FOTO: smno.kampus.ub.jan2013 Bahan Kajian MK. Pengelolaan SDALH
Green Economy What is the Green Economy? The “green economy” refers to economic sectors that are focused on environmental sustainability. The green economy seeks to address the interdependence of human economic development with the health of the natural ecosystem.
MANUSIA KHALIFAH DI MUKA BUMI ''Ingatlah ketika Tuhanmu berfirman kepada para Malaikat: ''Sesungguhnya Aku hendak menjadikan seorang khalifah di muka bumi.'' Mereka berkata: ''Mengapa Engkau hendak menjadikan (khalifah) di bumi itu orang yang akan membuat kerusakan padanya dan menumpahkan darah, padahal kami senantiasa bertasbih dengan memuji Engkau dan mensucikan Engkau?''. Tuhan berfirman: ''Sesungguhnya Aku mengetahui apa yang tidak kamu ketahui'‘ (Al-Baqarah:30)
EKONOMI HIJAU vs. EKONOMI HITAM ‘The Black economy’: pembangunan ekonomi yang bertumpu pd bahan bakar fosil seperti batubara, minyak bumi dan gas alam. “The green economy” bertumpu pd pengetahuan ekologi-ekonomi dengan tujuan menyelaraskan hubungan ekonomi- manusia dengan ekosistem- alam serta MINIMUM dampak negatif akibat kegiatan ekonomi terhadap lingkungan
Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that aims to address : the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems over time and space www.arch.wsu.edu/.../sustain/cs-hecol.htm
ANALISIS EKOLOGI- EKONOMI Fokus issue: 1.Intergenerational equity, 2.Irreversibility of environmental change, 3. Uncertainty of long- term outcomes, 4. Sustainable development www.trp.dundee.ac.uk/library/pubs/set.html
Nilai ekonomi dari natural-capital dan ecosystem-services sangat penting dalam ecological- economics. Ecological economists may begin by estimating how to maintain a stable environment before assessing the cost in dollar terms. www.environment.gov.au/.../report/overview.html
Tujuan utama Ecological-Economics (EE) : Mengimplementasikan pemikiran dan praktek ekonomi ke dlm realita biofisik, seperti hukum termodinamika dan sistem biologis.
Sumbangan Agroforestry bagi kesejahteraan manusia : 1.the planetary endowment of scarce matter and energy, 2. the complex and biologically diverse ecosystems that provide goods and services directly to human communities: 1.micro- and macro-climate regulation, 2.water recycling, 3.water purification, 4.storm water regulation, 5.waste absorption, 6.food and medicine production, 7.pollination, 8.protection from solar and cosmic radiation, 9. the view of a starry night sky, etc.
AGROFORESTRY adalah: ……………… … intensive land management that optimizes the benefits (physical, biological, ecological, economic, social) arising from ……….. biophysical interactions created when trees and/or shrubs are deliberately combined with crops and/or livestock.
Empat Kategori Jasa-jasa Sistem Agroforestry: 1. Provisioning services food (including seafood and game), crops, wild foods, and spices water pharmaceuticals, biochemicals, and industrial products energy (hydropower, biomass fuels) 2. Regulating services carbon sequestration and climate regulation waste decomposition and detoxification purification of water andwater crop pollination pest and disease control 3. Supporting services nutrient dispersal and cycling seed dispersal Primary production 4. Cultural services cultural, intellectual and spiritual inspiration recreational experiences (including ecotourism) scientific discovery
Enam Metode Utama dalam Valuasi Jasa-jasa Sistem Agroforestry: Avoided cost Services allow society to avoid costs that would have been incurred in the absence of those services (e.g. waste treatment by AGF habitats avoids health costs) Replacement cost Services could be replaced with man-made systems (e.g. restoration of the Catchmenrt Watershed cost less than the construction of a water purification plant) Factor income Services provide for the enhancement of incomes (e.g. improved water quality increases the commercial take of a fishery and improves the income of fishers) Travel cost Service demand may require travel, whose costs can reflect the implied value of the service (e.g. value of ecotourism experience is at least what a visitor is willing to pay to get there) Hedonic pricing Service demand may be reflected in the prices people will pay for associated goods (e.g. coastal housing prices exceed that of inland homes) Contingent valuation Service demand may be elicited by posing hypothetical scenarios that involve some valuation of alternatives (e.g. visitors willing to pay for increased access to national parks)
HASIL – HASIL AGROFORESTRY 1.Produces salable products 2.Provides value- added opportunities 3.Diversifies risk 4.Increases property values 5.Increases crop yields & livestock production 6.Eligible for cost- share & land rental payments
JASA-JASA AGROFORESTRY: Improves water quality … SWM- Sustainable Water Management Improves wildlife habitat Increases recreational and hunting opportunities Reduces noise, dust, & odors More beautiful and pleasant place to work
Sustainable Water Management: SWM SWM is based upon the principles, namely: 1.Freshwater is a finite and valuable resource that is essential to sustain life, the environment and development. 2. The development and management of our water resources be based on a participatory approach, involving users, and policy makers at all levels. 3. Women play a central role in the provision, management and of water resources. 4. Water has an economic value and should therefore be seen as an economic good.
Water's vital role for the environment and humans is linked to five main functions : 1. Maintaining human health : clean water is essential for maintaining human health; 2. Maintaining environmental health : the health of aquatic ecosystems is essential for fish/seafood supply, is a major determinant of biodiversity, and provides for many other vital goods and services; 3. Supporting two production functions : a) biomass production, necessary for the supply of food, fuel wood and timber; and b) economic production, since industrial development has traditionally been "lubricated" by easy access to water; 4. Supporting two carrier functions : a) water plays an active role in diluting and transpiration wastes; and b) in the natural erosion and land processes of the global water cycle; 5. Psychological function, which makes water bodies, water views, fountains and so on fundamental components of human preferences and desires. Water also plays a role in many religions and cultural activities.
SUMBER AIR : HUJAN "Dan Yang menurunkan air dari langit menurut kadar (yang diperlukan) lalu Kami hidupkan dengan air itu negeri yang mati, seperti itulah kamu akan dikeluarkan (dari dalam kubur)." (Al Qur'an, 43:11) Diperkirakan dalam satu detik, sekitar 16 juta ton air menguap dari bumi. Angka ini menghasilkan 513 trilyun ton air per tahun. Angka ini ternyata sama dengan jumlah hujan yang jatuh ke bumi dalam satu tahun.
RAIN WATER Al A’raaf : 57. Dan Dialah yang meniupkan angin sebagai pembawa berita gembira sebelum kedatangan rahmat-Nya (hujan); hingga apabila angin itu telah membawa awan mendung, Kami halau ke suatu daerah yang tandus, lalu Kami turunkan hujan di daerah itu, maka Kami keluarkan dengan sebab hujan itu pelbagai macam buah-buahan. Seperti itulah Kami membangkitkan orang-orang yang telah mati, mudah-mudahan kamu mengambil pelajaran. Al Furqoon : 50. Dan sesungguhnya Kami telah mempergilirkan hujan itu diantara manusia supaya mereka mengambil pelajaran (dari padanya); maka kebanyakan manusia itu tidak mau kecuali mengingkari (nikmat).
Green water is a very important resource for global food production. About 60% of the world staple food production relies on … green water. The entire meat production from grazing relies on green water, and so does the production of wood from forestry. In drylands almost the entire food production depends on green water (the relative importance of irrigation is minor) and most of the industrial products, such as cotton, tobacco, wood, etc. Pengelolaan Air Hijau
BAGAIMANA MEMAKSIMUMKAN MANFAAT AIR HUJAN www.vito.be/.../RuimtelijkeMilieuaspecten/
Green water is ignored … by engineers because they can't pipe or pump it, by economists because they can't price it, and by governments because they can't tax it. www.fao.org/docrep/R4082E/r4082e03.htm
KREDIT AIR HIJAU Green water credits, however, are an opportunity to address this disparity while enhancing ecosystem services for both farmers and downstream stakeholders. The International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC) is pioneering green water credits, which it describes as:ISRIC A mechanism for direct payment to people in rural areas in return for water management activities which are presently un-recognized and unrewarded. Benefits to poor people drive this initiative which, at the same time, safeguards water resources and food security for everyone. With funding from the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), ISRIC is developing a proof-of-concept project that creates financial incentives for farmers in the developing world to better manage green water.SDCIFADgreen water
KREDIT AIR HIJAU ISRIC is taking three steps to implement green water credits: 1. Quantification of the resource and how it can be optimized by land use and management; 2.Valuation of its various uses and the costs of floods, sedimentation, and the diseases caused by a lack of clean water – enabling benefit cost analysis; 3. An agreed mechanism to: a.Specify optimum management and its water benefits; b. Negotiate a fair price; c. Establish that the work is done; d. Collect and pay credits.
MEMANEN HUJAN Rainwater harvesting is the gathering, or accumulating and storing, of rainwater. Rainwater harvesting has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, water for irrigation or to refill aquifers in a process called groundwater recharge. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses, tents and local institutions, or from specially prepared areas of ground, can make an important contribution to drinking water.
Agroforestry incorporates technology from agriculture and forestry. Both areas of expertise are needed, neither can be ignored if an agroforestry system is to provide the desired benefits. Here, you do this. It involves trees! Here, you do this! It involves agriculture! Agriculture Forestry
We group agroforestry practices in five categories: Alley cropping, Silvopasture, Forest farming, Riparian forest buffers, and Windbreaks.
Alley Cropping Alley cropping systems provide a way to lower risk by diversifying production. In alley cropping an agricultural crop is grown simultaneously with a long-term tree crop to provide annual income while the tree crop matures. Fine quality hardwoods like walnut, pecan, and oak are preferred species, and can produce high-value lumber or veneer logs. When nut-bearing trees are used they can provide an intermediate product for sale. In addition to improving annual cash flow, these systems also protect annual crops, reduce soil erosion, and provide wildlife habitat. Most row crops and grains have been shown to grow well in an alley cropping system.
MANFAAT ALLEY CROPPING Diversify farm enterprise Reduce erosion Improve water quality Protect crops Improve utilization of nutrients Enhance wildlife habitat Improve aesthetics Store carbon
WaNuLCAS WaNuLCAS merupakan singkatan dari: “Water, Nutrient and Light Captured in Agroforestry Systems”, …… model yang mensimulasikan penggunaan air, hara dan cahaya dalam sistem agroforestri.
Diagram model WaNuLCAS yang tersusun atas 3 komponen yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tanaman yaitu air, hara dan cahaya dalam sistem agroforestri.
Menguji peranan akar pohon sebagai ‘jaring penyelamat hara’ Pengaruh total panjang akar terhadap efisiensi pohon dalam mengurangi pencucian N (fungsi jaring penyelamat hara) pada berbagai jumlah curah hujan.
Proses yang terjadi dalam sistem agroforestri Hasil simulasi WaNuLCAS untuk sistem budidaya pagar, (1) pencucian N (g m -2), (2) pertumbuhan perakaran (total panjang akar) jagung di tanah lapisan atas (cm cm -3), (3) kebutuhan N jagung, dan (4) kebutuhan N pohon.
Produksi tanaman semusim dan hasil pangkasan pada sistim budidaya pagar
Interaksi antara tanaman tahunan dengan tanaman semusim pada sistem agroforestri (a = naungan; b = kompetisi akan air dan hara; c = daun gugur (seresah). Pohon berguna dalam menambah C tanah dan hara lainnya serta sebagai "jaring penyelamat" hara yang tercuci ke lapisan bawah (d = pohon berperakaran dalam).
Bentuk–bentuk kompetisi antar tanaman: (A) spesies A secara langsung menghambat pertumbuhan spesies B atau sebaliknya, (B) interaksi tidak langsung yaitu dengan merubah lingkungan pertumbuhan, (C) interaksi tidak langsung yaitu dengan menstimulir pertumbuhan musuh (hama+penyakit) bagi tanaman
Interaksi Pohon-Tanah-Tanaman Interaksi positif (a), netral (b dan c), negatif (d) antara komponen penyusun agroforestri
AKAR POHON SEBAGAI PAKU BUMI Pemancangan akar pohon di dalam tanah yang meununjukkan peranan penting liang yang terbentuk dari akar pohon yang telah mati.
Jenis Pohon yang cocok dengan Tanah Kapur Acacia auriculiformis Albizia falcataria Albizia lebbek Anacardium occidentale Artocarpus communis Artocarpus heterophyllus Cassia siamea Ceiba petandra Dalbergia latifolia Gmelina arborea Mangifera indica Melaleuca spp Parkia speciosa Peronema canescens Pithecellobium lobatum Sterculia foetida Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni
MANAGEMENT OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS FOR RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY 1.Water 2.Carbon 3.Nitrogen 4.Soil pH, Ca, Mg, K and P PRODUCTIVITY OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS 1. Tree fallows 2. Alley cropping 3. Agro-silvo-pastoral 4. Shade trees 5. Windbreaks
NERACA AIR DALAM SISTEM AGROFORESTRI Pg = Curah Hujan Total Rs = Aliran Air Lateral It, = Intersepsi Pohon Ic = Intersepsi Tanaman Semusim Pt, = Hujan Lolos Tajuk Pohon Pc = Hujan Lolos Tajuk Tanaman Semusim Ft, = Kecepatan Infiltrasi di bawah Pohon Fc, = Kecepatan Infiltrasi di bawah Tanaman Semusim Rt = Limpasan Permukaan di bawah Pohon Rc = Limpasan Permukaan di bawah Tanaman Semusim Et = Evaporasi Tanah (dari bawah pohon ) Ec = Evaporasi Tanah (dari bawah tanaman semusim) qt, = Kadar Air Tanah (dibawah pohon) qc = Kadar Air Tanah (dibawah tanaman semusim) Tt = Transpirasi Pohon Tc = Transpirasi Tanaman Semusim Dt = Drainasi dibawah Pohon Dc = Drainasi dibawah Tanaman Semusim
Neraca air dalam model WaNuLCAS (1)Infiltrasi, (2,3,4) Redistribusi air dan larutan dalam profil tanah, pengisian kembali air tanah (2) dan drainasi atau pencucian kelebihan air dari dasar profil tanah, (5) Evaporasi tanah, (6) Penyerapan air oleh akar pohon dan tanaman semusim, (7) Kesetimbangan hydraulik melalui akar pohon, (8). Tanda (signal) kekeringan yang mempengaruhi pembagian air ke batang/akar, (9) Aliran larutan lewat jalan pintas (bypass flow)
Model Serapan air dari tanah Siklus harian hitungan serapan air. Dalam sistem agroforestry
Sustainable AgroForest Management : SAM AgroForest management is the branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal, and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects, especially silviculture, protection, and forest regulation. This includes management for aesthetics, fish, recreation, urban values, water, wilderness, wildlife, wood products, agroforest genetic resources and other agroforest resource values. Management can be based on conservation, economics, or a mixture of the two. Techniques include timber extraction, planting and replanting of various species, cutting roads and pathways through agroforests, and preventing fire.
Pengelolaan Agrohutani Lestari: Yakni agrohutan yang sehat secara EKOLOGI serta produktif secara ekonomi. Sustainable Agroforest management (SAM) is the management of agroforests according to the principles of sustainable development. Sustainable agroforest management uses very broad social, economic and environmental goals. Sustainable Agroforest management as: The stewardship and use of agroforests and agroforest lands in a way, and at a rate, that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfill, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at local, national, and global levels, and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems.
Seven key elements of sustainable agroforest management are: 1.Extent of agroforest resources 2.Biological diversity 3.AgroForest health and vitality 4.Productive functions and agroforest resources 5.Protective functions of agroforest resources 6.Socio-economic functions 7.Legal, policy and institutional framework.
Sustainable Agriculture Management ( SAgM ) Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals: environmental stewardship, farm profitability, and prosperous farming communities. Sustainable agriculture refers to agricultural production that can be maintained without harming the environment. www.umanitoba.ca/afs/ncle/Research Projects.html
Sustainable Agriculture Management (S Ag M) It has been defined as follows: “the term sustainable agriculture means an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long term: Satisfy human food and fiber needs Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends Make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls Sustain the economic viability of farm operations Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.”
Forest Farm Management Forest farming is an agroforestry practice characterized by the four "I's"- Intentional, Integrated, Intensive and Interactive management of an existing forested ecosystem wherein forest health is of paramount concern. It is neither forestry nor farming in the traditional sense. Forest farm management principles constitute an ecological approach to forest management through efforts to find a balance between conservation of native biodiversity and wildlife habitat within the forest and limited, judicious utilization of the forest's varied resources.
Sustainable griculture and Farming systems : 1.A sustainable farming system is a system in which natural resources are managed so that crop yields do not decline over time. 2.A sustainable farming system is a system in which natural resources are managed so that the stock of natural resources do not decline over time. 3.A sustainable farming system is one that satisfies minimum conditions of ecosystem stability and resilience over time. 4.A concept related to sustainable farming systems is HNV farming systems, which are likely to be of importance from a nature- conservation point of view. 5.Sustainable agriculture is organized so that the necessary support services (credit, extension, and input supply) are guaranteed. 6.Sustainable agriculture is a system guaranteeing equality, i.e. distributional and welfare aspects are given due attention through institutions that make farmer participation possible, that are concerned about the poor and that are administered with a bottom-up approach. 7.A sustainable farming system is not unduly constrained by the socio- cultural environment or the policy-institutional environment.
DELAPAN CIRI SISTEM USAHATANI LESTARI : 1.Productivity - Land - Soils 2.Profitability 3.Stability 4.Diversity 5.Flexibility 6.Time-dispersion 7.Sustainability 8.Complementarity and environmental compatibility
PENGELOLAAN LAHAN LESTARI Soil quality is defined as “the capacity of a soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental health, and promote plant and animal health” Suitability Evalution of Land & Soils Constraints & Limiting Factors Best Management Practices
Principles of Sustainable Land Management: SLM land should be managed to deliver a wide range of benefits beyond food and fibre production. These include: wildlife and distinctive landscape character; opportunities for public access; and flood protection and water management. Principle 1. Multi-functionality: Land management should reflect the principles of sustainable development. Land management should: Safeguard the primary environmental resources of air, soils and water; Contribute to long term robust and adaptable rural economies; Maintain and enhance landscapes, countryside character, biodiversity, historic and cultural values; Support rural communities - especially the people whose livelihoods depend on it, directly or indirectly. Principle 2. Sustainability:
Principles of Sustainable Land Management: SLM Land management must be integrated with rural development. Land management underpins other parts of the rural economy, for example by supplying products directly and indirectly (by maintaining the landscape) upon which rural tourism is based. Businesses based on land management provide business for other rural firms. Principle 3. Integration: a framework which can reflect regional and local needs and aspirations. People should have a greater voice in shaping land management to deliver public benefits - while still reflecting the fact that most land will remain in private ownership. These four principles of sustainable land management guide and inform our work. Principle 4. Subsidiarity: