Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Chapter Two: Culture in Interpersonal Communication This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "Chapter Two: Culture in Interpersonal Communication This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Chapter Two: Culture in Interpersonal Communication This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed. The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed. Joseph A. DeVito

2 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon2 Culture is communication and communication is culture. Edward T. Hall

3 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon3 Nature of Culture Culture Refers to...  Specialized Lifestyle of People  Values, Beliefs, Artifacts, Ways of Behaving, Ways of Communicating  Includes Language, Modes of Thinking, Laws, and Religion

4 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon4 Basic Values Masyarakat Arab  1.Harga diri, kehormatan dan reputasi seseorang amatlah penting  2. Loyalitas kepada keluarga di atas kepentingan individu  3. Status individu ditentukan oleh kelas sosial, latar belakang keluarga, karakter dan prestasi (hasil) yang dicapainya

5 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon5  Macam – macam beliefs :  experience : kita alami sendiri, tetapi dalam dunia yang kompleks jangkauannya terbatas.  Information beliefs : dibentuk dari radio, tv, majalah, buku atau orang yang sangat dipercaya. Belief banyak dibentuk dari informasi. Implikasinya media akan mempengaruhi beliefs.  Inferential beliefs : Inferensi sangat dipengaruhi oleh culture.

6 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon6 Nature of Culture  Not Synonymous with Race or Nationality  Gender is a Cultural Variable  Culture is Passed Through Generations  Enculturation  Ethnic Identity  Acculturation  Cultural Beliefs and Values Microsoft Image

7 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon7  Enculturation : the process through which you learn the culture into which you’re born  Acculturation: the process by which you learn the rules and norms of a culture that is different from your native culture and that modifies your original or native culture

8 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon8  Akulturasi adalah suatu proses sosial yang timbul manakala suatu kelompok manusia dengan kebudayaan tertentu dihadapkan dengan unsur dari suatu kebudayaan asing. proses sosial manusia kebudayaan  Kebudayaan asing itu lambat laun diterima dan diolah ke dalam kebudayaannya sendiri tanpa menyebabkan hilangnya unsur kebudayaan kelompok itu sendiri. Sumber : Wikipedia  Ujud alkulturasi  Bahasa  Religi  Organisasi Sosial & Kemasyarakatan  Sistem Pengetahuan  Peralatan dan teknologi

9 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon9  Enkulturasi/pembudayaan  individu mempelajari dan menyesuaikan alam pikiran serta sikapnya dengan adat-istiadat, sistem norma, serta peraturan-peraturan yang hidup dalam kebudayaannya

10 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon10  Internalisasi  proses panjang sejak seorang individu dilahirkan sampai ia hampir meninggal, dimana ia belajar menanamkan dalam kepribadiannya segala hasrat, perasaan, nafsu, serta emosi yang diperlukan sepanjang hidupnya.  Sosialisasi:  Proses ini bersangkutan dengan proses belajar kebudayaan dalam hubungan dengan sistem sosial. Dalam proses itu seorang individu dari masa anak-anak hingga masa tuanya belajar pola-pola tindakan dalam interaksi dengan segala macam individu di sekililingnya yag menduduki beraneka macam peranan sosial yang mungkin ada dalam kehidupan sehari-hari.

11 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon11 The Relevance of Culture  Demographic Changes  Sensitivity to Cultural Differences  Economic Interdependence  Spread of Technology Microsoft Image

12 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon12

13 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon13 The Relevance of Culture  Demographic Changes  Sensitivity to Cultural Differences  Economic Interdependence  Spread of Technology  Culture-Specific Nature of Interpersonal Communication Microsoft Image

14 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon14 Aim of Cultural Perspective  Universal vs. Relative  Communicate in Varied Situations  Understand Not All Practices are Equal or Acceptable

15 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon15  Secara normatif komunikasi antar pribadi mengandalkan gaya berkomunikasi yg dihubungkan dengan nilai – nilai yg dianut orang.  Nilai – nilai berbeda diantara diantara kelompok etnik dapat menunjang dan mungkin merusak perhatian ketika orang tersebut berkomunikasi  Gaya komunikasi berkaitan dengan individu maupun sekelompok etnik

16 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon16 Tujuan melihat perspektif budaya  Budaya menembus semua bentuk komunikasi, penting utk memahami bahwa hal ini dapat mempengaruhi. Memahami bagaimana komunikasi bekerja & menguasainya ketrampilan komunikasi.  Budaya mempengaruhi semua tipe komunikasi ( apa yg akan dkatakan, bagaimana mengatakan  Membutuhkan memahami komunikasi yg efektif dlm berbagai macam situasi budaya ( pekerjaan, kehidupan pribadi, sosial). Kesuksesan tergantung pada pemahaman, kemampuan kom effektif dengan budaya berbeda.  Budaya membantu membedakan apa yg benar/tdk benar untuk semua orang dan unttuk orang – orang dalam satu budaya  Memahami bahwa tidak semua kebiasaan – kebiasan harus sama dan diterima. Kita juga tidak harus selalu mengikuti kebiasaan dan budaya kita sendiri.

17 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon17 Prinsip komunikasi antar budaya  Mencari akses informasi sesuai dengan keadaan /budaya yang sebenarnya  Mengurangi ketidakpastian /kerancuan dalam perbedaan budaya dengan mendengarkan secara aktif, memeriksa persepsi anda dan memperhatikan umpan balik.  Mengakui perbedaan dengan orang –orang lain yg berbeda budaya ( kelompok, makna, nilai – nilai,kepercayaan, sikap) sebagaimana adanya dan bukan sebagaimana yg kita kehendaki  Menghadapi streotype : ketika dijalankan dibawah sadar dapat menciptakan masalah komunikasi serius.  Menyesuaikan komunikasi anda : belajar isyarat orang lain bagaimana mereka menggunakan dan apa yang mereka maksudkan.  Membagi sistem isyarat dengan orang lain sehingga sehingga mereka dapat memahami diri kita dengan orang lain  Mengurangi etnosentrisme  Mengendalikan culture shock

18 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon18 How Cultures Differ Power Distances  High Power Cultures  Power Concentrated in Hand of Few  Mexico, Brazil, India, Philippines  Low Power Cultures  Power More Evenly Distributed  Denmark, Sweden, New Zealand

19 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon19 Power Distance  Konsep yg merefleksikan derajat yg mana sebuah kebudayaan meyakini bagaimana kekuasaan organisasi/institusi didistribusikan kepada anggota budaya secara seimbang, bagaimana pandangan pemegang kekuasaan ttg pengambilan keputusan apakah menentang/menerima  Menjelaskan konsep hubungan antar manusia yg ditata berdasar jarak kekuasaan  Dimensi ada dua : High Power Distance & Low Power Distance  Adat istiadat keluarga, relasi antar mahasiswa dengan dosen, kaum muda – tua, sistem bahasa, praktek organisasi.

20 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon20 High Power Culture  Berdasar pada simbol kekuatan  Kekuasaan dipusatkan pada sedikit orang  Menghormati wewenang atau kekuasaan  Wewenang/kekuasaan diinginkan & menguntungkan  Bersikap tegas dan berhadapan langsung dipandang negatif

21 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon21 Low Power Distance  Kekuasaan lebih didistribusikan ke seluruh penduduk  Meragukan kekuasaan, dianggap berbahaya dan perlu diatasi  Mengurangi simbol kekuatan  Persamaan hak/egalitarian

22 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon22  Akibat power distance : uncertainty avoidance  Nilai budaya untuk menanggung resiko dan menghadapi keadaan ambigu karena dapat menjadi suatu ancaman terhadap masyarakatnya

23 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon23 How Cultures Differ High- vs. Low-Context Cultures  High-Context - Information Known by All Members Through Previous Communication  Low-Context - Information is Explicitly Stated in Verbal Message

24 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon24  High culture context  Prosedur pengalihan informasi lebih sukar  Tidak memisahkan isu orang yg mengkomunikasikan.  Low Culture context  Prosedur pengalihan informasi menjadi lebih gampang  Memisahkan isu dan orang yg mengkomunikasikan isu

25 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon25 Persepsi terhadap tugas dan relasi  High Context  Mengutamakan relasi sosial dalam melaksanakan tugas  Social oriented  Personal relations  Low Context  Relasi antar manusia dalam tugas berdasarkan relasi tugas  Task oriented  Impersonal relations

26 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon26 Persepsi terhadap kelogisan informasi  HCC  Tidak menyukai informasi yg rasional  Mengutamakan emosi  Mengutamakan basa - basi  LCC  Menyukai nformasi yg rasional  Menjauhi sikap emosi  Tidak mengutamakan basa - basi

27 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon27 Persepsi terhadap gaya komunikasi  Memakai gaya komunikasi tidak langsung.  Mengutamakan pertukaran informasi non verbal  Mengutamakan suasana komunikasi non formal  Memakai gaya komunikasi langsung  Mengutamakan pertukaran informasi secara verbal  Mengutamakan suasana komunikasi yg formal

28 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon28 Persepsi terhadap pola negosiasi  HCC  Mengutamakan perundingan melalui human relations  Pilihan komunikasi meliputi perasaan dan intuisi  Mengutamakan hati dari pada otak  LCC  Mengutamakan perundingan melalui bargaining  Pilihan komunikasi meliputi pertimbangan rasional  Mengutamakan otak daripada hati

29 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon29 Persepsi terhadap informasi ttg individu  HCC  Mengutamakan individu dengan mempertimbangkan faktor sosial  Mempertimbangkan loyalitas individu kpd kelompok  LCC  Mengutamakan kapasitas individu tanpa memperhatikan faktor sosial  Tidak mengutamakan pertimbangan loyalitas indvidu kpd kelompok

30 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon30  HCC  Reaksi thd pesan: reaksi thd sesuatu tdk selalu nampak  Bentuk pesan : sebagian besar pesan tersembunyi & implisit  LCC  Reaksi thd pesan: reaksi thd sesuatu selalu nampak  Bentuk pesan: pesan jelas, tampak,dan eksplisit

31 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon31  HCC  Memandang in group/out group : Luwes dalam melihat perbedaan  Sifat pertalian antar pribadi : Luwes dalam melihat perbedaan  Konsep waktu : terbuka, luwes  LCC  Memisahkan kepentingan in group dengan out group  Pertalian antar pribadi : sangat lemah  Sangat terorganisir

32 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon32 How Cultures Differ Masculine vs. Feminine Cultures  Masculine Cultures  People Socialized to be Assertive, Ambitious, Competitive  Confront Conflict Directly  Feminine Cultures  Emphasize Quality of Life  People Socialized to be Modest, Emphasize Personal Relationships Microsoft Image

33 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon33  Masculine- Feminine  Konsep kebudayaan yg mengindikasikan derajat nilai – nilai perilaku tertentu

34 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon34  Masculine  Laki- laki dipandang tegas,kuat  Orientasi pada kesuksesan material  hub,/pergaulan lebih pada ketegasan, ambisi, persaingan  Konflik dikonfrontasikan secara langsung & utk memperebutkan persaingan  Strategi menang – kalah dalam konflik  Organisasi menekankan pada: persaingan, sifat agresif  Reward pekerja berdasarkan pada kontribusi perusahaan/prestasi kerja.  Orang dinilai berdasarkan tampilan

35 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon35 Feminine Culture  Penekanan pada kualitas hidup,sosialisasi, rendah hati, sopan  Menekankan pada kedekatan hubungan  Kompromi dan perundingan dalam penyelesaian konflik, persetujuan, win – win solution  Perusahaan: kepuasan pekerja, reward berdasarkan kebutuhan.  Menghargai sesama & simpati terhadap pada orang yg kekurangan.  Merasa seimbang antara jenis kelamin, gender,

36 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon36 High – Ambiguity- Tolerant & Low –Ambiguity- Tolerant Cultures  HATC  Don’t feel threatened by unkown situation  Uncertainty is normal part of life  Minimize the importance of rules governing communication & relationships  Readily tolerate individuals are different approaches & perspectives  Appreciate freedom in education  LATC  Avoid uncertainty  Have a great deal of anxiety about not knowing what will happen next.  Create very clear- cut rules for communication that must not be broken  Specific objectives  Details instructions  Definite time tables Microsoft Image

37 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon37 How Cultures Differ  Individual vs.  Members resposible for self & family  Collective Cultures  Members responsible for entire group

38 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon38 Individual  Bertanggung jawab pada kepentingan individu  Mempertahankan kompetisi  Perbedaan yang jelas antara pimpinan – anggota  Kejelasan dan ketepatan  Orientasi pada diri sendiri  Mengutamakan kehormatan individu  Unik dan bebas  Keluarga inti  Reward berdasar persamaan hak/equity

39 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon39 Collectivist  Tanggung jawab pada anggota kelompok  Penyelesaiaan/kegagalan ada pada kelompok  Kerja sama  Kepemimpinan dibagi dan bergantian  Kesatuan dan keharmonisan kelompok  Kepentingan kelompok lebih mengemuka dibanding kepentingan individu  Kelompok sumber identitas diri  Keluarga luas  Berbagi pendapatan dengan kelompok besar

40 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon40 Model of Cultural Communication

41 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon41 Improving Cultural Communication  Educate Yourself  Access Realistic Information about the Culture  Face Your Fears  Reduce Uncertainty  Uncertainty and Ambiguity Greater with Cultural Differences  Listen Actively, Perception Check, Seek Feedback

42 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon42 Improving Cultural Communication  Recognize Differences  Differences between Self and Culturally Different  Differences within Culturally Different Groups  Differences in Meaning  Confront Your Stereotypes  Operate and Low Levels of Consciousness  Leads to Major Barriers

43 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon43 Improving Cultural Communication  Adjust Your Communication  Both Verbal and Nonverbal  Manage Culture Shock Microsoft Image

44 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon44 Culture shock  Refers to the psychological reaction you experience when you’re in a culture very different from your own (Furnham & Bochner,1986)  Culture shock is normal; most people experience it when entering a new & different Culture

45 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon45 Culture shock  how to asks someone for a favor or pay someone a compliment  how to extend or accept an invitation or dinner  how early or how late to arrive for an appointment  how long you should stay when visiting someone  how to distinguish seriousness from playfulness and politeness from indifference  how to dress for an informal, formal, or usiness function  How to order a meal in a restaurant or how to summon

46 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon46 Culture Shock - Stages  Stage 1 - The Honeymoon  Stage 2 - The Crisis  Stage 3 - The Recovery  Stage 4 - The Adjustment Microsoft Image

47 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon47 Between People with and without Disabilities  Avoid Negative Terms  Treat Assistive Devices and Personal Property of User  Shakes Hands with Everyone  Avoid Talking about Person with Disability in the Third Person Microsoft Image

48 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon48 Between People with and without Disabilities  Don’t Assume Physically Disabled are Intellectually Impaired  Ask if Other Needs Assistance  If Disabled is in Wheelchair, Get to Same Eye Level Microsoft Image

49 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon49 Between People with and without Disabilities Person with Disability  Let Other Know if Assistance is Needed  Be Patient and Understanding  Demonstrate Your Own Comfort Microsoft Image

50 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon50 Tingkatan analisis dalam prediksi  Tingkat Kultural  Tingkat Sosiologis  Tingkat Psikologis

51 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon51 Analisis Tingkat Kultural  Mengerti dan memahami kultur yang bersifat imaterial  Adanya kesamaan kultur  Penguasaan norma & adat - istiadat

52 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon52 Analisis Tingkat Sosiologis  Prediksi reaksi komunikan terhadap pesan yg disampaikan berdasarkan keanggotaan komunikan dalam kelompok sosial tertentu

53 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon53 Analisis Tingkat Psikologis  Prediksi komunikator terhadap reksi komunikan sebagai akibat menerima pesan didasarkan atas analisis pengalaman individu yang unik dari komunikan.

54 Chapter 2: Culture in Interpersonal Communication Copyright © 2007 Allyn and Bacon54 BAHAN DISKUSI  Untuk mencapai efek yang diharapkan apa yang harus dilakukan seseorang yang berkomunikasi pada tingkat kultural, sosiologis dan psikologis.  Jika kita kekurangan data tentang perilaku seseorang. Apa yang kita lakukan ?

55 The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed. The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed.


Download ppt "Chapter Two: Culture in Interpersonal Communication This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google