAMIS means that you are providing the best for caring for your plants to ensure they stay healthy and beautiful to all of the following. The more beautiful and healthy your indoor plants are – the better they do their job! Anggrek bulan Plants in your office or home not only provide for beautiful, decorative features, but as well, NASA scientists found them to be surprisingly useful in absorbing potentially harmful pollutants and for cleaning the air inside modern buildings.  In a 2 year study conducted by NASA scientist, Dr. Bill Wolverton, at NASA’s John C. Stennis Space Center, Bay St. Louis, Miss, they found evidence that indoor plants were capable of absorbing and removing every day pollutants such as Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous chemical found in virtually all indoor environments; Trichloroethylene (TCE) found in inks, paints and adhesives; and Benzene, present in common items such as oils, plastics and rubber.  Such pollutants can irritate the skin and the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and throat.  Having healthy house plants in your room or office is the best way to filter and remove these potentially harmful irritants. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 6/4/2012

97 ANDREA – an air purifier which uses indoor plants to filter air
ANDREA employs both active plant filtration, along with water and soil to provide a multistage system that cleans the air from harmful toxins that can irritate and be harmful to us. It naturally purifies air by drawing it with a fan to propel it through the leaves and root system of a plant, and then out through water and soil filtration and back into the room environment. A removable tray in the base allows you to easily water the plant and you can adjust the fan speed by turning a dial. Its dimensions of 32cm in diameter and 45cm in height are suitable for use in rooms of any size. Its designers claim it significantly improves the air filtration capacity of natural plants. This living filter accelerates room pollutants through the active infrastructure system of a plant to continuously clean and oxygenate the rooms in your home. Based on experiments performed by RTP Labs, Andrea improves the efficiency of formaldehyde removal from the air relative to plants alone by 360%. Relative to HEPA and carbon filters, comparison between the RTP Labs data and literature data show an improvement in formaldehyde filtration efficiency of 4400%. Sumber: Diunduh 6/4/2012


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