3 Individuals and opportunities The entrepreneur is the central actor in the creation of a new ventureInitially, an opportunity is generally recognised by a single individual, who may decide to pursue it alone or with othersAchievement oriented is the character of entrepreneur
4 Need for Achievement Definisi: • Merupakan dorongan (untuk) Berprestasi (Need of Achievement (N-Ach)) berhubungan dengan tekad untuk bekerja dengan baik atau melampaui standar prestasi pada umumnya. Standar Prestasi tersebut berupa : Pencapaian masa lalu (Improvement); ukuran yang objektif (results orientation); melebihi orang lain (competitiveness); target menantang (Stretch); atau sesuatu yang belum dilakukan orang lain (innovation).•Dorongan untuk bertindak secara lebih baik , efisien dan efektif.
5 Three Needs theory (McClelland, 1961) •Need for Achievement (n-ACH)•Need for Affiliation (n-AFF)•Need for Power (n-POW)N-AchN-PowN-Aff
6 Distribution of Need Behaviors, Typical behaviors associated with motivational type (Adapted from Swenson, 2000)N_achHighMust win at any costMust be on top and receive creditAvoids ResponsibilityFears FailureLOWN-AffDemands blind loyalty and harmony Does not tolerate disagreementHIGHMaintain social distanceRemain aloofN-PowExaggerates own position and resourcesDesires control every one and everythingMinimizes own position and resourcesDependent/Subordinate
7 Achievement Motivation (n-Ach)•Motivation can be defined as the driving force behind all the actions of an individual.•All of our behaviors, actions, thoughts, and beliefs are influenced by our inner drive to succeed.Always create the creative solution
8 Motive Affiliation (n-Aff) Motif yang mendorong seseorang untuk menikmati kebersamaan, bergaul dengan orang lain, dan bekerjasama.Sangat membutuhkan saling pengertian dan kepercayaanTingginya n-Aff sering mengarah pada aktifitas yang kurang/tidak produktif
9 Motif Berkuasa (n-Pow) Motif yang mendorong seseorang ingin mempunyai pengaruh atas orang lain.Usaha mempengaruhi, membujuk, diskusi dengan orang lain yang bertujuan agar orang lain terkesanMc-Clelland memberikan perhatian khusus pada n-Pow menjadi 2 yaitu Positif dan Negatif
10 The characteristics of an entrepreneur: a behaviourist approach Only 3 of the endless list of entrepreneurial personality have shown a high level of validity:the need for achievementthe internal locus of control (confident, proactive)the risk-taking tendency
11 The risks of a career in entrepreneurship There are 4 types of risks to consider before embracing a career in entrepreneurship:financial riskscareer riskssocial riskshealth risks
12 Financial risks Large amounts of own money have to be invested Borrowing funds from bankers, venture capitalists, or partners can reduce financial risksLegal structures can help to minimise financial risks
13 Career risksQuestions about (re-)employment after an eventual failure must be consideredThis risk is particularly acute for well-paid specialists and people close to retirementRisks can be minimised by launching a business on a part-time basis
14 Social risksStarting a business venture requires much of the entrepreneur’s energy and timeThe decision to set up a venture should therefore involve the family to reduce conflict potentialAnother risk is linked to the (negative) image of failed entrepreneurs like in Singapore — hence the kia siu attitude — ‘afraid to lose’
15 Health risksThere is evidence that entrepreneurs experience higher job stress and psychosomatic health problems than other peopleWould-be entrepreneurs should make sure that their health can survive with the demands and challenges of starting and running a business
16 Relevant performance measures There are many motives for starting a business, such as achieving social status or having a new lifestyleHowever, a business must generate a profit to stay in the market place
17 Relevant performance measures Just to break even, profits must covercompensation for bypassed alternatives (opportunity cost)the cash, effort and time invested in the venture (liquidity premium)a premium for riska premium for uncertainty
18 Relevant performance measures for entrepreneurs Figure 2.3 Source: Adapted from S. Venkataraman, ‘The distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research’, in J. Katz (ed.), Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth, vol. 3, Jai Press, Greenwich, Conn., 1997, p. 134.
19 Triggers and barriers to start-ups Material rewards:make more money; keep the proceeds of the business; reward according to effortCreativity:use my own talents; a desire to create something; control from begin to end; passion about what I am doingDesire for autonomy:be my own boss; work my own hours; work with people I like, at a location of my choice
20 Triggers and barriers to start-ups Lack of resources:weak management and marketing skills; lack of information on start-ups; lack of financeCompliance costs:high taxes and costs associated with compliance to government legislationHard reality:setting up a venture is harder than initially expected; uncertainty; fear of failure
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